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Table 2 Effect estimates and overall PI/ECO-similarity degree for each included body of evidence-pair

From: Evaluating agreement between bodies of evidence from randomized controlled trials and cohort studies in medical research: a meta-epidemiological study

Systematic review Body of evidence-pair RCTs Cohort studies PI/ECO-similarity degreea
Intervention Outcome Number of studies Summary measure; effect estimates (95% CI) Number of studies Summary measure; effect estimates (95% CI)
Abou-Setta 2011 [74] Nerve block Delirium 4 OR: 0.33 (0.16, 0.66) 2 OR: 0.24 (0.08, 0.72) 2
Abou-Setta 2011 [74] Spinal anesthesia All-cause mortality 2 OR: 1.73 (0.53, 5.68) 5 OR: 0.87 (0.45, 1.67) 2
Aburto 2013 [75] Low sodium All-cause mortality 4 RR: 0.7 (0.44, 1.14) 7 RR: 0.94 (0.83, 1.06) 2
Aburto 2013 [75] Low sodium Cardiovascular disease 2 RR: 0.84 (0.57, 1.23) 9 RR: 0.89 (0.75, 1.08) 2
Ahmad 2015 [27] Intra-aortic balloon pump All-cause mortality 12 OR: 0.96 (0.74, 1.24) 14 OR: 1.02 (0.57, 1.82) 1
Alexander 2017 [76] DHA and EPA Coronary heart disease 18 RR: 0.94 (0.85, 1.05) 17 RR: 0.82 (0.74, 0.92) 2
Alexander 2017 [76] DHA and EPA Coronary heart disease mortality 14 RR: 1 (0.89, 1.11) 14 RR: 0.77 (0.66, 0.9) 2
Alexander 2017 [76] DHA and EPA Coronary heart disease incidence 9 RR: 0.92 (0.78, 1.09) 4 RR: 0.81 (0.55, 1.19) 2
Alipanah 2018 [24] Self-administered therapy Low treatment success 4 RR: 1.05 (0.96, 1.15) 16 RR: 1.23 (1.12, 1.37 3
Alipanah 2018 [24] Self-administered therapy Low treatment completion 5 RR: 1.27 (0.9, 1.79) 14 RR: 0.91 (0.74, 1.11) 3
Alipanah 2018 [24] Self-administered therapy All-cause mortality 4 RR: 0.73 (0.45, 1.19) 23 RR: 1.35 (1, 1.84) 3
Anglemyer 2013 [77] Antiretroviral therapy HIV infection 1 RR: 0.11 (0.04, 0.32) 9 RR: 0.58 (0.35, 0.96) 3
Azad 2017 [21] Nonnutritive sweeteners Body Mass Index 3 MD: -0.37 (-1.1, 0.36) 1 MD: 0.77 (0.47, 1.07) 2
Barnard 2015 [28] Surgical abortion by mid-level providers Failure or incomplete abortion 2 RR: 2.97 (0.21, 41.82) 2 RR: 2.47 (1.45, 4.22) 2
Barnard 2015 [28] Surgical abortion by mid-level providers Complications 2 RR: 0.99 (0.17, 5.7) 2 RR: 1.3 (0.57, 2.96) 2
Barnard 2015 [28] Surgical abortion by mid-level providers Abortion failure and complications 2 RR: 3.07 (0.16, 59.08) 3 RR: 1.33 (0.78, 2.27) 2
Bellemain-Appaix 2012 [48] Clopidogrel All-cause mortality 7 OR: 0.8 (0.57, 1.11) 8 OR: 0.79 (0.52, 1.2) 2
Bellemain-Appaix 2012 [48] Clopidogrel Major bleeding 7 OR: 1.18 (0.93, 1.5) 8 OR: 1.16 (0.83, 1.61) 2
