Skip to main content

Table 5 The age-specific association between gestational age with subscale score of CSHQ in preschoolers of different age (n=114,311)

From: Associations between gestational age and childhood sleep: a national retrospective cohort study

Gestational age Bedtime resistance Sleep onset delay
Crude β (95% CI) p p* Adjusted β a (95% CI) p p* Crude β (95% CI) p p* Adjusted β a (95% CI) p p*
Total
 Very-preterm(<31W) 0.056 (−0.036, 0.149) 0.234 0.2808 0.116 (0.025, 0.207) 0.012 0.036 0.057 (0.028, 0.085) <0.001 <0.001 0.049 (0.021, 0.078) 0.001 0.006
 Moderate-preterm(32–33W) 0.08 (−0.023, 0.183) 0.129 0.1935 0.149 (0.047, 0.25) 0.004 0.024 0.054 (0.022, 0.086) 0.001 0.003 0.047 (0.016, 0.079) 0.003 0.009
 Late-preterm (34–36W) −0.037 (−0.084, 0.011) 0.128 0.1935 0.048 (0.002, 0.095) 0.043 0.082 0.021 (0.007, 0.036) 0.005 0.010 0.016 (0.001, 0.031) 0.032 0.064
 Early-term (37–38W) −0.046 (−0.078, −0.014) 0.004 0.012 −0.008 (−0.04, 0.023) 0.603 0.603 −0.001 (−0.011, 0.008) 0.772 0.772 −0.002 (−0.011, 0.008) 0.745 0.745
 Full-term (39–40W) Reference    Reference    Reference    Reference   
 Late-term (41–41W) 0.088 (0.032, 0.144) 0.002 0.012 0.054 (−0.001, 0.109) 0.055 0.082 0.017 (0, 0.034) 0.057 0.085 0.012 (−0.005, 0.03) 0.160 0.240
 Post-term (>41W) −0.003 (−0.065, 0.059) 0.921 0.921 0.052 (−0.009, 0.113) 0.096 0.115 0.013 (−0.006, 0.032) 0.183 0.219 0.01 (−0.009, 0.029) 0.323 0.387
3 years old
 Very-preterm(<31W) 0.095 (−0.066, 0.256) 0.249 0.394 0.149 (−0.010, 0.308) 0.067 0.402 0.095 (0.043, 0.147) <0.001 <0.001 0.090 (0.038, 0.142) 0.001 0.006
 Moderate-preterm(32–33W) 0.065 (−0.123, 0.252) 0,498 0.597 0.125 (−0.060, 0.310) 0.187 0.561 0.076 (0.016, 0.136) 0.014 0.042 0.069 (0.009, 0.129) 0.025 0.075
 Late-preterm (34–36W) −0.107 (−0.19, −0.024) 0.012 0.072 −0.04 (−0.123, 0.042) 0.339 0.591 0.001 (−0.026, 0.027) 0.961 0.961 −0.004 (−0.031, 0.022) 0.743 0.743
 Early-term (37–38W) −0.053 (−0.105, 0.0001) 0.05 0.072 −0.018 (−0.07, 0.034) 0.493 0.591 −0.009 (−0.026, 0.008) 0.285 0.496 −0.008 (−0.025, 0.009) 0.382 0.573
 Full-term (39–40W) Reference    Reference    Reference    Reference   
 Late-term (41–41W) 0.052 (−0.039, 0.144) 0.263 0.394 0.024 (−0.066, 0.115) 0.597 0.597 0.015 (−0.015, 0.044) 0.331 0.496 0.009 (−0.021, 0.038) 0.570 0.684
 Post-term (>41W) 0.015 (−0.095, 0.124) 0.795 0.795 0.046 (−0.063, 0.154) 0.408 0.591 −0.011 (−0.046, 0.025) 0.551 0.661 −0.016 (−0.051, 0.019) 0.380 0.573
4 years old
