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Table 3 CMM risks in patients with the specific cardiometabolic disease according to the consumption of three types of beverages in UK Biobank at 2021 (N = 37,994)

From: Associations between consumption of three types of beverages and risk of cardiometabolic multimorbidity in UK Biobank participants: a prospective cohort study

  Numbers Cases HR (95% CI)
Sugar-sweetened beverages
 Hypertension 0/day 22,356 3262 1 (ref)
01/day 8801 1336 1.04 (0.97–1.11)
>1/day 2333 426 1.22 (1.10–1.36)
 CVD 0/day 1625 499 1 (ref)
>0/day 785 233 0.98 (0.83–1.15)
 Diabetes 0/day 1534 473 1 (ref)
>0/day 560 170 0.94 (0.78–1.13)
Artificially sweetened beverages
 Hypertension 0/day 26,134 3931 1 (ref)
01/day 5413 774 0.96 (0.89–1.04)
>1/day 1943 319 1.08 (0.96–1.22)
 CVD 0/day 1970 599 1 (ref)
>0/day 440 133 1.03 (0.85–1.25)
 Diabetes 0/day 1397 422 1 (ref)
>0/day 697 221 1.09 (0.92–1.29)
Pure fruit/vegetable juices
 Hypertension 0/day 15,991 2509 1 (ref)
01/day 15,054 2146 0.91 (0.86–0.97)
>1/day 2445 369 0.92 (0.82–1.03)
 CVD 0/day 1181 396 1 (ref)
>0/day 1229 336 0.79 (0.68–0.92)
 Diabetes 0/day 1242 378 1 (ref)
>0/day 852 265 1.00 (0.85–1.17)
  1. Adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, deprivation index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, sedentary time, body mass index, total sugar intake, energy intake, fat intake, vegetable and fruit intake, fish intake, red meat intake, insulin use (diabetes only), antihypertensive drug use (hypertension only), lipid-lowering drug use, and aspirin use
  2. CMM cardiometabolic multimorbidity, HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval, CVD cardiovascular disease, ref reference