Bellemain-Appaix 2012 [48] Clopidogrel Coronary heart disease 7 OR: 0.77 (0.66, 0.89) 8 OR: 0.76 (0.6, 0.95) 2
Bellemain-Appaix 2014 [47] P2Y12 inhibitor All-cause mortality 3 OR: 0.92 (0.43, 1.98) 4 OR: 0.69 (0.38, 1.25) 2
Bellemain-Appaix 2014 [47] P2Y12 inhibitor Major bleeding 3 OR: 1.45 (0.97, 2.15) 4 OR: 1.12 (0.87, 1.45) 2
Bellemain-Appaix 2014 [47] P2Y12 inhibitor Main composite ischemic endpoint 3 OR: 0.85 (0.67, 1.07) 4 OR: 0.79 (0.54, 1.15) 2
Bloomfield 2016 [22] Mediterranean diet Breast cancer 1 RR: 0.53 (0.28, 1.03) 13 RR: 0.96 (0.9, 1.03) 2
Bolland 2015 [49] Calcium All fractures 22 RR: 0.9 (0.83, 0.96) 5 RR: 1.02 (0.93, 1.12) 2
Bolland 2015 [49] Calcium Vertebral fracture 12 RR: 0.86 (0.74, 1) 1 RR: 1.4 (1.1, 1.9) 2
Bolland 2015 [49] Calcium Hip fracture 13 RR: 0.95 (0.76, 1.18) 6 RR: 1.09 (0.91, 1.3) 2
Brenner 2014 [29] Sigmoidoscopy Colorectal cancer mortality 4 RR: 0.72 (0.65, 0.8) 1 RR: 0.59 (0.45, 0.76) 1
Brenner 2014 [29] Sigmoidoscopy Colorectal cancer incidence 4 RR: 0.82 (0.75, 0.89) 2 RR: 0.5 (0.37, 0.69) 2
Chowdhury 2012 [78] Omega-3 Cerebrovascular disease 2 RR: 0.98 (0.89, 1.08) 10 RR: 0.9 (0.8, 1.01) 2
Chowdhury 2014a [79] α-linolenic acid Coronary heart disease 4 RR: 0.97 (0.69, 1.36) 7 RR: 0.99 (0.86, 1.14) 3
Chowdhury 2014a [79] Omega-3 Coronary heart disease 17 RR: 0.94 (0.86, 1.03) 16 RR: 0.87 (0.78, 0.97) 3
Chowdhury 2014a [79] Omega-6 Coronary heart disease 8 RR: 0.86 (0.69, 1.07) 8 RR: 0.98 (0.9, 1.06) 3
Chowdhury 2014b [80] Vitamin D All-cause mortality 22 RR: 0.98 (0.94, 1.02) 68 RR: 0.69 (0.65, 0.75) 3
Chung 2011 [58] Vitamin D Colorectal cancer 1 RR: 1.02 (0.6, 1.74) 9 RR: 0.94 (0.91, 0.97) 3
Chung 2011 [58] Vitamin D Breast cancer 1 RR: 0.99 (0.25, 4) 4 RR: 0.99 (0.97, 1.01) 3
Chung 2016 [56] Calcium Cardiovascular mortality 2 RR: 1.05 (0.82, 1.33) 6 RR: 0.99 (0.97, 1.01) 2
Ding 2017 [81] Dairy Systolic blood pressure 8 MD: -0.21 (-0.98, 0.57) 27 MD: -0.11 (-0.2, -0.02) 2
Fenton 2018 [30] Radiation therapy Erectile dysfunction 1 RR: 0.91 (0.77, 1.08) 7 RR: 1.3 (1.19, 1.43) 2
Fenton 2018 [30] Radical Prostatectomy Urinary incontinence 3 RR: 2.27 (1.82, 2.84) 5 RR: 2.92 (1.8, 4.71) 2
Fenton 2018 [30] Radical Prostatectomy Erectile dysfunction 3 RR: 1.6 (1.23, 2.07) 6 RR: 1.49 (1.33, 1.66) 2
Filippini 2017 [43] Disease-modifying drugs Conversion to clinically definite multiple sclerosis 7 HR: 0.52 (0.46, 0.6) 2 HR: 0.48 (0.3, 0.78) 2
Fluri 2010 [31] Extracranial-intracranial arterial bypass All-cause mortality 2 OR: 0.81 (0.62, 1.05) 11 OR: 1 (0.62, 1.63) 2
Fluri 2010 [31] Extracranial-intracranial arterial bypass Stroke 2 OR: 0.99 (0.79, 1.23) 15 OR: 0.8 (0.54, 1.18) 2