 Very-preterm(<31W) 0.069 (−0.076, 0.215) 0.351 0.526 0.111 (−0.033, 0.255) 0.131 0.196 0.011 (−0.034, 0.056) 0.637 0.637 0.001 (−0.044, 0.046) 0.964 0.964
 Moderate-preterm(32–33W) 0.13 (−0.03, 0.291) 0.112 0.234 0.183 (0.024, 0.342) 0.024 0.134 0.061 (0.011, 0.111)* 0.017 0.102 0.050 (0.0001, 0.1) 0.049 0.201
 Late-preterm (34–36W) 0.007 (−0.069, 0.083) 0.855 0.904 0.07 (−0.005, 0.146) 0.067 0.134 0.008 (−0.016, 0.032) 0.508 0.609 0.001 (−0.023, 0.024) 0.948 0.964
 Early-term (37–38W) −0.041 (−0.092, 0.01) 0.117 0.234 −0.006 (−0.056, 0.045) 0.830 0.830 0.008 (−0.007, 0.024) 0.301 0.451 0.008 (−0.008, 0.024) 0.336 0.504
 Full-term (39–40W) Reference    Reference    Reference    Reference   
 Late-term (41–41W) 0.111 (0.023, 0.199)* 0.014 0.084 0.081 (−0.006, 0.168) 0.067 0.134 0.028 (0.001, 0.056) 0.043 0.112 0.025 (−0.002, 0.053) 0.067 0.201
 Post-term (>41W) 0.006 (−0.092, 0.104) 0.904 0.094 0.029 (−0.068, 0.125) 0.561 0.672 0.03 (−0.001, 0.06) 0.056 0.112 0.023 (−0.007, 0.054) 0.133 0.266
5 years old
 Very-preterm(<31W) 0.06 (−0.115, 0.235) 0.500 0.500 0.086 (−0.088, 0.259) 0.333 0.424 0.085 (0.033, 0.137)* 0.001 0.003 0.074 (0.022, 0.126) 0.005 0.015
 Moderate-preterm(32–33W) 0.126 (−0.065, 0.317) 0.197 0.487 0.125 (−0.064, 0.314) 0.196 0.392 0.038 (−0.019, 0.095) 0.191 0.286 0.028 (−0.029, 0.085) 0.332 0.505
 Late-preterm (34–36W) 0.071 (−0.016, 0.158) 0.112 0.487 0.102 (0.015, 0.189) 0.021 0.126 0.067 (0.041, 0.093)* <0.001 <0.001 0.054 (0.028, 0.08) <0.001 <0.001
 Early-term (37–38W) −0.031 (−0.093, 0.031) 0.325 0.487 −0.003 (−0.064, 0.059) 0.934 0.934 −0.003 (−0.022, 0.015) 0.710 0.852 −0.006 (−0.025, 0.012) 0.490 0.588
 Full-term (39–40W) Reference    Reference    Reference    Reference   
 Late-term (41–41W) 0.059 (−0.055, 0.173) 0.311 0487 0.053 (−0.059, 0.166) 0.354 0.424 −0.003 (−0.037, 0.031) 0.860 0.860 −0.006 (−0.04, 0.027) 0.709 0.709
 Post-term (>41W) 0.049 (−0.067, 0.165) 0.411 0.493 0.084 (−0.031, 0.199) 0.151 0.392 0.025 (−0.01, 0.059) 0.162 0.286 0.017 (−0.018, 0.051) 0.337 0.505
Gestational age Night wakings Parasomnia
Crude β (95% CI) p p* Adjusted β a (95% CI) p p* Crude β (95% CI) p p* Adjusted β a (95% CI) p p*
Total
 Very-preterm(<31W) 0.237 (0.191, 0.282) <0.001 <0.01 0.227 (0.181, 0.272) <0.001 <0.01 0.526 (0.433, 0.619) <0.001 <0.001 0.515 (0.422, 0.608) <0.001 <0.001
 Moderate-preterm(32–33W) 0.166 (0.116, 0.217) <0.001 <0.001 0.163 (0.112, 0.214) <0.001 <0.001 0.341 (0.237, 0.445) <0.001 <0.001 0.337 (0.233, 0.441) <0.001 <0.001
