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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of the study population at the first follow-up visit

From: A retrospective database study of the demographic features and glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo

   Study population (N = 8976; 100%) Women (N = 6043; 67%) Men (N = 2933; 33%)
Demographic characteristics
Age mean ± SD
Missing data (1.1%) Years 55.2 ± 11.3 54.8 ± 11.1 56.1 ± 11.7
Age classification n (%)
Missing data (1.1%) < 40 years 752 (8.5) 521 (8.7) 231 (8.0)
40–65 years 6248 (70.4) 4294 (71.9) 1954 (67.3)
> 65 years 1873 (21.1) 1157 (19.4) 716 (24.7)
Diabetes details
Time since diagnosis n (%)
Missing data (0.9%) < 5 years 2379 (26.7) 1595 (26.6) 784 (27.0)
5–10 years 4364 (49.1) 2938 (49.1) 1426 (49.1)
11–20 years 2000 (22.5) 1369 (22.9) 631 (21.7)
> 21 years 149 (1.7) 84 (1.4) 65 (2.2)
Visits*
Median [IQR] Number of visits 3 [2–6] 3 [2–6] 3 [2–5]
Length of follow-up*
Median [IQR] Years follow-up 1.8 [0.5–3.4] 1.9 [0.6–3.4] 1.6 [0.4–3.2]
Initial treatment n (%)
Missing data (0.0%)+ OGLDs~ 2949 (32.9) 2066 (34.2) 889 (30.1)
Insulin~ 5075 (56.5) 3320 (54.9) 1755 (59.8)
Diet 296 (3.3) 195 (3.2) 101 (3.5)
OGLDs + Insulin~ 656 (7.3) 462 (7.7) 194 (6.6)
Anthropometry
Weight mean ± SD
Missing data (2.7%) kg 69.2 ± 14.5 69.0 ± 14.8 69.4 ± 13.9
Height mean ± SD
Missing data (2.0%) Metres 1.6 ± 0.1 1.6 ± 0.1 1.7 ± 0.1
BMI mean ± SD
Missing data (4.8%) kg/m2 25.9 ± 5.2 26.8 ± 5.5 24.1 ± 4.2
BMI classification n (%)
Missing data (4.8%) Underweight/normal (< 24.9) 3606 (42.0) 2045 (35.3) 1561 (56.1)
Overweight (25–29.9) 3144 (36.7) 2164 (37.3) 980 (35.3)
Obese (≥ 30) 1827 (21.3) 1587 (27.4) 240 (8.6)
Clinical parameters
Systolic blood pressure mean ± SD
Missing data (1.1%) mmHg 131.5 ± 24.1 132.7 ± 24.6 129.2 ± 23.0
Systolic blood pressure n (%)
Missing data (1.1%) Normal (< 130 mmHg) 4022 (45.3) 2610 (43.7) 1412 (48.8)
Elevated (≥130 < 140 mmHg) 1280 (14.4) 869 (14.5) 411 (14.2)
High (≥140 mmHg) 3574 (40.3) 2502 (41.8) 1072 (37.0)
Diastolic blood pressure mean ± SD
Missing data (1.1%) mmHg 78.9 ± 13.5 79.4 ± 13.7 77.7 ± 12.9
FPG*
missing data (0.0%)+ median [IQR] mg/dL 199 [135–299] 199 [136–297] 199 [133–303]
Glycemic target n (%)
Missing data (0.0%)+ Achieved (FPG < 126 mg/dL) 1807 (20.1) 1201 (19.9) 606 (20.1)
  Unachieved (FPG ≥ 126 mg/dL) 7169 (79.9) 4842 (80.1) 2327 (79.3)
  1. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, FPG fasting plasma glucose, IQR interquartile range, OGLDs oral glucose lowering drugs
  2. *Values are not normally distributed, therefore, medians and IQR are reported
  3. +Missing data equals 0.0% as patients’ information was excluded if any of the following information was not available at the first follow-up visit: date of the visit, sex, glycemic value, and treatment
  4. ~The most frequently used type of OGLDs were Metformin and Daonil. For insulin, it varied between mixed, rapid-acting, long-acting, and intermediate-acting insulin