Fluri 2010 [31] Extracranial-intracranial arterial bypass Stroke mortality or dependency 1 OR: 0.94 (0.74, 1.21) 8 OR: 0.8 (0.5, 1.29) 2
Gargiulo 2016 [32] Transcatheter aortic valve Early all-cause mortality 5 OR: 0.8 (0.51, 1.25) 29 OR: 1.08 (0.84, 1.39) 2
Gargiulo 2016 [32] Transcatheter aortic valve Mid-term all-cause mortality 5 OR: 0.9 (0.64, 1.26) 18 OR: 1 (0.81, 1.24) 2
Gargiulo 2016 [32] Transcatheter aortic valve Long-term all-cause mortality 4 OR: 1.03 (0.65, 1.62) 6 OR: 1.7 (1.23, 2.35) 2
Hartling 2013 [50] Treating gestational diabetes mellitus High birth weight 5 RR: 0.5 (0.35, 0.71) 5 RR: 0.69 (0.31, 1.54) 2
Hartling 2013 [50] Treating gestational diabetes mellitus Large-for-gestational age neonate 3 RR: 0.56 (0.45, 0.69) 4 RR: 0.43 (0.27, 0.7) 2
Hartling 2013 [50] Treating gestational diabetes mellitus Shoulder dystocia 3 RR: 0.42 (0.23, 0.77) 4 RR: 0.38 (0.19, 0.78) 2
Henderson 2019 [51] Treating asymptomatic bacteriuria Pyelonephritis 12 RR: 0.24 (0.14, 0.4) 2 RR: 0.29 (0.15, 0.57) 3
Higgins 2016 [25] Bacillus Calmette-Guérin All-cause mortality 3 RR: 0.67 (0.4, 1.14) 8 RR: 0.46 (0.3, 0.69) 3
Higgins 2016 [25] Measles containing vaccines All-cause mortality 4 RR: 0.74 (0.51, 1.07) 13 RR: 0.53 (0.4, 0.7) 3
Hopley 2010 [33] Total hip arthroplasty Reoperation 4 RR: 1.09 (0.4, 2.99) 6 RR: 0.45 (0.18, 1.09) 2
Hopley 2010 [33] Total hip arthroplasty Dislocation 4 RR: 2.47 (0.69, 8.76) 5 RR: 0.8 (0.27, 2.39) 2
Hopley 2010 [33] Total hip arthroplasty Deep infection 4 RR: 1.71 (0.66, 4.45) 4 RR: 0.91 (0.25, 3.28) 2
Hüpfl 2010 [67] Chest-compression-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation All-cause mortality 3 RR: 0.82 (0.68, 0.99) 7 RR: 1.04 (0.9, 1.2) 3
Jamal 2013 [82] Non-calcium-based phosphate binders All-cause mortality 8 RR: 0.78 (0.61, 0.98) 3 RR: 0.89 (0.78, 1) 2
Jefferson 2010 [46] Parenteral influenza vaccine Influenza-like illness 4 RR: 0.59 (0.47, 0.73) 30 RR: 0.76 (0.66, 0.87) 3
Jefferson 2010 [46] Parenteral influenza vaccine Influenza 3 RR: 0.42 (0.27, 0.66) 10 RR: 0.5 (0.26, 0.97) 2
Jefferson 2012 [34] Inactivated influenza vaccines Influenza 5 RR: 0.41 (0.29, 0.59) 1 RR: 0.2 (0.1, 0.39) 2
Jefferson 2012 [34] Inactivated influenza vaccines Influenza-like illness 5 RR: 0.64 (0.54, 0.76) 2 RR: 0.29 (0.07, 1.15) 2
Jin 2012 [83] Total flavonoids Colorectal neoplasms 1 RR: 1.09 (0.93, 1.28) 3 RR: 1 (0.8, 1.25) 3
Johnston 2019 [23] Low red meat All-cause mortality 1 RR: 0.94 (0.89, 0.99) 24 RR: 0.87 (0.82, 0.92) 2
Johnston 2019 [23] Low red meat Cardiovascular mortality 1 RR: 1 (0.84, 1.19) 25 RR: 0.86 (0.79, 0.94) 2