 Late-preterm (34–36W) 0.122 (0.099, 0.146) <0.001 <0.001 0.117 (0.093, 0.14) <0.001 <0.001 0.241 (0.193, 0.288) <0.001 <0.001 0.238 (0.19, 0.286) <0.001 <0.001
 Early-term (37–38W) 0.036 (0.02, 0.052) <0.001 <0.001 0.037 (0.022, 0.053) <0.001 <0.001 0.079 (0.047, 0.111) <0.001 <0.001 0.085 (0.053, 0.117) <0.001 <0.001
 Full-term (39–40W) Reference    Reference    Reference    Reference   
 Late-term (41–41W) −0.012 (−0.04, 0.015) 0.386 0.386 −0.018 (−0.046, 0.009) 0.190 0.190 −0.001 (−0.057, 0.056) 0.983 0.983 −0.011 (−0.067, 0.045) 0.694 0.694
 Post-term (>41W) 0.089 (0.059, 0.12) <0.001 <0.001 0.083 (0.052, 0.113) <0.001 <0.001 0.228 (0.165, 0.29) <0.001 <0.001 0.221 (0.158, 0.283) <0.001 <0.001
3years old
 Very-preterm(<31W) 0.246 (0.163, 0.329) <0.001 <0.01 0.24 (0.157, 0.323) <0.001 <0.01 0.607 (0.445, 0.769) <0.001 <0.01 0.599 (0.437, 0.76) <0.001 <0.01
 Moderate-preterm(32–33W) 0.21 (0.113, 0.307) <0.001 <0.001 0.213 (0.117, 0.31) <0.001 <0.001 0.459 (0.27, 0.648) <0.001 <0.001 0.464 (0.275, 0.652) <0.001 <0.001
 Late-preterm (34–36W) 0.083 (0.04, 0.126) <0.001 <0.001 0.082 (0.039, 0.126) <0.001 <0.001 0.172 (0.088, 0.256) <0.001 <0.001 0.174 (0.09, 0.258) <0.001 <0.001
 Early-term (37–38W) 0.024 (−0.003, 0.052) 0.078 0.0936 0.029 (0.002, 0.056) 0.035 0.042 0.07 (0.017, 0.123) 0.009 0.010 0.081 (0.028, 0.134) 0.003 0.0036
 Full-term (39–40W) Reference    Reference    Reference    Reference   
 Late-term (41–41W) 0.001 (−0.047, 0.047) 0.995 0.995 −0.007 (−0.055, 0.04) 0.759 0.759 −0.003 (−0.096, 0.089) 0.941 0.941 −0.017 (−0.109, 0.075) 0.715 0.715
 Post-term (>41W) 0.093 (0.036, 0.149) <0.001 <0.001 0.089 (0.033, 0.146) 0.002 0.003 0.217 (0.107, 0.327) <0.001 <0.001 0.212 (0.102, 0.322) <0.001 <0.001
4 years old
 Very-preterm(<31W) 0.23 (0.158, 0.302) <0.001 <0.01 0.213 (0.142, 0.285) <0.001 <0.01 0.511 (0.363, 0.658) <0.001 <0.01 0.493 (0.345, 0.64) <0.001 <0.01
 Moderate-preterm(32–33W) 0.157 (0.078, 0.236) <0.001 <0.001 0.141 (0.062, 0.22) <0.001 <0.001 0.29 (0.127, 0.452) <0.001 <0.001 0.277 (0.115, 0.44) 0.001 0.0012
 Late-preterm (34–36W) 0.159 (0.121, 0.196) <0.001 <0.001 0.144 (0.106, 0.182) <0.001 <0.001 0.283 (0.207, 0.36) <0.001 <0.001 0.273 (0.195, 0.35) <0.001 <0.001
 Early-term (37–38W) 0.037 (0.012, 0.062) 0.004 0.0048 0.038 (0.013, 0.063) 0.003 0.0036 0.083 (0.032, 0.135) 0.002 0.0024 0.087 (0.035, 0.138) 0.001 0.012
 Full-term (39–40W) Reference    Reference    Reference    Reference   
 Late-term (41–41W) −0.006 (−0.049, 0.038) 0.801 0.801 −0.008 (−0.052, 0.035) 0.709 0.709 0.055 (−0.035, 0.144) 0.230 0.230 0.05 (−0.039, 0.139) 0.274 0.274
