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Table 3 Multivariate analyses of total stress, Adverse Childhood Experience (ACE) score, lifetime abuse, and depression

From: Adverse childhood experiences are associated with spontaneous preterm birth: a case–control study

Questionnaire tool Adjusted odds ratioa 95% CI
Total stress 1.26 0.90–1.76
High stressb 1.61 0.88–2.94
ACE score 1.18 0.99–1.40
High ACE score (≥2 ACEs)b 2.09* 1.10–3.98
Childhood and adult abuse 1.30* 1.02–1.65
Depression during pregnancy 1.42 0.91–2.22
  1. aAdjusted for maternal age, educational status, smoking and history of miscarriage; bBased on median split; *P <0.05