March of Dimes, PMNCH, Save the Children, WHO. Born too soon: the global action report on preterm birth. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2012.
Austin MP, Leader L. Maternal stress and obstetric and infant outcomes: epidemiological findings and neuroendocrine mechanisms. Aust NZ J Obstet Gynecol. 2000;40:331–7.
Copper RL, Goldenberg RL, Das A, Elder N, Swain M, Norman G, et al. The preterm prediction study: maternal stress is associated with spontaneous preterm birth at less than thirty-five weeks’ gestation. National institute of child health and human development maternal-fetal medicine units network. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1996;175:1286–92.
Dole N, Savitz DA, Hertz-Picciotto I, Siega-Riz AM, McMahon MJ, Buekens P. Maternal stress and preterm birth. Am J Epidemiol. 2003;157:14–24.
Neggers Y, Goldenberg R, Cliver S, Hauth J. The relationship between psychosocial profile, health practices, and pregnancy outcomes. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2006;85:277–85.
Orr ST, James SA, Blackmore PC. Maternal prenatal depressive symptoms and spontaneous preterm births among African-American women in Baltimore. Maryland Am J Epidemiol. 2002;156:797–802.
Rini CK, Dunkel-Schetter C, Wadhwa PD, Sandman CA. Psychological adaptation and birth outcomes: the role of personal resources, stress, and sociocultural context in pregnancy. Health Psychol. 1999;18:333–45.
Wadhwa PD, Culhane JF, Rauh V, Barve SS. Stress and preterm birth: neuroendocrine, immune/inflammatory, and vascular mechanisms. Mat Child Health J. 2001;5:119–25.
Buekens P, Xiong X, Harville E. Hurricanes and pregnancy. Birth. 2006;33:91–3.
Fatusic Z, Kurjak A, Grgic G, Tulumovic A. The influence of the war on perinatal and maternal mortality in Bosnia and Herzegovina. J Mat Fetal Neonat Med. 2005;18:259–63.
Lederman SA, Rauh V, Weiss L, Stein JL, Hoepner LA, Becker M, et al. The effects of the world trade center event on birth outcomes among term deliveries at three lower Manhattan hospitals. Environ Health Persp. 2004;112:1772–8.
Hedegaard M, Henriksen TB, Secher NJ, Hatch MC, Sabroe S. Do stressful life events affect duration of gestation and risk of preterm delivery? Epidemiology. 1996;7:339–45.
Coker AL, Sanderson M, Dong B. Partner violence during pregnancy and risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Paed Perinat Epidemiol. 2004;18:260–9.
Covington DL, Hage M, Hall T, Mathis M. Preterm delivery and the severity of violence during pregnancy. J Reprod Med. 2001;46:1031–9.
Fernandez FM, Krueger PM. Domestic violence: effect on pregnancy outcome. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 1999;99:254–6.
Neggers Y, Goldenberg R, Cliver S, Hauth J. Effects of domestic violence on preterm birth and low birth weight. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2004;83:455–60.
Dayan J, Creveuil C, Herlicoviez M, Herbel C, Baranger E, Savoye C, et al. Role of anxiety and depression in the onset of spontaneous preterm labor. Am J Epidemiol. 2002;155:293–301.
Berkowitz GS, Papiernik E. Epidemiology of preterm birth. Epidemiol Rev. 1993;15:414–43.
Kramer MS, Goulet L, Lydon J, Seguin L, McNamara H, Dassa C, et al. Socio-economic disparities in preterm birth: causal pathways and mechanisms. Paed Perinat Epidemiol. 2001;15:104–23.
Kramer MS, Seguin L, Lydon J, Goulet L. Socio-economic disparities in pregnancy outcome: why do the poor fare so poorly? Paed Perinat Epidemiol. 2000;14:194–210.
Andres RL, Day MC. Perinatal complications associated with maternal tobacco use. Semin Neonat. 2000;5:231–41.
Hayatbakhsh MR, Flenady VJ, Gibbons KS, Kingsbury AM, Hurrion E, Mamun AA, et al. Birth outcomes associated with cannabis use before and during pregnancy. Ped Res. 2012;71:215–9.
Hendler I, Goldenberg RL, Mercer BM, Iams JD, Meis PJ, Moawad AH, et al. The preterm prediction study: association between maternal body mass index and spontaneous and indicated preterm birth. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005;192:882–6.
Mann JR, McDermott S, Gill T. Sexually transmitted infection is associated with increased risk of preterm birth in South Carolina women insured by Medicaid. J Mat Fet Neonat Med. 2010;23:563–8.
O’Leary CM, Nassar N, Kurinczuk JJ, Bower C. The effect of maternal alcohol consumption on fetal growth and preterm birth. Brit J Obstet Gynaecol. 2009;116:390–400.
Quesada O, Gotman N, Howell HB, Funai EF, Rounsaville BJ, Yonkers KA. Prenatal hazardous substance use and adverse birth outcomes. J Mat Fet Neonat Med. 2012;25:1222–7.
Shah NR, Bracken MB. A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies on the association between maternal cigarette smoking and preterm delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000;182:465–72.
Ahern J, Pickett KE, Selvin S, Abrams B. Preterm birth among African American and white women: a multilevel analysis of socioeconomic characteristics and cigarette smoking. J Epidemiol Commun Health. 2003;57:606–11.
Pickett KE, Ahern JE, Selvin S, Abrams B. Neighborhood socioeconomic status, maternal race and preterm delivery: a case–control study. Annals Epidemiol. 2002;12:410–8.
Reagan PB, Salsberry PJ. Race and ethnic differences in determinants of preterm birth in the USA: broadening the social context. Soc Sci Med. 2005;60:2217–28.
