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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the DIRECT-PLUS study population* (n = 286)

From: The effect of high-polyphenol Mediterranean diet on visceral adiposity: the DIRECT PLUS randomized controlled trial

 

HDG (n = 98)

MED (n = 96)

Green-MED (n = 92)

Entire (n = 286)

Men, % of the study population

86 (87.8%)

85 (88.5%)

81 (88.0%)

252 (88.1%)

Age, years

51.1 (10.6)

51.5 (10.5)

49.8 (10.1)

50.8 (10.4)

BMI, kg/m2

31.2 (3.8)

31.2 (4.0)

31.2 (4.0)

31.2 (3.9)

WC, cm

 Men

110.7 (10.1)

110.7 (9.4)

110.0 (7.3)

110.5 (9.0)

 Women

103.8 (9.7)

104.9 (10.0)

100.8 (9.9)

103.2 (9.7)

Blood pressure, mmHg

 Diastolic

80.2 (11.3)

81.8 (8.9)

81.0 (10.0)

81.0 (10.1)

 Systolic

130.2 (14.3)

130.1 (12.5)

129.8 (15.1)

130.1 (13.9)

Blood biomarkers

 Ratio of triglycerides to HDL cholesterol

3.8 (2.5)

3.6 (2.1)

3.4 (2.0)

3.6 (2.2)

 Serum LDL cholesterol, mg/dL

126.8 (32.3)

127.1 (31.3)

124.0 (28.6)

126.0 (30.7)

 Ratio of LDL to HDL cholesterol

2.9 (0.9)

2.9 (1.0)

2.9 (1.0)

2.9 (1.0)

Serum HDL cholesterol, mg/dL

 Men

43.4 (9.9)

46.0 (10.0)

43.0 (10.7)

44.2 (10.2)

 Women

59.6 (12.6)

53.5 (16.2)

62.0 (13.4)

58.4 (14.1)

 Fasting glucose, mg/dL

102.1 (17.7)

100.6 (13.4)

102.9 (20.0)

101.8 (17.2)

 Fasting insulin, μIU/mL

15.3 (9.0)

14.4 (7.1)

14.1 (7.3

14.6 (7.9)

 HOMA-IR

4.0 (2.8)

3.6 (1.9)

3.6 (2.2)

3.7 (2.3)

 HbA1C

    

 %

5.5 (0.7)

5.4 (0.5)

5.5 (0.7)

5.5 (0.7)

 mmol/mol

37 (7.3)

36 (4.3)

37 (7.3)

37 (7.3)

 C-reactive protein, mg/L

3.0 (2.1)

3.1 (1.8)

3.0 (2.1)

3.0 (2.0)

 Chemerin, ng/mL

205.9 (44.1)

208.6 (43.4)

207.7 (42.7)

207.4 (43.3)

 Leptin, ng/mL

13.7 (12.2)

15.0 (12.4)

14.3 (11.9)

14.3 (12.1)

Abdominal adipose tissue area, cm2

 Visceral adipose tissue, cm2

134.3 (49.3)

130.5 (43.6)

130.4 (53.7)

131.8 (48.8)

 Deep subcutaneous adipose tissue, cm2

218.5 (73.1)

217.6 (62.8)

212.6 (64.7)

216.3 (66.9)

 Superficial subcutaneous adipose tissue, cm2

115.3 (45.9)

117.1 (45.5)

114.3 (55.3)

115.6 (49.0)

Proportion, %

 Visceral adipose tissue

  Men

30.3 (8.6)

28.6 (7.4)

30.7 (9.6)

29.9 (8.6)

  Women

19.6 (3.1)

24.4 (7.3)

16.6 (6.8)

19.9 (6.5)

 Deep subcutaneous adipose tissue

  Men

46.5 (6.1)

47.6 (5.8)

46.7 (6.7)

46.9 (6.2)

  Women

45.3 (3.2)

39.6 (8.9)

43.3 (5.8)

43.0 (6.3)

 Superficial subcutaneous adipose tissue

  Men

23.2 (5.4)

23.8 (5.4)

22.6 (5.7)

23.2 (5.5)

  Women

35.1 (3.5)

35.9 (6.0)

40.1 (8.5)

37.0 (6.5)

  1. Significance between the groups was assessed according to the ANOVA/Kruskal-Wallis test for continuous variables and chi-square for categorical variables
  2. BMI body mass index, HDG healthy dietary guidelines, HDL-c high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HOMA-IR homeostatic model of insulin resistance, LDL-c low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, MED Mediterranean, WC waist circumference
  3. *Values are presented as mean (standard deviations) for continuous variables and as number and % for categorical variables. A total of 286 available abdominal adipose tissue MRI
  4. The visceral adipose tissue proportion among the women population was significant across the groups (p = 0.02) between the green-MED and the MED groups