Johnston 2019 [23] Low red meat Cardiovascular disease 1 RR: 0.97 (0.91, 1.04) 12 RR: 0.87 (0.75, 1.01) 2
Kansagara 2013 [52] Transfusion All-cause mortality 6 RR: 0.94 (0.61, 1.42) 11 RR: 2.49 (1.4, 4.43) 3
Keag 2018 [84] Caesarean section Urinary incontinence 1 OR: 0.78 (0.56, 1.08) 8 OR: 0.56 (0.47, 0.66) 3
Keag 2018 [84] Caesarean section Fecal incontinence 1 OR: 3.07 (0.9, 10.49) 5 OR: 1.04 (0.73, 1.48) 3
Kredo 2014 [85] Starting and maintaining antiretroviral therapy All-cause mortality 1 RR: 0.96 (0.82, 1.12) 2 RR: 1.23 (1.14, 1.33) 3
Kredo 2014 [85] Starting and maintaining antiretroviral therapy Attrition 1 RR: 0.73 (0.55, 0.97) 2 RR: 0.3 (0.05, 1.94) 3
Kredo 2014 [85] Maintaining antiretroviral therapy All-cause mortality 2 RR: 0.89 (0.59, 1.32) 1 RR: 0.19 (0.05, 0.78) 3
Li 2014 [54] Exenatide Acute pancreatitis 5 RR: 0.86 (0.22, 3.37) 2 RR: 0.92 (0.69, 1.22) 2
Li 2016 [53] DDP-4 inhibitors Heart failure 34 RR: 0.9 (0.61, 1.35) 4 RR: 1.1 (1.04, 1.16) 2
Li 2016 [53] DDP-4 inhibitors Hospital admission for heart failure 5 OR: 1.13 (1, 1.27) 6 OR: 0.85 (0.74, 0.97) 2
Matthews 2018 [86] Tamoxifen Heart failure 1 RR: 0.52 (0.33, 0.71) 2 RR: 0.84 (0.65, 1.07) 3
Menne 2019 [87] SGLT-2 inhibitors Acute kidney injury 41 OR: 0.75 (0.66, 0.84) 5 OR: 0.4 (0.33, 0.48) 2
Mesgarpour 2017 [88] Erythropoiesis stimulating agents Venous thromboembolism 12 RR: 1.12 (0.9, 1.4) 5 RR: 1.87 (0.59, 5.92) 2
Mesgarpour 2017 [88] Erythropoiesis stimulating agents All-cause mortality 17 RR: 0.81 (0.71, 0.93) 7 RR: 1.07 (0.65, 1.77) 2
Moberley 2013 [89] Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines Invasive pneumococcal disease 10 OR: 0.26 (0.14, 0.45) 2 OR: 0.57 (0.36, 0.89) 2
Molnar 2015 [35] Neoral (Cyclosporin) Acute rejection of kidney transplant 2 OR: 1.23 (0.64, 2.36) 2 OR: 0.47 (0.27, 0.83) 2
Navarese 2013 [90] Early intervention for NSTE-ACS All-cause mortality 7 OR: 0.83 (0.64, 1.09) 4 OR: 0.8 (0.63, 1.02) 2
Navarese 2013 [90] Early intervention for NSTE-ACS Myocardial infarction 7 OR: 1.15 (0.65, 2.01) 3 OR: 0.86 (0.69, 1.08) 2
Navarese 2013 [90] Early intervention for NSTE-ACS Major bleeding 7 OR: 0.76 (0.56, 1.04) 3 OR: 1.12 (0.69, 1.82) 2
Nelson 2010 [36] Caesarean section Anal incontinence, feces 1 OR: 1 (0.49, 2.05) 11 OR: 0.91 (0.72, 1.16) 3
Nelson 2010 [36] Caesarean section Anal incontinence, flatus 1 OR: 0.83 (0.51, 1.36) 4 OR: 1.02 (0.87, 1.2) 3
Nieuwenhuijse 2014 [37] Ceramic-on-ceramic bearings for total hip arthroplasty Harris Hip Score 7 MD: -0.23 (-1.09, 0.63) 3 MD: -0.5 (-2.09, 1.09) 2
