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Table 1 Sample characteristics of individuals with and without mental disorders

From: Frailty in individuals with depression, bipolar disorder and anxiety disorders: longitudinal analyses of all-cause mortality

  Depression Bipolar disorder Anxiety disorder No mental disorder
N=76586 N=3029 N=37779 N=220794
Age
 Mean (SD) 55.13 (7.92) 54.31 (8.00) 55.72 (7.89) 56.43 (8.15)
Sex
 Female 50040 (65.3%) 1710 (56.5%) 24944 (66.0%) 109447 (49.6%)
 Male 26546 (34.7%) 1319 (43.5%) 12835 (34.0%) 111347 (50.4%)
Neighbourhood deprivation
 Mean (SD) − 1.48 (2.91) − 1.10 (3.02) − 1.62 (2.87) − 1.78 (2.83)
Ethnicity
 White 73868 (96.5%) 2855 (94.3%) 36754 (97.3%) 209251 (94.8%)
 Mixed-race 522 (0.7%) 28 (0.9%) 191 (0.5%) 1105 (0.5%)
 Black 613 (0.8%) 41 (1.4%) 248 (0.7%) 3280 (1.5%)
 Asian 955 (1.2%) 67 (2.2%) 351 (0.9%) 4521 (2.0%)
 Chinese 120 (0.2%) 6 (0.2%) 42 (0.1%) 822 (0.4%)
 Other 508 (0.7%) 32 (1.1%) 193 (0.5%) 1815 (0.8%)
Highest qualification
 None 10642 (13.9%) 316 (10.4%) 5197 (13.8%) 35669 (16.2%)
 O levels/GCSEs/CSEs 21309 (27.8%) 794 (26.2%) 10465 (27.7%) 61512 (27.9%)
 A levels/NVQ/HND/HNCa 18105 (23.6%) 714 (23.6%) 8931 (23.6%) 51268 (23.2%)
 Degree 26530 (34.6%) 1205 (39.8%) 13186 (34.9%) 72345 (32.8%)
Spouse/partner cohabitation
 No 10864 (14.2%) 521 (17.2%) 4736 (12.5%) 19148 (8.7%)
 Yes 65722 (85.8%) 2508 (82.8%) 33043 (87.5%) 201646 (91.3%)
Smoking status
 Never 39622 (51.7%) 1408 (46.5%) 19868 (52.6%) 126857 (57.5%)
 Former 28321 (37.0%) 1122 (37.0%) 14128 (37.4%) 75365 (34.1%)
 Current 8643 (11.3%) 499 (16.5%) 3783 (10.0%) 18572 (8.4%)
Alcohol intake frequency
 Never 6242 (8.2%) 329 (10.9%) 3163 (8.4%) 14311 (6.5%)
 Special occasions 9487 (12.4%) 410 (13.5%) 4552 (12.0%) 21354 (9.7%)
 1–3/month 9314 (12.2%) 352 (11.6%) 4256 (11.3%) 22680 (10.3%)
 1–2/week 19101 (24.9%) 724 (23.9%) 9271 (24.5%) 59197 (26.8%)
 3–4/week 16966 (22.2%) 578 (19.1%) 8554 (22.6%) 55923 (25.3%)
 Daily/almost daily 15476 (20.2%) 636 (21.0%) 7983 (21.1%) 47329 (21.4%)
Body mass index
 Mean (SD) 27.68 (5.07) 28.15 (5.37) 27.36 (4.96) 27.19 (4.44)
Systolic blood pressure
 Mean (SD) 135.00 (18.15) 133.79 (17.61) 135.89 (18.34) 138.64 (18.61)
Diastolic blood pressure
 Mean (SD) 81.54 (10.06) 81.53 (10.15) 81.66 (10.02) 82.50 (10.06)
Cholesterol
 Mean (SD) 5.72 (1.14) 5.67 (1.15) 5.74 (1.13) 5.70 (1.13)
Multimorbidity count
 None 12689 (16.6%) 380 (12.5%) 5930 (15.7%) 62516 (28.3%)
 One 18249 (23.8%) 651 (21.5%) 8790 (23.3%) 62660 (28.4%)
 Two 15760 (20.6%) 620 (20.5%) 7939 (21.0%) 43558 (19.7%)
 Three 11656 (15.2%) 516 (17.0%) 5934 (15.7%) 25471 (11.5%)
 Four 7485 (9.8%) 342 (11.3%) 3784 (10.0%) 13374 (6.1%)
 Five or more 10747 (14.0%) 520 (17.2%) 5402 (14.3%) 13215 (6.0%)
Antidepressant use
 No 60326 (78.8%) 2175 (71.8%) 29869 (79.1%) 220794 (100.0%)
 Yes 16260 (21.2%) 854 (28.2%) 7910 (20.9%) 0 (0.0%)
Antipsychotic use
 No 76276 (99.6%) 2827 (93.3%) 37586 (99.5%) 220794 (100.0%)
 Yes 310 (0.4%) 202 (6.7%) 193 (0.5%) 0 (0.0%)
Lithium use
 No 76486 (99.9%) 2755 (91.0%) 37740 (99.9%) 220794 (100.0%)
 Yes 100 (0.1%) 274 (9.0%) 39 (0.1%) 0 (0.0%)
Frailty phenotype
 Non-frail 35473 (46.3%) 1284 (42.4%) 18007 (47.7%) 125980 (57.1%)
 Pre-frail 37549 (49.0%) 1579 (52.1%) 18199 (48.2%) 90881 (41.2%)
 Frail 3564 (4.7%) 166 (5.5%) 1573 (4.2%) 3933 (1.8%)
Frailty phenotype count
 None 35473 (46.3%) 1284 (42.4%) 18007 (47.7%) 125980 (57.1%)
 One 27560 (36.0%) 1143 (37.7%) 13578 (35.9%) 72679 (32.9%)
 Two 9989 (13.0%) 436 (14.4%) 4621 (12.2%) 18202 (8.2%)
 Three 2870 (3.7%) 134 (4.4%) 1264 (3.3%) 3376 (1.5%)
 Four 632 (0.8%) 30 (1.0%) 277 (0.7%) 523 (0.2%)
 Five 62 (0.1%) 2 (0.1%) 32 (0.1%) 34 (0.0%)
 Mean (SD) 0.77 (0.88) 0.84 (0.91) 0.74 (0.86) 0.55 (0.73)
Frailty index
 Mean (SD) 0.15 (0.08) 0.17 (0.08) 0.15 (0.08) 0.10 (0.06)
Frailty index categories
 Non-frail 14397 (18.8%) 445 (14.7%) 6641 (17.6%) 88189 (39.9%)
 Pre-frail 53280 (69.6%) 2098 (69.3%) 26581 (70.4%) 125648 (56.9%)
 Frail 8909 (11.6%) 486 (16.0%) 4557 (12.1%) 6957 (3.2%)
  1. SD standard deviation, GCSEs general certificate of secondary education, CSE certificate of secondary education, NVQ national vocational qualification, HND higher national diploma, HNC higher national certificate
  2. aAlso includes ‘other professional qualifications’
  3. Cut-offs for frailty index categories were non frail (≤ 0.08), pre-frail (> 0.08 and < 0.25) and frail (≥ 0.25)