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Table 2 Vasoactive effect of adipokinesa

From: Regulation of vascular tone by adipocytes

Adipokines Vasoactive effect References
Superoxide anion Vasoconstriction through Ca2+ sensitization; impairs EC-dependent relaxation by decreasing NO bioavailability; enhances vasoconstriction to perivascular nerve activation by electrical field stimulation [18, 19, 29]
Hydrogen peroxide EC-dependent and EC-independent vasorelaxation mediated by opening KCa, Kv and KATP channels; Ca2+-dependent and Ca2+-independent vasoconstriction [20, 21, 2327]
Leptin Vasoconstriction due to sympathetic nervous system activation; EC-dependent and EC-independent vasorelaxation [3134, 38, 39]
TNFα EC-dependent and EC-independent vasorelaxation; triggers ET-1- and Ang-induced vasoconstriction; impairs EC-dependent vasorelaxation due to decreased NO or increased ROS production; reduces vasorelaxing effect of PVAT due to increased ROS production [50, 52, 53, 5759]
IL-6 EC-independent vasorelaxation; reduces vasorelaxing effect of PVAT due to increased ROS production; impairs endothelial function due to increased ROS and decreased NO production [59, 66, 67, 72]
Apelin NO-dependent vasorelaxation; EC-independent vasoconstriction [7678, 80]
Adiponectin NO-dependent vasorelaxation mediated by opening Kv channels [59, 90, 91]
Omentin EC-dependent and EC-independent vasorelaxation [100]
Visfatin NO-dependent vasorelaxation [107]
ADRF Vasorelaxation through opening of KATP, KCNQ or KCa channels depending on the species [6, 92, 112, 114, 115]
Ang II Vasoconstriction via binding on AT1 receptors [124]
Resistin No effect on contractility of blood vessels; impairs endothelial function due to increased ET-1 production and decreased NO production [135, 144]
  1. aEC, endothelial cell; NO, nitric oxide; KCa channels, Ca2+-activated K+ channels; Kv channels, voltage-dependent K+ channels; KATP channels, ATP-sensitive K+ channels; TNFα, tumor necrosis factor α; ET-1, endothelin 1; Ang, angiotensinogen; ROS, reactive oxygen species; PVAT, perivascular adipose tissue; IL-6, interleukin 6; Ang II, angiotensin II; AT1, angiotensin type 1; ADRF, adipocyte-derived relaxing factor.