The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Patrick Phillips is senior statistician and programme leader track at the UK Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit (MRC CTU) at University College London (UCL). He has worked on late-phase clinical trials in TB and Alzheimer’s disease for more than a decade, most recently as trial statistician in the REMoxTB and RIFAQUIN phase III TB trials published in 2014. He is part of the European/African PanACEA consortium evaluating novel regimens for the treatment of TB, designing the PanACEA MAMS-TB phase II trial with an adaptive design with results to be published in 2015. He is trial statistician for the STREAM trial evaluating novel MDR-TB regimens, is trial statistician and PI for the MRC/DFID/Wellcome grant for the TRUNCATE trial collaborating with the National University of Singapore, and is in collaboration with individuals from the CDC TB Trials Consortium and Boston University on other clinical trials to improve the treatment of TB. His PhD from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM) focused on the evaluation of prognostic and surrogate markers for TB treatment trials. Ongoing methodological areas of interest include the evaluation and use of surrogate endpoints, the conduct and analysis of non-inferiority trials, and trial design with a focus on adaptive designs.
Helen Fletcher is a Senior Lecturer in Immunology and Director of the TB Centre at the LSHTM. Helen gained a PhD in Medical Microbiology and became interested in TB during her first postdoctoral position at University College London in 1999. In 2002, she moved to the Jenner Institute at the University of Oxford as an immunologist for the first-in-human trial of a new TB vaccine, MVA85A. After 10 years at the Jenner Institute, Helen moved to the LSHTM to establish her own group, based in the Immunology and Infection Department and focusing on immune correlates and the host response to TB vaccination. In 2015, Helen became Director of the TB Centre at the LSHTM and, in 2016, she became co-chair of the T-cell Immunology working group for the Collaboration for TB Vaccine Discovery at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
Ibrahim Abubakar is the Director of the UCL Centre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Professor in Infectious Disease Epidemiology at UCL. He is a senior investigator at the MRC Clinical Trials Unit, director of the UCL TB Centre and head of TB at Public Health England, London, UK. Prior to his appointment at UCL, he was Professor in Health Protection at the Norwich Medical School, Norwich, UK. He qualified in medicine in 1992 and initially trained in general medicine before specialising in public health medicine. His academic public health training was undertaken at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, University of Cambridge and the University of East Anglia. He has served on/chaired several working groups for the European Centre for Disease Control and the WHO, where is currently chair of the global Latent TB Task Force and a member of STAG-TB. Ibrahim led the team that developed the collaborative TB strategy for England, chaired the UK NICE guideline development group for TB and led the WHO Europe TB Elimination Plan Advisory Group. Ibrahim runs a programme of translational and health services research on tuberculosis, HIV and other infectious diseases.
Marc Lipman is Senior Lecturer & Honorary Consultant Physician in Respiratory & HIV Medicine. He is Deputy Director of UCL-TB Centre. He trained in Clinical Academic Medicine in the UK, and as a Harkness Fellow in the USA, based at Johns Hopkins School of Public Health. Aside from heading up a large clinical TB & HIV service, his present commitments include: UK NICE TB Clinical Guidelines Development & Service Delivery Groups; Public Health England National Respiratory Programme Board and the TB National Knowledge Project; UK MDR TB Expert Advisory Group and the WHO/European Respiratory Society MDR TB Consilium. He is the former Co-lead for TB in London and Chair of the British Thoracic Society TB Specialist Advisory Group. His research interests focus on tuberculosis, HIV and respiratory disease – and seek to enable high quality, evidence-based care to be provided to people at risk of TB and other related diseases.
Timothy McHugh is Deputy Director of UCL TB and Director of the UCL Centre for Clinical Microbiology, located at the Royal Free Hospital. His group contributes to all stages of the TB drug development pathway with projects on evaluation of new compounds as well as supporting the laboratory aspects of clinical trials for new treatments. An underlying theme is the development of biomarkers of treatment outcome, whether transcriptomic analysis of in vitro treatments or the more complex picture of monitoring outcome in patients. An important element of his work is capacity development, providing training for laboratory scientists both on site and in London.