 Post-term (>41W) 0.107 (0.058, 0.155) <0.001 <0.001 0.09 (0.041, 0.138) <0.001 <0.001 0.293 (0.194, 0.392) <0.001 <0.001 0.274 (0.175, 0.373) <0.001 <0.001
5 years old
 Very-preterm(<31W) 0.249 (0.165, 0.333) <0.001 <0.01 0.233 (0.15, 0.317) <0.001 <0.01 0.478 (0.301, 0.656) <0.001 <0.01 0.461 (0.284, 0.639) <0.001 <0.01
 Moderate-preterm(32–33W) 0.161 (0.069, 0.252) 0.001 0.0015 0.15 (0.059, 0.242) 0.001 0.002 0.326 (0.132, 0.52) 0.001 <0.001 0.312 (0.118, 0.506) 0.002 0.004
 Late-preterm (34–36W) 0.132 (0.09, 0.174) <0.001 <0.001 0.116 (0.075, 0.158) <0.001 <0.001 0.271 (0.182, 0.359) 0.001 0.002 0.253 (0.164, 0.343) <0.001 <0.001
 Early-term (37–38W) 0.05 (0.021, 0.08) 0.001 0.0015 0.047 (0.017, 0.076) 0.002 0.003 0.084 (0.021, 0.146) 0.009 0.0108 0.085 (0.022, 0.148) 0.008 0.009
 Full-term (39–40W) Reference    Reference    Reference    Reference   
 Late-term (41–41W) −0.045 (−0.099, 0.01) 0.107 0.107 −0.051 (−0.105, 0.003) 0.065 0.065 −0.086 (−0.202, 0.029) 0.143 0.143 −0.095 (−0.211, 0.02) 0.106 0.106
 Post-term (>41W) 0.081 (0.026, 0.136) 0.004 0.0048 0.069 (0.014, 0.124) 0.014 0.016 0.175 (0.057, 0.293) 0.004 0.006 0.164 (0.046, 0.282) 0.006 0.009
Gestational age Sleep duration Sleep anxiety
Crude β (95% CI) p p* Adjusted β a (95% CI) p p* Crude β (95% CI) p p* Adjusted β a (95% CI) p p*
Total
 Very-preterm(<31W) 0.255 (0.193, 0.316) <0.001 <0.01 0.194 (0.133, 0.256) <0.001 <0.001 0.241 (0.175, 0.308) <0.001 <0.01 0.180 (0.114, 0.246) <0.001 <0.001
 Moderate-preterm(32–33W) 0.235 (0.166, 0.304) <0.001 <0.001 0.17 (0.102, 0.239) <0.001 <0.001 0.225 (0.151, 0.299) <0.001 <0.001 0.160 (0.087, 0.233) <0.001 <0.001
 Late-preterm (34–36W) 0.149 (0.118, 0.181) <0.001 <0.001 0.078 (0.047, 0.11) <0.001 <0.001 0.14 (0.106, 0.174) <0.001 <0.001 0.069 (0.035, 0.103) <0.001 <0.001
 Early-term (37–38W) 0.036 (0.014, 0.057) 0.001 0.0012 0.012 (−0.009, 0.033) 0.255 0.306 0.035 (0.012, 0.057) 0.003 0.0036 0.011 (−0.011, 0.034) 0.324 0.388
 Full-term (39–40W) Reference    Reference    Reference      
 Late-term (41–41W) −0.002 (−0.039, 0.036) 0.937 0.937 0.006 (−0.031, 0.043) 0.740 0.740 −0.011 (−0.051, 0.029) 0.590 0.590 −0.003 (−0.042, 0.037) 0.890 0.890
 Post-term (>41W) 0.128 (0.087, 0.17) <0.001 <0.001 0.084 (0.043, 0.125) <0.001 <0.001 0.121 (0.076, 0.165) <0.001 <0.001 0.076 (0.032, 0.12) 0.001 0.0015
3 years old
 Very-preterm(<31W) 0.338 (0.228, 0.449) <0.001 <0.01 0.277 (0.168, 0.387) <0.001 <0.01 0.341 (0.223, 0.459) <0.001 <0.001 0.277 (0.16, 0.394) <0.001 <0.01
