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Table 2 Key studies evaluating the LFD in IBS

From: Diet and irritable bowel syndrome: an update from a UK consensus meeting

Lead author Year Study design Study duration Total number of participants Outcome
Short term
 Staudacher [45] 2012 RCT 4 weeks 41 IBS patients (Rome III) 68% response to LFD vs 23% on habitual diet (p = 0.005)
 Pedersen [46] 2014 RCT 6 weeks 123 IBS patients (Rome III) Significant reduction in IBS-SSS on LFD compared to normal Danish/Western diet (133 vs 68, p < 0.01)
 Halmos [47] 2014 RCT 3 weeks 30 IBS patients (Rome III) Lower overall gastrointestinal symptom scores on a LFD compared to Australian diet (23 vs 45, p < 0.001)
 Bohn [48] 2015 RCT 4 weeks 75 IBS patients (Rome III) 50% clinical response to LFD
 Eswaran [49] 2016 RCT 4 weeks 92 IBS-D patients (Rome III) 52% reported adequate relief of symptoms
 Zahedi [50] 2017 RCT 6 weeks 110 IBS-D patients (Rome III) Significant reduction in IBS-SSS following LFD (264 vs 108, p < 0.001)
 Patcharatrakul [51] 2019 RCT 4 weeks 70 IBS patients (Rome III) Global IBS symptom severity score using VAS were significantly lower following LFD compared to commonly recommended diet (39 vs 54, p < 0.01)
 Goyal [52] 2021 RCT 16 weeks 101 IBS-D patients (Rome IV) 63% response to LFD at week 4 and 53% response at week 16
Long term
 de Roest [53] 2013 Observational 16 months 90 IBS patients (Definition not stated) Most symptoms including abdominal pain, bloating, flatulence and diarrhoea improved following LFD (p < 0.001)
 Peters [54] 2016 RCT 6 months 74 IBS patients (Rome III) 82% improvement noted following LFD relative to baseline symptoms at 6 months
 O’Keeffe [55] 2017 Prospective 6-18 months 74 IBS patients (Rome III) 57% reported satisfactory relief at long term following LFD
 Weynants [56] 2020 Retrospective 100 weeks 90 IBS patients (Rome III) Patients following the LFD reported less abdominal pain than those who had stopped following the diet (p = 0.044)
 Bellini [57] 2020 Prospective 6-24 months 73 IBS patients (Rome IV) Clinical response reported at 83% in those who continued LFD at long term
 Rej [58] 2021 Observational 44 months 205 IBS patients (Rome III) 60% reported satisfactory relief at long term following LFD
  1. Total number of studies (short term); n = 8, total number of participants; n = 642
  2. Total number of studies (long term); n = 6, total number of participants; n = 606