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Table 2 Frequency of NIDIAG priority infections and of other clinical diagnoses in 1922 patients evaluated for persistent fever, per study country

From: Etiological spectrum of persistent fever in the tropics and predictors of ubiquitous infections: a prospective four-country study with pooled analysis

  Sudan
n = 667
DR Congo
n = 300
Nepal
n = 577
Cambodia
n = 378
Total
n = 1922
NIDIAG priority conditions
 Enteric fever 11 (1.6) 9 (3.0) 8 (1.4)a 6 (1.6) 34 (1.8)
  Salmonella Typhi 9 9 5 23
  Salmonella Paratyphi A 2 3 6 11
 Leptospirosis 13 (1.8) 10 (3.3) 30 (5.2) 24 (6.3) 77 (4.0)
  Confirmed 1 5 13 12 31
  Probable 12 5 17 12 46
 Rickettsiosis 1 (0.1) 5 (1.7) 28 (4.7) 10 (2.6) 44 (2.3)
  Rickettsia typhib 5 5 8 18
  Orientia tsutsugamushic 11 2 13
  Rickettsia spp.d 1 12 13
 Relapsing fever 7 (1.0) 4 (0.7) 1 (0.3) 12 (0.6)
 Brucellosis 28 (4.2) 28 (1.5)
 Melioidosis 16 (4.2) 16 (0.8)
 Visceral leishmaniasis 65 (9.7) 56 (9.7) 119 (6.2)
 Human African trypanosomiasis 2 (0.7) 2 (0.1)
 Amebic liver abscess 1 (0.2) 11 (2.9) 12 (0.6)
 Malaria 55 (8.2) 96 (32.0) 4 (1.1) 154 (8.0)
 Tuberculosise 8 (1.2) 18 (6.0) 27 (4.7) 76 (20.1) 129 (6.7)
 New HIV diagnosis/opportunistic infection (other than tuberculosis) 4 (0.6) 4 (1.3) 4 (0.7) 2 (0.5) 14 (0.7)
Other clinical diagnoses
 Other (suspected) systemic bacterial infections 2 (0.3) 11 (3.7) 2 (0.3) 29 (7.7) 44 (2.3)
 Suspected focal bacterial infections 101 (5.3) 47 (15.7) 55 (9.5) 161 (42.6) 364 (18.9)
  Pneumonia 23 (3.4) 22 (7.3) 20 (3.5) 83 (22.0) 148 (7.7)
  Abdominal/intestinal infection 12 (1.8) 7 (2.3) 4 (0.7) 26 (6.9) 49 (2.5)
  Genitourinary infection 63 (9.4) 13 (4.3) 31 (5.4) 26 (6.9) 133 (6.5)
  Skin and soft tissue infection 3 (0.4) 5 (1.7) 26 (6.9) 34 (1.4)
 Suspected viral infection (respiratory/other) 54 (8.1) 29 (9.7) 76 (13.2) 5 (1.3) 164 (8.5)
 Other infections (parasitic, fungal) 2 (0.3) 2 (0.7) 6 (1.6) 10 (0.5)
 Non-infectious etiologies 9 (1.3) 1 (0.3) 11 (1.9) 17 (4.5) 38 (2.0)
 Unknown/unspecified cause 333 (49.9) 80 (26.7) 278 (48.2) 54 (14.3) 745 (38.8)
  1. All results are presented as n (%) except when mentioned otherwise
  2. Enteric fever was diagnosed together with another infection in 8 cases (brucellosis, n = 3; visceral leishmaniasis, n = 2; malaria, n = 2; rickettsiosis, n = 2; HIV, n = 1). Leptospirosis was diagnosed together with another infection in 13 cases (tuberculosis, n = 3; malaria, n = 2; pneumonia, n = 2; skin/soft tissue infection, n = 2; visceral leishmaniasis, n = 1; others, n = 3). Rickettsiosis was diagnosed together with another infection in 6 cases (visceral leishmaniasis, n = 4; enteric fever, n = 2)
  3. a One case of enteric fever was due to Salmonella spp. (in Nepal).
  4. b Confirmed in 12 cases, either by PCR (n = 3) or seroconversion (n = 9); probable in 6 cases
  5. c Confirmed in 4 cases either by PCR (n = 1) or seroconversion (n = 3); probable in 9 cases
  6. d Confirmed in 13 cases by PCR
  7. e Including 86 (67%) pulmonary and 43 (33%) extrapulmonary tuberculosis