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Table 2 CMM risks according to the consumption of three types of beverages in UK Biobank at 2021 (N = 37,994)

From: Associations between consumption of three types of beverages and risk of cardiometabolic multimorbidity in UK Biobank participants: a prospective cohort study

  0/day HR (95% CI) 0–1/day HR (95% CI) >1/day HR (95% CI) Adjusted P-trenda
Sugar-sweetened beverages
 Person-years 225,111 84,061 22,473  
 Cases 4234 1648 517  
 Model 0 1 (ref) 1.03 (0.97–1.09) 1.28 (1.17–1.41) <0.001
 Model 1 1 (ref) 1.01 (0.96–1.07) 1.19 (1.08–1.30) 0.003
 Model 2 1 (ref) 1.01 (0.95–1.07) 1.18 (1.07–1.30) 0.005
 Model 3 1 (ref) 1.01 (0.95-1.07) 1.19 (1.08-1.31) 0.005
Artificially sweetened beverages
 Person-years 258,806 53,106 19,733  
 Cases 4952 999 448  
 Model 0 1 (ref) 1.07 (1.01–1.15) 1.42 (1.29–1.57) <0.001
 Model 1 1 (ref) 0.99 (0.92–1.06) 1.19 (1.08–1.31) 0.007
 Model 2 1 (ref) 0.98 (0.92–1.05) 1.19 (1.08–1.31) 0.008
 Model 3 1 (ref) 0.97 (0.90–1.04) 1.15 (1.04–1.27) 0.045
Pure fruit/vegetable juices
 Person-years 162,028 146,007 23,610  
 Cases 3283 2673 443  
 Model 0 1 (ref) 0.85 (0.81–0.90) 0.87 (0.78–0.96) <0.001
 Model 1 1 (ref) 0.90 (0.85–0.94) 0.90 (0.82–0.99) <0.001
 Model 2 1 (ref) 0.89 (0.84–0.94) 0.89 (0.80–0.99) <0.001
 Model 3 1 (ref) 0.90 (0.85–0.94) 0.90 (0.81–0.99) <0.001
  1. Model 0: adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, and deprivation index
  2. Model 1: adjusted for variables in model 0 and smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, sedentary time, and body mass index
  3. Model 2: adjusted for variables in model 1 and total sugar intake, energy intake, fat intake, vegetable and fruit intake, fish intake, and red meat intake
  4. Model 3: adjusted for variables in model 2 and insulin use, antihypertensive drug use, lipid-lowering drug use, and aspirin use
  5. CMM cardiometabolic multimorbidity, HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval, ref reference
  6. aP-trend was adjusted with Benjamini-Hochberg correction