 Moderate-preterm(32–33W) 0.313 (0.184, 0.442) <0.001 <0.001 0.253 (0.125, 0.381) <0.001 <0.001 0.313 (0.178, 0.449) <0.001 <0.001 0.255 (0.121, 0.39) <0.001 <0.001
 Late-preterm (34–36W) 0.159 (0.102, 0.216) <0.001 <0.001 0.094 (0.037, 0.151) 0.001 0.002 0.139 (0.078, 0.199) <0.001 <0.001 0.075 (0.015, 0.135) 0.015 0.030
 Early-term (37–38W) 0.044 (0.008, 0.081) 0.016 0.019 0.024 (−0.012, 0.06) 0.186 0.223 0.041 (0.003, 0.079) 0.036 0.043 0.021 (−0.017, 0.059) 0.281 0.337
 Full-term (39–40W) Reference    Reference    Reference    Reference   
 Late-term (41–41W) 0.001 (−0.063, 0.063) 0.989 0.989 0.006 (−0.056, 0.068) 0.851 0.851 −0.012 (−0.079, 0.054) 0.717 0.717 −0.006 (−0.072, 0.06) 0.854 0.854
 Post-term (>41W) 0.116 (0.04, 0.191) 0.003 0.004 0.077 (0.003, 0.152) 0.043 0.064 0.094 (0.015, 0.172) 0.002 0.003 0.056 (−0.022, 0.135) 0.157 0.235
4 years old
 Very-preterm(<31W) 0.199 (0.1, 0.297) <0.001 <0.01 0.142 (0.044, 0.24) 0.005 0.010 0.192 (0.086, 0.297) <0.001 <0.01 0.136 (0.031, 0.241) 0.011 0.024
 Moderate-preterm(32–33W) 0.239 (0.131, 0.348) <0.001 <0.001 0.176 (0.069, 0.284) 0.001 0.006 0.212 (0.096, 0.328) <0.001 <0.001 0.149 (0.033, 0.264) 0.012 0.024
 Late-preterm (34–36W) 0.136 (0.085, 0.187) <0.001 <0.001 0.075 (0.023, 0.126) 0.004 0.010 0.13 (0.075, 0.185) <0.001 <0.001 0.071 (0.016, 0.126) 0.011 0.024
 Early-term (37–38W) 0.041 (0.006, 0.075) 0.020 0.0240 0.018 (−0.017, 0.052) 0.310 0.310 0.047 (0.01, 0.083) 0.013 0.015 0.023 (−0.013, 0.06) 0.213 0.255
 Full-term (39–40W) Reference    Reference    Reference    Reference   
 Late-term (41–41W) 0.022 (−0.037, 0.082) 0.462 0.462 0.031 (−0.028, 0.09) 0.307 0.310 0.017 (−0.047, 0.08) 0.606 0.606 0.027 (−0.036, 0.09) 0.400 0.400
 Post-term (>41W) 0.101 (0.035, 0.167) 0.003 0.004 0.065 (0, 0.131) 0.051 0.076 0.101 (0.03, 0.172) 0.005 0.007 0.064 (−0.007, 0.134) 0.076 0.114
5 years old
 Very-preterm(<31W) 0.222 (0.108, 0.336) <0.001 <0.001 0.178 (0.065, 0.291) 0.002 0.009 0.177 (0.055, 0.299) 0.005 0.010 0.137 (0.015, 0.258) 0.028 0.048
 Moderate-preterm(32–33W) 0.127 (0.003, 0.251) 0.045 0.067 0.088 (−0.035, 0.211) 0.162 0.243 0.123 (−0.013, 0.258) 0.076 0.114 0.085 (−0.05, 0.219) 0.219 0.285
 Late-preterm (34–36W) 0.125 (0.068, 0.181) <0.001 <0.001 0.069 (0.013, 0.126) 0.016 0.032 0.119 (0.058, 0.181) <0.001 <0.001 0.062 (0.001, 0.123) 0.048 0.096
 Early-term (37–38W) 0.015 (−0.026, 0.055) 0.477 0.477 −0.008 (−0.048, 0.032) 0.693 0.693 0.007 (−0.036, 0.051) 0.746 0.746 −0.015 (−0.059, 0.028) 0.488 0.488
