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Table 3 Associations of regular PPI use with incident dementia in propensity score matching model

From: Regular proton pump inhibitor use and incident dementia: population-based cohort study


PPI non-users (n = 107,470)

PPI users (n = 53,735)

PSM model 3a

No. of events (%)

No. of events (%)

HR (95% CI)


All-cause dementia

907 (0.84)

497 (0.92)

1.22 (1.08–1.37)


Alzheimer’s disease

321 (0.30)

180 (0.33)

1.25 (1.02–1.52)


Vascular dementia

223 (0.21)

132 (0.25)

1.30 (1.03–1.65)


  1. Abbreviations: PPI proton pump inhibitor, PSM propensity score matching, HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. aPropensity scores were derived from logistic regression, which included age, sex, ethnicity, education, household income, Townsend deprivation index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, BMI, occupational exposure, hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes, high cholesterol, stroke, traumatic brain injury, depression, anxiety, sleep apnea, cancer, GERD, Barrett’s esophagus, gastroduodenal ulcer, and regular use of medications (statin, antihypertensive drugs, anticholinergic drugs, benzodiazepines, z-hypnotics, aspirin, non-aspirin NSAIDs, multivitamin, and H2RA use)