Schematic of neutrophil extracellular trap release. Activation of NADPH-oxidase causes reactive oxygen species generation (1). Granule components neutrophil elastase and myeloperoxidase are released. The enzyme peptidyl arginine deiminase, type IV is activated and acts to hypercitrullinate the nuclear chromatin (2). The nucleus disintegrates and DNA/histones are extruded through the cell membrane resulting in NETosis (3). NET components are able to trap microorganisms and expose them to increased local concentrations of destructive enzymes. NET, neutrophil extracellular traps.