 Full-term (39–40W) Reference    Reference    Reference    Reference   
 Late-term (41–41W) −0.028 (−0.102, 0.046) 0.458 0.477 −0.033 (−0.106, 0.041) 0.385 0.462 −0.041 (−0.122, 0.039) 0.313 0.375 −0.048 (−0.128, 0.032) 0.238 0.285
 Post-term (>41W) 0.148 (0.073, 0.224) <0.001 <0.001 0.113 (0.038, 0.188) 0.003 0.009 0.148 (0.066, 0.23) <0.001 <0.001 0.111 (0.029, 0.192) 0.008 0.048
Gestational age Sleep disorder breathing Daytime sleepiness
Crude β (95% CI) p p* Adjusted β a (95% CI) p p* Crude β (95% CI) p p* Adjusted β a (95% CI) p p*
Total
 Very-preterm(<31W) 0.221 (0.182, 0.26) <0.001 <0.01 0.208 (0.169, 0.247) <0.001 <0.01 0.424 (0.315, 0.533) <0.001 <0.01 0.377 (0.268, 0.486) <0.001 <0.01
 Moderate-preterm(32–33W) 0.157 (0.113, 0.2) <0.001 <0.001 0.143 (0.1, 0.187) <0.001 <0.001 0.32 (0.198, 0.441) <0.001 <0.001 0.279 (0.158, 0.401) <0.001 <0.001
 Late-preterm (34–36W) 0.118 (0.098, 0.138) <0.001 <0.001 0.105 (0.085, 0.125) <0.001 <0.001 0.196 (0.14, 0.252) <0.001 <0.001 0.161 (0.105, 0.217) <0.001 <0.001
 Early-term (37–38W) 0.036 (0.022, 0.049) <0.001 <0.001 0.034 (0.021, 0.047) <0.001 <0.001 0.04 (0.002, 0.077)* 0.038 0.0456 0.049 (0.012, 0.086) 0.010 0.012
 Full-term (39–40W) Reference    Reference    Reference    Reference   
 Late-term (41–41W) −0.022 (−0.046, 0.001) 0.064 0.064 −0.022 (−0.046, 0.002) 0.067 0.067 0.013 (−0.053, 0.079) 0.699 0.699 −0.007 (−0.072, 0.059) 0.843 0.843
 Post-term (>41W) 0.097 (0.071, 0.123) <0.001 <0.001 0.085 (0.059, 0.111) <0.001 <0.001 0.29 (0.217, 0.364) <0.001 <0.001 0.242 (0.169, 0.314) <0.001 <0.001
3years old
 Very-preterm(<31W) 0.275 (0.21, 0.339) <0.001 <0.01 0.267 (0.202, 0.332) <0.001 <0.01 0.42 (0.223, 0.617) <0.001 <0.01 0.369 (0.174, 0.565) <0.001 <0.01
 Moderate-preterm(32–33W) 0.123 (0.048, 0.199) 0.001 0.0015 0.117 (0.041, 0.192) 0.002 0.003 0.401 (0.171, 0.63) 0.001 0.0015 0.377 (0.149, 0.605) 0.001 0.0015
 Late-preterm (34–36W) 0.062 (0.028, 0.095) <0.001 <0.001 0.056 (0.022, 0.09) 0.001 0.002 0.168 (0.067, 0.27) 0.001 0.0015 0.133 (0.031, 0.234) 0.010 0.0015
 Early-term (37–38W) 0.028 (0.007, 0.049) 0.010 0.0012 0.029 (0.008, 0.05) 0.008 0.0096 0.038 (−0.026, 0.102) 0.246 0.246 0.052 (−0.012, 0.116) 0.112 0.112
 Full-term (39–40W) Reference    Reference    Reference    Reference   
 Late-term (41–41W) −0.026 (−0.063, 0.011) 0.168 0.168 −0.029 (−0.065, 0.008) 0.129 0.129 −0.099 (−0.211, 0.013) 0.084 0.1008 −0.131 (−0.242, −0.02) 0.021 0.025
