The authors especially thank all participating mothers and their children, and are grateful to all obstetric care providers in Amsterdam for their contribution to the data collection of the ABCD-study.
The authors are extremely grateful to all the families who took part in this study, the midwives for their help in recruiting them, and the whole ALSPAC team, which includes interviewers, computer and laboratory technicians, clerical workers, research scientists, volunteers, managers, receptionists, and nurses.
The authors acknowledge the contribution and support of All Our Families participants and team.
The authors thank all the families for participating in the Danish National Birth Cohort.
The authors thank the EDEN mother-child cohort study group, whose members are I. Annesi-Maesano, J.Y. Bernard, J. Botton, M.A. Charles, P. Dargent-Molina, B. de Lauzon-Guillain, P. Ducimetière, M. de Agostini, B. Foliguet, A. Forhan, X. Fritel, A. Germa, V. Goua, R. Hankard, B. Heude, M. Kaminski, B. Larroque†, N. Lelong, J. Lepeule, G. Magnin, L. Marchand, C. Nabet, F Pierre, R. Slama, M.J. Saurel-Cubizolles, M. Schweitzer, and O. Thiebaugeorges.
The authors wish to acknowledge the University of Illinois at Chicago School of Public Health’s Louise Hamilton Kyiv Data Management Center for their assistance in the data management for FCOU study.
The authors acknowledge the families involved in the study.
The authors are grateful to the families who took part in the GECKO Drenthe study, the midwives, gynecologists, nurses, and GPs for their help for recruitment and measurement of participants, and the whole team from the GECKO Drenthe study.
The authors gratefully acknowledge the contribution of general practitioners, hospitals, midwives, and pharmacies in Rotterdam.
The authors gratefully acknowledge the families enrolled in Generation XXI for their kindness, all members of the research team for their enthusiasm and perseverance, and the participating hospitals and their staff for their help and support.
The authors thank the Genesis research group which was comprised from Evdokia Oikonomou, Vivian Detopoulou, Christine Kortsalioudaki, Margarita Bartsota, Thodoris Liarigkovinos, and Christos Vassilopoulos.
The authors acknowledge the support form clinical and research staff from blood sampling in pregnancy clinic at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke (CHUS) for their help in recruitment, and the CHUS biomedical laboratory for performing assays.
The authors thank all the families for their participation in the GINIplus study. Furthermore, the authors thank all members of the GINIplus Study Group for their excellent work. The GINIplus Study group consists of the following: Institute of Epidemiology I, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg (Heinrich J, Brüske I, Schulz H, Flexeder C, Zeller C, Standl M, Schnappinger M, Ferland M, Thiering E, Tiesler C); Department of Pediatrics, Marien-Hospital, Wesel (Berdel D, von Berg A); Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Dr. von Hauner Children’s Hospital (Koletzko S); Child and Adolescent Medicine, University Hospital rechts der Isar of the Technical University Munich (Bauer CP, Hoffmann U); IUF-Environmental Health Research Institute, Düsseldorf (Schikowski T, Link E, Klümper C, Krämer U, Sugiri D).
The authors thank the mothers who participated in the study and the Norwegian Research Council for their continuous support through several grants.
The authors would particularly like to thank all the participants for their generous collaboration.
The authors thank the children and parents who participated to the INMA-Gipuzkoa study.
The authors thank all the participants for their generous collaboration. The authors are grateful to Mireia Garcia, Maria Victoria Estraña, Maria Victoria Iturriaga, Cristina Capo, and Josep LLuch for their assistance in contacting the families and administering the questionnaires.
The authors thank the children and parents who participated to the KOALA study.
The authors acknowledge Jagiellnonian University Medical College in Krakow and Columbia University in New York. Principal investigator: Prof. FP Perera; co-investigator: Prof. W Jedrychowski.
The authors thank all the families for their participation in the LISAplus study. Furthermore, the authors thank all members of the LISAplus Study Group for their excellent work. The LISAplus Study group consists of the following: Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Epidemiology I, Munich (Heinrich J, Schnappinger M, Brüske I, Ferland M, Schulz H, Zeller C, Standl M, Thiering E, Tiesler C, Flexeder C); Department of Pediatrics, Municipal Hospital “St. Georg”, Leipzig (Borte M, Diez U, Dorn C, Braun E); Marien Hospital Wesel, Department of Pediatrics, Wesel (von Berg A, Berdel D, Stiers G, Maas B); Pediatric Practice, Bad Honnef (Schaaf B); Helmholtz Centre of Environmental Research–UFZ, Department of Environmental Immunology/Core Facility Studies, Leipzig (Lehmann I, Bauer M, Röder S, Schilde M, Nowak M, Herberth G, Müller J); Technical University Munich, Department of Pediatrics, Munich (Hoffmann U, Paschke M, Marra S); Clinical Research Group Molecular Dermatology, Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Technische Universität München (TUM), Munich (Ollert M, J. Grosch).
