Barnes PJ: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a growing but neglected global epidemic. PLoS Med. 2007, 4: e112.
Lopez AD, Shibuya K, Rao C, Mathers CD, Hansell AL, Held LS, Schmid V, Buist S: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: current burden and future projections. Eur Respir J. 2006, 27: 397-412.
Wedzicha JA, Seemungal TA: COPD exacerbations: defining their cause and prevention. Lancet. 2007, 370: 786-796.
Nannini L, Cates C, Lasserson T, Poole P: Combined corticosteroid and long-acting beta-agonist in one inhaler versus placebo for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007, 4: CD003794.
Yang IA, Fong KM, Sim EH, Black PN, Lasserson TJ: Inhaled corticosteroids for stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007, 2: CD002991.
Wilt TJ, Niewoehner D, Macdonald R, Kane RL: Management of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review for a clinical practice guideline. Ann Intern Med. 2007, 147: 639-653.
Tunis SR, Stryer DB, Clancy CM: Practical clinical trials: increasing the value of clinical research for decision making in clinical and health policy. Jama. 2003, 290: 1624-1632.
Rothman KJ, Michels KB: The continuing unethical use of placebo controls. New Engl J Med. 1994, 331: 394-398.
American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society: Standards for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. 2007, [http://www.ers-education.org/pages/default.aspx?id=725]
Suissa S, McGhan R, Niewoehner D, Make B: Inhaled corticosteroids in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2007, 4: 535-542.
Nannini L, Cates C, Lasserson T, Poole P: Combined corticosteroid and long-acting beta-agonist in one inhaler versus long-acting beta-agonists for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007, 4: CD006829.
Nannini L, Cates C, Lasserson T, Poole P: Combined corticosteroid and long-acting beta-agonist in one inhaler versus inhaled steroids for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007, 4: CD006826.
Berlin JA, Santanna J, Schmid CH, Szczech LA, Feldman HI: Individual patient-versus group-level data meta-regressions for the investigation of treatment effect modifiers: ecological bias rears its ugly head. Stat Med. 2002, 21: 371-387.
Calverley PM, Anderson JA, Celli B, Ferguson GT, Jenkins C, Jones PW, Yates JC, Vestbo J: Salmeterol and fluticasone propionate and survival in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. New Engl J Med. 2007, 356: 775-789.
Caldwell DM, Ades AE, Higgins JP: Simultaneous comparison of multiple treatments: combining direct and indirect evidence. BMJ. 2005, 331: 897-900.
Bucher HC, Guyatt GH, Griffith LE, Walter SD: The results of direct and indirect treatment comparisons in meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Clin Epidemiol. 1997, 50: 683-691.
Lu G, Ades AE: Combination of direct and indirect evidence in mixed treatment comparisons. Stat Med. 2004, 23: 3105-3124.
Lumley T: Network meta-analysis for indirect treatment comparisons. Stat Med. 2002, 21: 2313-2324.
Suissa S: Statistical treatment of exacerbations in therapeutic trials of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006, 173: 842-846.
Aaron SD, Vandemheen KL, Fergusson D, Maltais F, Bourbeau J, Goldstein R, Balter M, O'Donnell D, McIvor A, Sharma S, Bishop G, Anthony J, Cowie R, Field S, Hirsch A, Hernandez P, Rivington R, Road J, Hoffstein V, Hodder R, Marciniuk D, McCormack D, Fox G, Cox G, Prins HB, Ford G, Bleskie D, Doucette S, Mayers I, Chapman K, Zamel N, FitzGerald M, Canadian Thoracic Society/Canadian Respiratory Clinical Research Consortium: Tiotropium in combination with placebo, salmeterol, or fluticasone-salmeterol for treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2007, 146: 545-555.
Beeh KM, Beier J, Buhl R, Stark-Lorenzen P, Gerken F, Metzdorf N: Efficacy of tiotropium bromide (Spiriva) in patients with chronic-obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) of different severities. Pneumologie. 2006, 341-346.
Bourbeau J, Rouleau MY, Boucher S: Randomised controlled trial of inhaled corticosteroids in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thorax. 1998, 53: 477-482.
Boyd G, Morice AH, Pounsford JC, Siebert M, Peslis N, Crawford C: An evaluation of salmeterol in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Eur Respir J. 1997, 10: 815-821.
Brusasco V, Hodder R, Miravitlles M, Korducki L, Towse L, Kesten S: Health outcomes following treatment for six months with once daily tiotropium compared with twice daily salmeterol in patients with COPD. Thorax. 2003, 58: 399-404.
Burge PS, Calverley PMA, Jones PW, Spencer S, Anderson JA, Maslen TK: Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled study of fluticasone propionate in patients with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: The ISOLDE trial. BMJ. 2000, 320: 1297-1303.
