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Table 1 The four types of social isolation question and the scoring criteria for the composite social isolation score

From: Associations of face-to-face and non-face-to-face social isolation with all-cause and cause-specific mortality: 13-year follow-up of the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort study

Items Questions Answers Scoring
Score of 0 if: Score of 1 if: Score of 2 if
Face-to-face contact with co-inhabitants How many people do you spend time with on a regular basis (at least once a month; do not include phone/mail conversations; excluding the workplace; including those who lived together)? “≥ 3 people”, “< 3 people,” and “Live alone” ≥ 3 people < 3 people Live alone
Face-to-face contact with non-co-inhabitants How often do you see any of your friends or relatives (do not include phone/mail conversations; excluding those who lived together)? “≥1 time/month”, “< 1 time/month,” and “No such contact” ≥ 1 time /month < 1 time/month No such contact
Non-face-to-face contact (by telephone/mail) Do you have any relatives or friends you don't often see but keep in contact with by phone or letter? “≥1 time/month,” “< 1 time/month,” and “No such contact” ≥ 1 time /month < 1 time/month No such contact
Club/organization contact How often do you join in activities of the GHHARE or other organizations? “≥1 time/month” and “< 1 time/month” ≥ 1 time /month < 1 time/month NA
Composite score: sum of scores    0~7