The authors thank all the families for their participation in the study. The authors are grateful to Raija Juntunen, Asko Vepsäläinen, Pekka Tiittanen, and Timo Kauppila for their contribution to the data collection and data management.
The authors are grateful to all the participating families in Norway who take part in this on-going cohort study.
The authors thank all families participating in the NINFEA cohort.
The authors thank the gynecologists, obstetricians, ultrasonographers, midwives, pediatricians, and families who participated in the study.
The authors thank the PIAMA participants for their ongoing collaboration.
The authors acknowledge the Piccolipiù Working Group and the families involved in the study.
The authors thank the mothers and infants who participate in this ongoing cohort study, as well as all midwives, gynecologists, and general practitioners for their contributions to the data collection.
The authors thank the Project Viva mothers, children, and families for their ongoing participation.
The authors would like to acknowledge the Raine Study participants and their families. We would also like to acknowledge the Raine Study Team for study co-ordination and data collection, and the NH&MRC for their long-term contribution to funding the study over the last 29 years.
The authors would particularly like to thank all the cohort participants for their collaboration.
The authors would particularly like to thank all the cohort participants for their generous collaboration.
Slovak PCB study
The authors thank the Slovak PCB study participants for their ongoing cooperation.
The authors are grateful to all the families who took part in STEPS study.
The authors are grateful to the women of Southampton who gave their time to take part in the Southampton Women’s Survey and to the research nurses and other staff who collected and processed the data.
Role of the funder
Investigators from the US National Institute of Environmental Health Scientists (NIEHS) were involved in the design of the birth outcomes phase of the FCOU study.
The other cohorts declared that the funding agencies had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of data; preparation, review, and approval of manuscript; or decision to submit manuscript for publication.
This work was supported by the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMw) (TOP grant, 40-00812-98-11010).
The UK Medical Research Council and Wellcome (Grant ref.: 102215/2/13/2) and the University of Bristol provide core support for ALSPAC. This study has received support from the US National Institute of Health (R01 DK10324) and European Research Council under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007–2013)/ERC grant agreement no 669545. DA Lawlor works in a unit that receives UK MRC funding (MC_UU_12013/5) and is an NIHR senior investigator (NF-SI-0611-10196).
All Our Families is funded through Alberta Innovates Interdisciplinary Team Grant #200700595, the Alberta Children’s Hospital Foundation, and the Max Bell Foundation.
No funding reported.
The Danish National Research Foundation has established the Danish Epidemiology Science Centre that initiated and created the Danish National Birth Cohort. The cohort is furthermore a result of a major grant from this foundation. Additional support for the Danish National Birth Cohort is obtained from the Pharmacy Foundation, the Egmont Foundation, the March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation, the Augustinus Foundation, and the Health Foundation. The DNBC 7-year follow-up is supported by the Lundbeck Foundation (195/04) and the Danish Medical Research Council (SSVF 0646).
The EDEN study was supported by Foundation for medical research (FRM), National Agency for Research (ANR), National Institute for Research in Public health (IRESP: TGIR cohorte santé 2008 program), French Ministry of Health (DGS), French Ministry of Research, INSERM Bone and Joint Diseases National Research (PRO-A) and Human Nutrition National Research Programs, Paris-Sud University, Nestlé, French National Institute for Population Health Surveillance (InVS), French National Institute for Health Education (INPES), the European Union FP7 programmes (FP7/2007–2013, HELIX, ESCAPE, ENRIECO, Medall projects), Diabetes National Research Program (through a collaboration with the French Association of Diabetic Patients (AFD)), French Agency for Environmental Health Safety (now ANSES), Mutuelle Générale de l’Education Nationale a complementary health insurance (MGEN), French national agency for food security, French-speaking association for the study of diabetes and metabolism (ALFEDIAM).
FCOU study is supported by the US National Institutes of Health Fogarty International Center, US NIEHS, US CDC, US EPA, and National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine.
Ministry of Health.
The GECKO Drenthe birth cohort was funded by an unrestricted grant of Hutchison Whampoa Ld, Hong Kong and supported by the University of Groningen, Well Baby Clinic Foundation Icare, Noordlease, Paediatric Association Of The Netherlands and Youth Health Care Drenthe.
The general design of the Generation R Study is made possible by financial support from the Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMw), Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO), Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport and Ministry of Youth and Families. Research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007–2013), project EarlyNutrition under grant agreement no. 289346, the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement no. 633595 (DynaHEALTH) and the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement 733206 (LifeCycle Project). Romy Gaillard received funding from the Dutch Heart Foundation (grant number 2017T013) and the Dutch Diabetes Foundation (grant number 2017.81.002). Vincent Jaddoe received grants from the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (VIDI 016.136.361) and the European Research Council (Consolidator Grant, ERC-2014-CoG-648916).
