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Table 3 Associations of regular PPI use with incident dementia in propensity score matching model

From: Regular proton pump inhibitor use and incident dementia: population-based cohort study

Outcomes PPI non-users (n = 107,470) PPI users (n = 53,735) PSM model 3a
No. of events (%) No. of events (%) HR (95% CI) P-value
All-cause dementia 907 (0.84) 497 (0.92) 1.22 (1.08–1.37) 0.001
Alzheimer’s disease 321 (0.30) 180 (0.33) 1.25 (1.02–1.52) 0.028
Vascular dementia 223 (0.21) 132 (0.25) 1.30 (1.03–1.65) 0.028
  1. Abbreviations: PPI proton pump inhibitor, PSM propensity score matching, HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. aPropensity scores were derived from logistic regression, which included age, sex, ethnicity, education, household income, Townsend deprivation index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, BMI, occupational exposure, hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes, high cholesterol, stroke, traumatic brain injury, depression, anxiety, sleep apnea, cancer, GERD, Barrett’s esophagus, gastroduodenal ulcer, and regular use of medications (statin, antihypertensive drugs, anticholinergic drugs, benzodiazepines, z-hypnotics, aspirin, non-aspirin NSAIDs, multivitamin, and H2RA use)