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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of women with PCOS and age-matched controls

From: Polycystic ovary syndrome and risk of adverse obstetric outcomes: a retrospective population-based matched cohort study in England

  Primary analysis
Variables Deliveries of women with PCOS* Age-matched deliveries of women without PCOS
All (n = 27,586) (n = 110,344)
Age at delivery [mean (SD)] 30.86 (5.38) 30.85 (5.33)
Age at delivery [median (IQR)] 30.00 (26.00–34.00) 31.00 (27.00–34.00)
Age categories, n(%)
  14–19 years 467 (1.69) 1802 (1.63)
  20–29 years 11,537 (41.82) 45,596 (41.32)
  30–39 years 14,357 (52.04) 58,313 (52.85)
  40–50 years 1225 (4.44) 4633 (4.20)
Pre-gravid BMI [mean (SD)] 26.54 (6.38) 25.11 (5.43)
Pre-gravid BMI [median (IQR)] 24.00 (21.00–30.00) 23.00 (21.00–27.00)
BMI categories, n(%)
   < 25 kg/m2 13,055 (47.32) 59,799 (54.19)
  25–29.9 kg/m2 6493 (23.54) 25,103 (22.75)
  30–34.9 kg/m2 3667 (13.29) 10,423 (9.45)
  35–39.9 kg/m2 1882 (6.82) 4023 (3.65)
   ≥ 40 kg/m2 1013 (3.67) 2002 (1.81)
  Missing 1476 (5.35) 8994 (8.15)
IMD, n(%)
  1 (most deprived) 3334 (12.09) 12,989 (11.77)
  2 2795 (10.13) 11,052 (10.02)
  3 2706 (9.81) 11,215 (10.16)
  4 2637 (9.56) 11,031 (10.00)
  5 2973 (10.78) 11,782 (10.68)
  6 2578 (9.35) 10,165 (9.21)
  7 2547 (9.23) 10,557 (9.57)
  8 2696 (9.77) 10,319 (9.35)
  9 2693 (9.76) 10,353 (9.38)
  10 (least deprived) 2607 (9.45) 10,793 (9.78)
  Missing 19 (0.07) 81 (0.07)
Ethnicity, n(%)
  White 13,343 (48.37) 50,894 (46.12)
  South Asian 1465 (5.31) 3638 (3.30)
  Black Afro-Caribbean 1567 (5.68) 5315 (4.82)
  Mixed or multiple ethnicity 170 (0.62) 651 (0.59)
  Others 721 (2.61) 2561 (2.32)
  Missing 10,320 (37.41) 47,285 (42.85)
Record of symptoms and measurements at baseline, n(%)
  PCO 12,706 (46.06) 0 (0)
  Hair loss 2898 (10.51) 2645 (2.40)
  Hirsutism 1825 (6.62) 645 (0.58)
  Anovulation 17,852 (64.71) 10,845 (9.83)
  High testosterone (serum testosterone level ≥ 2.0 nmol/L) 3250 (11.78) 467 (0.42)
Other comorbidities, n(%)
  Type 2 diabetes 675 (2.45) 1259 (1.14)
  Prediabetes 1123 (4.07) 2038 (1.85)
  Hypertension 489 (1.77) 1230 (1.11)
  Thyroid disorders 1105 (4.01) 2403 (2.18)
Number of babies at the delivery,n(%)
  1 27,163 (98.47) 108,446 (98.28)
  2 409 (1.48) 1864 (1.69)
  3 14 (0.05) 30 (0.03)
  4 0 (0) 4 (0.00)
  1. *Record of PCOS/PCO/conglomeration of symptom codes indicating a missed PCOS diagnosis based on Rotterdam criteria [two of the three symptoms recorded: (1) PCO, (2) anovulation and (3) biochemical or symptomatic presentation of hyperandrogenism]. Read code record of hair loss or hirsutism and a recorded measure of serum testosterone level ≥ 2.0 nmol/L was considered as symptomatic and biochemical presentation of hyperandrogenism, respectively]
  2. PCOS Polycystic ovary syndrome, PCO Polycystic ovaries, SD Standard deviation, IQR Interquartile range, BMI Body Mass Index, IMD Index of multiple deprivation