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Table 1 Characteristics of individuals with gestational diabetes at Kaiser Permanente Northern California, 2007–2017

From: Development and validation of prediction models for gestational diabetes treatment modality using supervised machine learning: a population-based cohort study

  All (2007–2017) Discovery set (2007–2016) Temporal validation set (2017) P value1
n = 30,474 n = 27,240 n = 3234
Age at childbirth, mean (SD), y      < 0.001
 15–24 1624 (5.3) 1497 (5.5) 127 (3.9)  
 25–29 6057 (19.9) 5522 (20.3) 535 (16.5)  
 30–34 11,295 (37.1) 10,018 (36.8) 1277 (39.5)  
 ≥ 35 11,498 (37.7) 10,203 (37.5) 1295 (40.0)  
Race/Ethnicity, n (%)     0.028
 White 6866 (22.5) 6174 (22.7) 692 (21.4)  
 Hispanic 8506 (27.9) 7655 (28.1) 851 (26.3)  
 African American 1319 (4.3) 1174 (4.3) 145 (4.5)  
 Asian/Pacific Islander 12,377 (40.6) 10,990 (40.3) 1387 (42.9)  
 Other 1406 (4.6) 1247 (4.6) 159 (4.9)  
Pre-pregnancy body mass index, kg/m2, n (%)      < 0.001
 Underweight 399 (1.3) 344 (1.3) 55 (1.7)  
 Normal 6850 (22.5) 6147 (22.6) 703 (21.7)  
 Overweight 10,095 (33.1) 9106 (33.4) 989 (30.6)  
 Obese 13,130 (43.1) 11,643 (42.7) 1487 (46.0)  
Median household income, annual, n (%)      < 0.001
 < $25,000 813 (2.7) 562 (2.1) 251 (7.8)  
 $25,000–39,999 2816 (9.2) 2495 (9.2) 321 (9.9)  
 $40,000–59,999 7169 (23.5) 6463 (23.7) 706 (21.8)  
 $60,000–79,999 7796 (25.6) 7010 (25.7) 786 (24.3)  
 ≥ $80,000 11,880 (39.0) 10,710 (39.3) 1170 (36.2)  
 Nulliparity, n (%) 12,419 (40.8) 11,117 (40.8) 1302 (40.3) 0.559
 Gestational age at delivery, mean (SD), weeks 38.3 (1.9) 38.3 (1.9) 38.2 (1.9) 0.05
  1. 1Obtained by Student’s t test for continuous variables or Pearson’s chi-squared test for categorical variables