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Table 1 Baseline characteristics according to baseline fatty liver index in the UK Biobank cohort

From: Non-alcoholic fatty liver is associated with increased risk of irritable bowel syndrome: a prospective cohort study

Characteristic Total (N = 396,838) Quartile 1 (N = 98,371) Quartile 2 (N = 99,289) Quartile 3 (N = 99,714) Quartile 4 (N = 99,464) P value
Age (years)a 56.22 ± 8.11 54.22 ± 8.21 56.63 ± 8.10 57.19 ± 7.98 56.83 ± 7.82  < 0.001
Gender        < 0.001
 Male 189,759 (47.8) 18,005 (18.3) 44,415 (44.7) 60,465 (60.6) 66,874 (67.2)  
 Female 207,079 (52.2) 80,366 (81.7) 54,874 (55.3) 39,249 (39.4) 32,590 (32.8)  
Ethnicity        < 0.001
 Non-White 22,788 (5.7) 4840 (4.9) 6078 (6.1) 6445 (6.5) 5425 (5.5)  
 White 372,582 (93.9) 93,243 (94.8) 92,834 (93.5) 92,871 (93.1) 93,634 (94.1)  
 Unknown 1468 (0.4) 288 (0.3) 377 (0.4) 398 (0.4) 405 (0.4)  
Education level        < 0.001
 Non-university 261,356 (65.9) 56,972 (57.9) 63,886 (64.3) 67,902 (68.1) 72,596 (73.0)  
 University 130,800 (33.0) 40,552 (41.2) 34,307 (34.6) 30,466 (30.6) 25,475 (25.6)  
 Unknown 4682 (1.2) 847 (0.9) 1096 (1.1) 1346 (1.3) 1393 (1.4)  
Townsend deprivation index
 Mean (SD)  − 1.30 (3.09)  − 1.51 (2.97)  − 1.46 (3.02)  − 1.35 (3.08)  − 0.90 (3.24)  < 0.001
 Q1(≤ − 3.63) 99,950 (25.2) 26,497 (26.9) 26,241 (26.4) 25,483 (25.6) 21,729 (21.8)  < 0.001
 Q2(− 3.63 to − 2.12) 99,303 (25.0) 25,220 (25.6) 25,605 (25.8) 25,311 (25.4) 23,167 (23.3)  
 Q3(− 2.12–0.58) 99,259 (25.0) 24,667 (25.1) 24,710 (24.9) 24,739 (24.8) 25,143 (25.3)  
 Q4 (> 0.58) 97,832 (24.7) 21,869 (22.2) 22,617 (22.8) 24,047 (24.1) 29,299 (29.5)  
 Unknown 494 (0.1) 118 (0.1) 116 (0.1) 134 (0.1) 126 (0.1)  
Smoking status        < 0.001
 Never 218,022 (54.9) 61,575 (62.6) 57,310 (57.7) 52,689 (52.8) 46,448 (46.7)  
 Previous 135,124 (34.1) 27,564 (28.0) 31,237 (31.5) 35,645 (35.7) 40,678 (40.9)  
 Current 41,725 (10.5) 8894 (9.0) 10,288 (10.4) 10,857 (10.9) 11,686 (11.7)  
 Unknown 1967 (0.5) 338 (0.3) 454 (0.5) 523 (0.5) 652 (0.7)  
Alcohol drinking        < 0.001
 Never 17,303 (4.4) 4221 (4.3) 4224 (4.3) 4365 (4.4) 4493 (4.5)  
 Previous 13,388 (3.4) 3058 (3.1) 2957 (3.0) 3270 (3.3) 4103 (4.1)  
 Current 365,177 (92.0) 90,914 (92.4) 91,874 (92.5) 91,812 (92.1) 90,577 (91.1)  
 Unknown 970 (0.2) 178 (0.2) 234 (0.2) 267 (0.3) 291 (0.3)  
IPAQ        < 0.001
 Low 59,637 (15.0) 10,788 (11.0) 12,741 (12.8) 15,232 (15.3) 20,876 (21.0)  
 Moderate 131,111 (33.0) 33,043 (33.6) 32,875 (33.1) 33,318 (33.4) 31,875 (32.0)  
 High 131,356 (33.1) 37,193 (37.8) 35,528 (35.8) 32,338 (32.4) 26,297 (26.4)  
 Unknown 74,734 (18.8) 17,347 (17.6) 18,145 (18.3) 18,826 (18.9) 20,416 (20.5)  
BMI        < 0.001
 < 18.5 kg/m2 1896 (0.5) 1858 (1.9) 31 (0.0) 7 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
 18.5–24.9 kg/m2 124,057 (31.3) 79,531 (80.8) 35,633 (35.9) 8257 (8.3) 636 (0.6)  
 25.0–29.9 kg/m2 171,674 (43.3) 16,904 (17.2) 59,704 (60.1) 68,734 (68.9) 26,332 (26.5)  
 ≥ 30 kg/m2 99,211 (25.0) 78 (0.1) 3921 (3.9) 22,716 (22.8) 72,496 (72.9)  
 Diabetes 10,014 (2.5) 437 (0.4) 1159 (1.2) 2281 (2.3) 6137 (6.2)  < 0.001
 WC (cm)a 90.47 (13.43) 75.31 (6.29) 86.02 (6.01) 94.10 (6.20) 106.24 (9.84)  < 0.001
 TG (mg/dL)a 154.40(91.02) 90.82 (33.99) 127.80(51.69) 168.45(73.41) 229.75(115.16)  < 0.001
 GGT (U/L)b 26.40 (18.60, 41.00) 17.30 (14.10, 22.20) 23.00 (18.00, 31.10) 30.60 (23.00, 43.50) 44.30 (30.80, 69.10)  < 0.001
 ALT (U/L)b 20.25 (15.47, 27.57) 15.50 (12.60, 19.20) 18.60 (15.00, 23.50) 22.40 (17.70, 29.00) 28.10 (21.20, 38.20)  < 0.001
 AST (U/L)b 24.40 (21.00, 28.90) 22.50 (19.60, 26.10) 23.70 (20.70, 27.50) 25.00 (21.60, 29.20) 27.00 (22.90, 32.70)  < 0.001
 FLIa 48.29 (30.07) 10.76 (4.98) 32.52 (7.66) 61.12 (8.53) 88.26 (6.97)  < 0.001
 FLI ≥ 60 153,203 (38.6) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 53,739 (53.9) 99,464 (100.0)  < 0.001
 HSIa 35.60 (5.87) 30.21 (2.78) 33.42 (3.10) 36.48 (3.54) 42.25 (5.42)  < 0.001
 HSI > 36 163,136 (41.3) 2012 (2.1) 19,663 (19.9) 52,180 (52.5) 89,281 (90.3)  < 0.001
  1. Note: Numbers are n (%) unless otherwise stated
  2. IPAQ International Physical Activity Questionnaire, BMI body mass index, WC waist circumstance, TG triglycerides, GGT gamma-glutamyltransferase, ALT alanine aminotransferase, AST aspartate aminotransferase, FLI fatty liver index, HSI hepatic steatosis index
  3. adisplayed as mean ± standard deviation
  4. bdisplayed as median (interquartile range)