Calverley P, Pauwels R, Vestbo J, Jones P, Pride N, Gulsvik A, Anderson J, Maden C: Combined salmeterol and fluticasone in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2003, 361: 449-456.
Calverley PM, Boonsawat W, Cseke Z, Zhong N, Peterson S, Olsson H: Maintenance therapy with budesonide and formoterol in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Eur Respir J. 2003, 22: 912-919.
Calverley PM, Lee A, Towse L, van NJ, Witek TJ, Kelsen S: Effect of tiotropium bromide on circadian variation in airflow limitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thorax. 2003, 58: 855-860.
Campbell M, Eliraz A, Johansson G, Tornling G, Nihlen U, Bengtsson T, Rabe KF: Formoterol for maintenance and as-needed treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Respir Med. 2005, 99: 1511-1520.
Celli B, Halpin D, Hepburn R, Byrne N, Keating ET, Goldman M: Symptoms are an important outcome in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease clinical trials: results of a 3-month comparative study using the Breathlessness, Cough and Sputum Scale (BCSS). Respir Med. 2003, 97 (Suppl A): S35-43.
Chapman KR, Arvidsson P, Chuchalin AG, Dhillon DP, Faurschou P, Goldstein RS, Kuipers AF, International study group: The addition of salmeterol 50 mug bid to anticholinergic treatment in patients with COPD: A randomized, placebo controlled trial. Can Respir J. 2002, 3: 178-185.
Covelli H, Bhattacharya S, Cassino C, Conoscenti C, Kesten S: Absence of electrocardiographic findings and improved function with once-daily tiotropium in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Pharmacotherapy. 2005, 25: 1708-1718.
Dahl R, Greefhorst LA, Nowak D, Nonikov V, Byrne AM, Thomson MH, Till D, Della CG, Formoterol in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary D: Inhaled formoterol dry powder versus ipratropium bromide in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001, 164: 778-784.
Dusser D, Bravo M-L, Iacono P, on behalf the MISTRAL study group: The effect of tiotropium on exacerbations and airflow in patients with COPD. Eur Respir J. 2006, 27 (3): 547-555.
Donohue JF, Van Noord JA, Bateman ED, Langley SJ, Lee A, Witek TJ, Kesten S, Towse L: A 6-month, placebo-controlled study comparing lung function and health status changes in COPD patients treated with tiotropium or salmeterol. Chest. 2002, 1: 47-55.
Littner MR, Ilowite JS, Tashkin DP, Friedman M, Serby CW, Menjoge SS, Witek TJ: Long-acting bronchodilation with once-daily dosing of tiotropium (Spiriva) in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000, 161: 1136-42.
Mahler DA, Donohue JF, Barbee RA, Goldman MD, Gross NJ, Wisniewski ME, Yancey SW, Zakes BA, Rickard KA, Anderson WH: Efficacy of salmeterol xinafoate in the treatment of COPD. Chest. 1999, 115: 957-965.
Mahler DA, Wire P, Horstman D, Chang C, Yates J, Fischer T, Shah T: Effectiveness of fluticasone propionate and salmeterol combination delivered via the Diskus device in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002, 166: 1084-1091.
Niewoehner DE, Rice K, Cote C, Paulson D, Cooper JA, Korducki L, Cassino C, Kesten S: Prevention of exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with tiotropium, a once-daily inhaled anticholinergic bronchodilator: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2005, 143: 317-326.
Paggiaro PL, Dahle R, Bakran I, Frith L, Hollingworth K, Efthimiou J: Multicentre randomised placebo-controlled trial of inhaled fluticasone propionate in patients with chronic obstructuve pulmonary disease. Lancet. 1998, 351: 773-780.
Paggiaro PL, Vagaggini B, Di FA, Zingoni M, Fano M, Biraghi M: Efficacy of nebulized flunisolide combined with salbutamol and ipratropium bromide in stable patients with moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Respiration. 2006, 73 (5): 603-609.
Rossi A, Kristufek P, Levine BE, Thomson MH, Till D, Kottakis J, Della CG: Comparison of the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of formoterol dry powder and oral, slow-release theophylline in the treatment of COPD. Chest. 2002, 121: 1058-1069.
Stockley RA, Chopra N, Rice L: Addition of salmeterol to existing treatment in patients with COPD: a 12 month study. Thorax. 2006, 61: 122-128.
Szafranski W, Cukier A, Ramirez A, Menga G, Sansores R, Nahabedian S, Peterson S, Olsson H: Efficacy and safety of budesonide/formoterol in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Eur Respir J. 2003, 21: 74-81.
van der Valk , Monninkhof E, van der PJ, Zielhuis G, van HC: Effect of discontinuation of inhaled corticosteroids in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the COPE study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002, 166: 1358-1363.