Nieuwenhuijse 2014 [37] High-flexion total knee arthroplasty Flexion 20 MD: 1.68 (0.28, 3.08) 26 MD: 3.78 (1.64, 5.92) 2
Nieuwenhuijse 2014 [37] Gender-specific total knee arthroplasty Flexion-extension range 6 MD: 1.41 (-0.17, 2.99) 2 MD: 3.15 (-0.03, 6.34) 2
Nikooie 2019 [55] Second generation antipsychotics Sedation 6 RR: 1.26 (0.92, 1.72) 3 RR: 1.84 (0.4, 8.54) 2
Nikooie 2019 [55] Second generation antipsychotics Neurologic outcomes 6 RR: 0.45 (0.2, 1.01) 5 RR: 0.76 (0.59, 0.99) 2
Ochen 2019 [91] Surgery for achilles tendon rupture Re-rupture 10 RR: 0.4 (0.24, 0.69) 18 RR: 0.42 (0.28, 0.64) 2
Ochen 2019 [91] Surgery for achilles tendon rupture Complications 9 RR: 3.26 (1.26, 8.41) 15 RR: 2.93 (2.28, 3.75) 2
Pittas 2010 [60] Vitamin D Hypertension 1 RR: 1.01 (0.97, 1.05) 3 RR: 0.57 (0.41, 0.79) 3
Raman 2013 [38] Carotid endarterectomy Ipsilateral stroke 3 RR: 0.72 (0.58, 0.9) 2 RR: 0.47 (0.05, 4.46) 2
Raman 2013 [38] Carotid endarterectomy Stroke 3 RR: 0.68 (0.56, 0.82) 3 RR: 0.73 (0.43, 1.22) 2
Raman 2013 [38] Carotid artery stenting Periprocedural stroke 2 RR: 1.75 (0.87, 3.52) 5 RR: 1.91 (1.72, 2.11) 2
Schweizer 2013 [39] Nasal deconolization Surgical site infection 5 RR: 0.63 (0.36, 1.13) 6 RR: 0.4 (0.28, 0.57) 2
Schweizer 2013 [39] Glycopeptide prophylaxis Surgical site infection 8 RR: 1.13 (0.9, 1.42) 7 RR: 0.34 (0.11, 1.1) 2
Silvain 2012 [40] Enoxaparin All-cause mortality 6 RR: 0.88 (0.7, 1.1) 7 RR: 0.49 (0.39, 0.62) 2
Silvain 2012 [40] Enoxaparin Major bleeding 9 RR: 0.88 (0.62, 1.24) 7 RR: 0.72 (0.56, 0.93) 2
Silvain 2012 [40] Enoxaparin All-cause mortality or myocardial infarction 13 RR: 0.86 (0.74, 0.99) 7 RR: 0.44 (0.35, 0.55) 2
Suthar 2012 [26] Antiretroviral therapy Tuberculosis infection 2 HR: 0.5 (0.34, 0.75) 9 HR: 0.32 (0.25, 0.41) 3
Te Morenga 2013 [61] Sugar Weight gain 10 MD: 0.75 (0.3, 1.19) 4 MD: 0.31 (-0.07, 0.68) 2
Te Morenga 2013 [61] Sugar Body Mass Index 3 MD: -0.06 (-0.15, 0.04) 4 MD: 0.02 (0.00, 0,05) 2
Thomas 2010 [92] nfluenza vaccin Influenza-like illness 3 RR: 0.71 (0.55, 0.9) 1 RR: 0.31 (0.26, 0.36) 3
Tickell-Painter 2017 [93] Mefloquine Discontinuation due to adverse effects 3 RR: 2.86 (1.53, 5.31) 9 RR: 2.73 (1.83, 4.08) 2
Tickell-Painter 2017 [93] Mefloquine Serious adverse events or effects 3 RR: 0.7 (0.14, 3.53) 2 RR: 3.08 (0.39, 24.11) 3
Tickell-Painter 2017 [93] Mefloquine Nausea 2 RR: 1.35 (1.05, 1.73) 3 RR: 1.85 (1.42, 2.43) 3
Tricco 2018 [45] Live-attenuated zoster vaccines Suspected Herpes Zoster 5 RR: 0.61 (0.48, 0.93) 3 RR: 0.48 (0.27, 0.84) 2
Vinceti 2018 [59] Selenium Cancer 5 RR: 0.99 (0.86, 1.14) 7 RR: 0.75 (0.59, 0.94) 3