Djuric Z, Bird CE, Furumoto-Dawson A, Rauscher GH, Ruffin MT, Stowe RP, et al. Biomarkers of psychological stress in health disparities research. Open Biomarkers J. 2008;1:7–19.
Elenkov IJ, Webster EL, Torpy DJ, Chrousos GP. Stress, corticotropin-releasing hormone, glucocorticoids, and the immune/inflammatory response: acute and chronic effects. Annals N Y Acad Sci. 1999;876:1–11. Discussion 13.
Kiecolt-Glaser JK, McGuire L, Robles TF, Glaser R. Psychoneuroimmunology: psychological influences on immune function and health. J Consul Clin Psych. 2002;70:537–47.
McEwen BS. Stress, adaptation, and disease. Allostasis and allostatic load. Annals N Y Acad Sci. 1998;840:33–44.
McEwen BS. Protective and damaging effects of stress mediators. New Engl J Med. 1998;338:171–9.
McEwen BS, Seeman T. Protective and damaging effects of mediators of stress. Elaborating and testing the concepts of allostasis and allostatic load. Annal N Y Acad Sci. 1999;896:30–47.
McEwen BS, Wingfield JC. The concept of allostasis in biology and biomedicine. Horm Behav. 2003;43:2–15.
Sterling P, Ever J. Allostasis: a new paradigm to explain arousal pathology. In: Fisher S, Reason J, editors. Handbook of life stress, cognition and health. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 1988.
Peirce RS, Frone MR, Russell M, Cooper ML. Financial stress, social support, and alcohol involvement: a longitudinal test of the buffering hypothesis in a general population survey. Health Psych. 1996;15:38–47.
Gray MJ, Litz BT, Hsu JL, Lombardo TW. Psychometric properties of the life events checklist. Assessment. 2004;11:330–41.
Carver CS. You want to measure coping but your protocol’s too long: consider the brief COPE. Intl J Behav Med. 1997;4:92–100.
Felitti VJ, Anda RF, Nordenberg D, Williamson DF, Spitz AM, Edwards V, et al. Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults. The adverse childhood experiences (ACE) study. Am J Prevent Med. 1998;14:245–58.
McFarlane J, Parker B, Soeken K, Bullock L. Assessing for abuse during pregnancy. Severity and frequency of injuries and associated entry into prenatal care. JAMA. 1992;267:3176–8.
Sheehan DV, Lecrubier Y, Sheehan KH, Amorim P, Janavs J, Weiller E, et al. The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.): the development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview for DSM-IV and ICD-10. J Clin Psychiatry. 1998;59:22–33.
Chapman DP, Whitfield CL, Felitti VJ, Dube SR, Edwards VJ, Anda RF. Adverse childhood experiences and the risk of depressive disorders in adulthood. J Affect Disorders. 2004;82:217–25.
Dong M, Giles WH, Felitti VJ, Dube SR, Williams JE, Chapman DP, et al. Insights into causal pathways for ischemic heart disease: adverse childhood experiences study. Circulation. 2004;110:1761–6.
Williamson DF, Thompson TJ, Anda RF, Dietz WH, Felitti V. Body weight and obesity in adults and self-reported abuse in childhood. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2002;26:1075–82.
Hillis SD, Anda RF, Dube SR, Felitti VJ, Marchbanks PA, Marks JS. The association between adverse childhood experiences and adolescent pregnancy, long-term psychosocial consequences, and fetal death. Pediatrics. 2004;113:320–7.
Hillis SD, Anda RF, Felitti VJ, Nordenberg D, Marchbanks PA. Adverse childhood experiences and sexually transmitted diseases in men and women: a retrospective study. Pediatrics. 2000;106:E11.
Dube SR, Anda RF, Felitti VJ, Edwards VJ, Croft JB. Adverse childhood experiences and personal alcohol abuse as an adult. Addict Behav. 2002;27:713–25.
Dube SR, Felitti VJ, Dong M, Chapman DP, Giles WH, Anda RF. Childhood abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction and the risk of illicit drug use: the adverse childhood experiences study. Pediatrics. 2003;111:564–72.
Anda RF, Croft JB, Felitti VJ, Nordenberg D, Giles WH, Williamson DF, et al. Adverse childhood experiences and smoking during adolescence and adulthood. JAMA. 1999;282:1652–8.
Edwards VJ, Anda RF, Gu D, Dube SR, Felitti VJ. Adverse childhood experiences and smoking persistence in adults with smoking-related symptoms and illness. Permanente J. 2007;11:5–13.
Heim C, Newport DJ, Heit S, Graham YP, Wilcox M, Bonsall R, et al. Pituitary-adrenal and autonomic responses to stress in women after sexual and physical abuse in childhood. JAMA. 2000;284:592–7.
Heim C, Newport DJ, Bonsall R, Miller AH, Nemeroff CB. Altered pituitary-adrenal axis responses to provocative challenge tests in adult survivors of childhood abuse. Am J Psychiatry. 2001;158:575–81.
Curtin RS, Presser S, Singer E. Changes in telephone survey nonresponse over the past century. Publ Opin Q. 2005;69:87–98.
Curtin R, Presser S, Singer E. The effects of response rate changes on the index of consumer sentiment. Publ Opin Q. 2000;64:413–28.
Keeter S, Miller C, Kohut A, Groves RM, Presser S. Consequences of reducing nonresponse in a national telephone survey. Publ Opin Q. 2000;64:125–48.
Groves RM. Nonresponse rates and nonresponsive bias in household surveys. Publ Opin Q. 2006;70:646–75.
Visser PS, Krosnick JA, Marquette J, Curtin M. Mail surveys for election forecasting? An evaluation of the Columbus dispatch poll. Publ Opin Q. 1996;60:181–227.