Van Noord JA, De Munck DRAJ, Bantje T, Hop WCJ, Akveld MLM, Bommer AM: Long-term treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with salmeterol and the additive effect of ipratropium. Eur Respir J. 2000, 15 (5): 878-885.
Wadbo M, Lofdahl CG, Larsson K, Skoogh BE, Tornling G, Arwestrom E, Bengtsson T, Strom K, Swedish Society of Respiratory Medicine: Effects of formoterol and ipratropium bromide in COPD: a 3-month placebo-controlled study. Eur Respir J. 2002, 20: 1138-1146.
Baumgartner RA, Hanania NA, Calhoun WJ, Sahn SA, Sciarappa K, Hanrahan JP: Nebulized arformoterol in patients with COPD: a 12-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo- and active-controlled trial. Clin Ther. 2007, 29: 261-278.
Briggs DD, Covelli H, Lapidus R, Bhattycharya S, Kesten S, Cassino C: Improved daytime spirometric efficacy of tiotropium compared with salmeterol in patients with COPD. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2005, 18: 397-404.
Casaburi R, Mahler DA, Jones PW, Wanner A, San PG, ZuWallack RL, Menjoge SS, Serby CW, Witek T: A long-term evaluation of once-daily inhaled tiotropium in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Eur Respir J. 2002, 19: 217-224.
Hanania NA, Darken P, Horstman D, Reisner C, Lee B, Davis S, Shah T: The efficacy and safety of fluticasone propionate (250 microg)/salmeterol (50 microg) combined in the Diskus inhaler for the treatment of COPD. Chest. 2003, 124: 834-843.
Kardos P, Wencker M, Glaab T, Vogelmeier C: Impact of salmeterol/fluticasone propionate versus salmeterol on exacerbations in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2007, 175: 144-149.
Wedzicha JA, Calverley PM, Seemungal TA, Hagan G, Ansari Z, Stockley RA: The prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations by salmeterol/fluticasone propionate or tiotropium bromide. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008, 177: 19-26.
Weir DC, Bale GA, Bright P, Sherwood Burge P: A double-blind placebo-controlled study of the effect of inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate for 2 years in patients with nonasthmatic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Clin Exp Allergy. 1999, 29 (Suppl 2): 125-128.
Anthonisen NR, Manfreda J, Warren CP, Hershfield ES, Harding GK, Nelson NA: Antibiotic therapy in exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Ann Intern Med. 1987, 106: 196-204.
Akl EA, Grant BJ, Guyatt GH, Montori VM, Schunemann HJ: A decision aid for COPD patients considering inhaled steroid therapy: development and before and after pilot testing. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2007, 7: 12.
Buist AS, McBurnie MA, Vollmer WM, Gillespie S, Burney P, Mannino DM, Menezes AM, Sullivan SD, Lee TA, Weiss KB, Jensen RL, Marks GB, Gulsvik A, Nizankowska-Mogilnicka E, BOLD Collaborative Research Group: International variation in the prevalence of COPD (the BOLD Study): a population-based prevalence study. Lancet. 2007, 370: 741-750.
Viejo-Banuelos JL, Pueyo-Bastida A, Fueyo-Rodriguez A: Characteristics of outpatients with COPD in daily practice: The E4 Spanish project. Respir Med. 2006, 100: 2137-2143.
Fritsch K, Jacot ML, Klarer A, Wick F, Bruggmann P, Krause M, Thurnheer R: Adherence to the Swiss guidelines for management of COPD: experience of a Swiss teaching hospital. Swiss Med Wkly. 2005, 135: 116-121.
Scanlon PD, Connett JE, Wise RA, Tashkin DP, Madhok T, Skeans M, Carpenter PC, Bailey WC, Buist AS, Eichenhorn M, Kanner RE, Weinmann G, Lung Health Study Research Group: Loss of bone density with inhaled triamcinolone in Lung Health Study II. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2004, 170: 1302-1309.
Pocock SJ: Safety of drug-eluting stents: demystifying network meta-analysis. Lancet. 2007, 370 (9605): 2099-2100.
Deeks JJ, Altman DG: Effect measures for meta-analysis of trials with binary outcomes. Systematic Reviews in Health Care. Edited by: Egger M, Smith G, Altman D. 2001, London: BMJ Publishing Group, 313-335. 2
Stewart LA, Tierney JF: To IPD or not to IPD? Advantages and disadvantages of systematic reviews using individual patient data. Eval Health Prof. 2002, 25: 76-97.