Vinceti 2018 [59] Selenium Cancer mortality 2 RR: 0.81 (0.49, 1.32) 7 RR: 0.77 (0.6, 0.97) 3
Vinceti 2018 [59] Selenium Colorectal cancer 3 RR: 0.74 (0.41, 1.33) 6 RR: 0.82 (0.72, 0.94) 3
Wilson 2011 [41] Traditional birth attendants Perinatal mortality 5 RR: 0.76 (0.64, 0.88) 1 RR: 0.82 (0.38, 1.78) 3
Wilson 2011 [41] Traditional birth attendants Neonatal mortality 6 RR: 0.79 (0.69, 0.88) 2 RR: 0.8 (0.47, 1.37) 3
Wilson 2019 [42] Unicompartimental knee arthroplasty Venous thromboembolism 2 RR: 0.24 (0.04, 1.37) 8 RR: 0.41 (0.29, 0.57) 2
Wilson 2019 [42] Unicompartimental knee arthroplasty Flexion-extension range 3 MD: -4.58 (-10.75, 1.59) 11 MD: -8.43 (-10.15, -6.71) 2
Wilson 2019 [42] Unicompartimental knee arthroplasty Operation duration 3 MD: -1.72 (-11.89, 8.45) 8 MD: -23.8 (-40.43, -7.17) 2
Yank 2011 [44] Recombinant factor VII All-cause mortality 2 RR: 1.4 (0.49, 4.02) 2 RR: 0.91 (0.39, 2.12) 2
Yank 2011 [44] Recombinant factor VII Thromboembolism 2 RR: 2.06 (0.48, 8.84) 2 RR: 1.81 (0.67, 4.87) 2
Zhang 2016 [94] Everolimus-eluting bioresorbable vascular scaffold Stent thrombosis 5 OR: 2.05 (0.95, 4.43) 3 OR: 2.32 (1.06, 5.07) 2
Zhang 2016 [94] Everolimus-eluting bioresorbable vascular scaffold All-cause mortality 5 OR: 0.96 (0.46, 2) 4 OR: 0.57 (0.23, 1.44) 2
Zhang 2016 [94] Everolimus-eluting bioresorbable vascular scaffold Coronary heart disease mortality 3 OR: 1.4 (0.45, 4.33) 4 OR: 0.81 (0.38, 1.7) 2
Zhang 2017 [95] Percutaneous coronary intervention All-cause mortality 5 HR: 1 (0.79, 1.26) 17 HR: 1.08 (0.92, 1.26) 2
Zhang 2017 [95] Percutaneous coronary intervention Cardiovascular mortality 4 HR: 1 (0.72, 1.39) 5 HR: 1.08 (0.51, 2.29) 2
Zhang 2017 [95] Percutaneous coronary intervention Myocardial infarction 5 HR: 1.39 (0.85, 2.27) 5 HR: 2.01 (1.64, 2.45) 2
Ziff 2015 [96] Digoxin All-cause mortality 7 RR: 0.99 (0.93, 1.05) 8 RR: 1.61 (1.31, 1.97) 3
Ziff 2015 [96] Digoxin Cardiovascular mortality 5 RR: 1.01 (0.94, 1.08) 3 RR: 2.53 (1.12, 5.71) 3
Ziff 2015 [96] Digoxin Hospital admission 2 RR: 0.94 (0.9, 0.99) 4 RR: 0.91 (0.87, 0.95) 2
  1. DDP-4 Dipeptidyl peptidase 4, DHA Docosahexaenoic acid, EPA Eicosapentaenoic acid, HR Hazard ratio, NSTE-ACS Non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome, OR Odds raio, PI/ECO Population, intervention/ exposure, comparison, outcome, RR Risk ratio, SGLT-2 Sodium glucose transporter 2;
  2. aPI/ECO (population, intervention/ exposure, comparator, outcome)-similarity degree: 1 = more or less identical; 2 = similar but not identical; 3 = broadly similar