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Table 3 Similarities in immunoinflammatory pathways between encephalomyelitis disseminata/multiple sclerosis (ED/MS) and myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS)

From: Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome and encephalomyelitis disseminata/multiple sclerosis show remarkable levels of similarity in phenomenology and neuroimmune characteristics

Immunoinflammatory pathways ED/MS ME/CFS
Raised levels of proinflammatory cytokines, for example, interleukin (IL) 1 and tumor necrosis factor-α
Increased nuclear factor κB
Increased cyclo-oxygenase 2
Raised IL-2
Raised IL-10
Raised transforming growth factor β
Coexistence of a T helper (Th)1 and Th2 response
Elevated osteopontin levels
Temporal variation in cytokine profile
Elevated neopterin
T regulatory (Treg) dysfunction
Forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) dysfunction
Clonal exhaustion of T cells
Elevated CD26
CD69 expression
Low natural killer cell activity
Chronic activation of immunoinflammatory pathways