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Table 1 Basic characteristics of the included diabetes RCTs published between 2000 and 2020

From: Twenty-year trends in racial and ethnic enrollment in large diabetes randomized controlled trials

Trial characteristics Overall RCTs (n = 405)
Year of publication: n (%)
 2000–2004 36 (8.9)
 2005–2009 97 (24.0)
 2010–2014 135 (33.3)
 2015–2020 137 (33.8)
Multi-country trials: n (%) 327 (80.7)
Sample size: median (Q1, Q3) 716 (527, 1246)
Age: median (Q1, Q3), years 58 (55.0, 60.8)
Female proportion: n (%) 46 (39.9, 50.1)
Trial aim: n (%)
 Glycemic control 125 (30.9)
 Management 173 (42.7)
 Complication 105 (25.9)
 Mixed 2 (0.5)
Trial reimbursement for patients: n (%) 0
Outpatient enrolment: n (%) 164 (40.4)
Type of diabetes: n (%)  
 Type 1 diabetes 16 (4.0)
 Type 2 diabetes 346 (85.4)
 Unspecified 43 (10.6)
Type of randomization: n (%)
 Individual 399 (98.5)
 Cluster 6 (1.5)
Type of intervention: n (%)
 Drug 347 (85.7)
 Lifestyle or education 13 (3.2)
 Device 8 (2.0)
 Others 37 (9.1)
Frequency of intervention: n (%)
 > 1 time/week 325 (80.2)
 1 ~ 4 times/month 11 (2.7)
 > 1 time/ year 3 (0.7)
 Not reported 66 (16.4)
Duration of intervention: median (Q1, Q3), months 6.5 (6.0, 13.5)
Type of follow-up: n (%)
 Face-to-face 231 (57.0)
 Telephone 11 (2.7)
 Others 33 (8.1)
 Not reported 130 (32.2)
Frequency of follow-up: n (%)
 Weekly 6 (1.5)
 Monthly 32 (7.9)
 Yearly 29 (7.2)
 Not reported 338 (83.4)
Duration of follow-up: median (Q1, Q3), months 12 (6.0, 18.0)
Funding sourcen (%)
 Public 67 (16.5)
 Industry 304 (75.0)
 Combination 28 (6.9)
 Not reported 6 (1.6)
  1. RCT randomized controlled trial, Q1 first quartile, Q3 third quartile