 Post-term (>41W) 0.088 (0.044, 0.133) <0.001 <0.001 0.081 (0.037, 0.125) 0.001 0.002 0.335 (0.201, 0.468) <0.001 <0.001 0.283 (0.15, 0.416) <0.001 <0.001
4 years old
 Very-preterm(<31W) 0.179 (0.117, 0.241) <0.001 <0.01 0.165 (0.103, 0.228) <0.001 <0.01 0.444 (0.27, 0.617) <0.001 <0.01 0.395 (0.222, 0.568) <0.001 <0.01
 Moderate-preterm(32–33W) 0.16 (0.092, 0.229) <0.001 <0.001 0.148 (0.08, 0.216) <0.001 <0.001 0.33 (0.139, 0.521) 0.001 0.0015 0.291 (0.101, 0.481) 0.003 0.0036
 Late-preterm (34–36W) 0.139 (0.107, 0.171) <0.001 <0.001 0.127 (0.095, 0.16) <0.001 <0.001 0.2 (0.109, 0.291) 0.001 0.0015 0.175 (0.084, 0.265) <0.001 <0.001
 Early-term (37–38W) 0.03 (0.008, 0.052) 0.007 0.0084 0.028 (0.006, 0.05) 0.011 0.0132 0.084 (0.023, 0.144) 0.007 0.0084 0.093 (0.033, 0.154) 0.003 0.0036
 Full-term (39–40W) Reference    Reference    Reference    Reference   
 Late-term (41–41W) −0.009 (−0.047, 0.028) 0.630 0.630 −0.008 (−0.046, 0.029) 0.658 0.658 0.099 (−0.006, 0.203) 0.065 0.065 0.087 (−0.017, 0.191) 0.102 0.102
 Post-term (>41W) 0.115 (0.073, 0.157) <0.001 <0.001 0.104 (0.062, 0.145) <0.001 <0.001 0.313 (0.197, 0.43) <0.001 <0.001 0.262 (0.146, 0.378) <0.001 <0.001
5 years old
 Very-preterm(<31W) 0.217 (0.14, 0.295) <0.001 <0.01 0.205 (0.128, 0.282) <0.001 <0.01 0.377 (0.177, 0.576) <0.001 <0.01 0.36 (0.161, 0.558) 0.001 0.003
 Moderate-preterm(32–33W) 0.174 (0.09, 0.258) <0.001 <0.001 0.163 (0.079, 0.247) <0.001 <0.001 0.194 (−0.023, 0.412) 0.080 0.120 0.172 (−0.045, 0.389) 0.120 0.180
 Late-preterm (34–36W) 0.136 (0.098, 0.175) <0.001 <0.001 0.124 (0.085, 0.162) <0.001 <0.001 0.184 (0.085, 0.284) <0.001 <0.001 0.174 (0.074, 0.273) 0.001 0.003
 Early-term (37–38W) 0.052 (0.024, 0.079) <0.001 <0.001 0.049 (0.021, 0.076) <0.001 <0.015 −0.019 (−0.089, 0.051) 0.599 0.599 −0.006 (−0.076, 0.065) 0.877 0.877
 Full-term (39–40W) Reference    Reference    Reference    Reference   
 Late-term (41–41W) −0.034 (−0.084, 0.016) 0.184 0.184 −0.035 (−0.085, 0.015) 0.166 0.166 0.042 (−0.088, 0.171) 0.528 0.599 0.011 (−0.118, 0.14) 0.868 0.877
 Post-term (>41W) 0.075 (0.023, 0.126) 0.004 0.0048 0.067 (0.016, 0.118) 0.010 0.012 0.188 (0.056, 0.321)# 0.005 0.010 0.169 (0.037, 0.300) 0.012 0.024
  1. CSHQ Children’s Sleep Habit Questionnaire, CI confidence interval, OR odds ratio
  2. aAdjusted for age, gender, eyesight, co-sleep, maternal characteristics, and family characteristics
  3. p* value corrected after multiple testing
  4. bStatistically significant results (p < 0.05) are in bold