Generation XXI was funded by Programa Operacional de Saúde–Saúde XXI, Quadro Comunitário de Apoio III and Administração Regional de Saúde Norte (Regional Department of Ministry of Health). This study was funded by FEDER through the Operational Programme Competitiveness and Internationalization and national funding from the Foundation for Science and Technology–FCT (Portuguese Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education) (POCI-01-0145-FEDER-016837), under the project “PathMOB.: Risco cardiometabólico na infância: desde o início da vida ao fim da infância” (Ref. FCT PTDC/DTP-EPI/3306/2014) and the Unidade de Investigação em Epidemiologia-Instituto de Saúde Pública da Universidade do Porto (EPIUnit) (POCI-01-0145-FEDER-006862; Ref. UID/DTP/04750/2013). AC Santos holds a FCT Investigator contract IF/01060/2015.
The study was supported by a research grant from Friesland Foods Hellas.
Gen3G was supported by a Fonds de recherche du Québec en santé (FRQ-S) operating grant (grant #20697); a Canadian Institute of Health Reseach (CIHR) Operating grant (grant #MOP 115071); a Diabète Québec grant and a Canadian Diabetes Association operating grant (grant #OG-3-08-2622-JA).
The GINIplus study was mainly supported for the first 3 years of the Federal Ministry for Education, Science, Research and Technology (interventional arm) and Helmholtz Zentrum Munich (former GSF) (observational arm). The 4-year, 6-year, 10-year, and 15-year follow-up examinations of the GINIplus study were covered from the respective budgets of the 5 study centers (Helmholtz Zentrum Munich (former GSF), Research Institute at Marien-Hospital Wesel, LMU Munich, TU Munich and from 6 years onwards also from IUF-Leibniz Research-Institute for Environmental Medicine at the University of Düsseldorf) and a grant from the Federal Ministry for Environment (IUF Düsseldorf, FKZ 20462296). Further, the 15 year follow-up examination of the GINIplus study was supported by the Commission of the European Communities, the 7th Framework Program: MeDALL project, and as well by the companies Mead Johnson and Nestlé.
European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007–2013) under grant agreements Early Nutrition no. 289346 and by funds from the Norwegian Research Council’s MILPAAHEL programme, project no. 213148.
This study was funded by grants from the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Red INMA G03/176) and the Generalitat de Catalunya-CIRIT (1999SGR 00241).
This study was funded by Grants from UE (FP7-ENV-2011 cod 282957 and HEALTH.2010.2.4.5-1), Spain: ISCIII (G03/176; FIS-FEDER: PI09/02647, PI11/01007, PI11/02591, PI11/02038, PI13/1944, PI13/2032, PI14/00891, PI14/01687, and PI16/1288; Miguel Servet-FEDER CP11/00178, CP15/00025, and CPII16/00051), and Generalitat Valenciana: FISABIO (UGP 15-230, UGP-15-244, and UGP-15-249).
This study was funded by grants from the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (FISFIS PI06/0867, FIS-PS09/0009) 0867, Red INMA G03/176) and the Departamento de Salud del Gobierno Vasco (2005111093 and 2009111069) and the Provincial Government of Guipúzcoa (DFG06/004 and FG08/001).
This study was funded by grants from the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Red INMA G03/176).
Data collection for the KOALA study from pregnancy up to age 1 year was financially supported by grants from Royal Friesland Foods (Leeuwarden); Triodos Foundation (Zeist); Phoenix Foundation; Raphaël Foundation; Iona Foundation; Foundation for the Advancement of Heilpedagogie (all in the Netherlands).
The study received funding from a NIEHS R01 grants entitled: “Vulnerability of the Fetus/Infant to PAH, PM2.5 and ETS” and “Developmental effects of early-life exposure to airborne PAH” (R01ES010165 and R01ES015282) and from The Lundin Foundation, The John and Wendy Neu Family Foundation, The Gladys and Roland Harriman Foundation and an Anonymous Foundation.
The LISAplus study was mainly supported by grants from the Federal Ministry for Education, Science, Research and Technology and in addition from Helmholtz Zentrum Munich (former GSF), Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Leipzig, Research Institute at Marien-Hospital Wesel, Pediatric Practice, Bad Honnef for the first 2 years. The 4-year, 6-year, 10-year, and 15-year follow-up examinations of the LISAplus study were covered from the respective budgets of the involved partners (Helmholtz Zentrum Munich (former GSF), Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Leipzig, Research Institute at Marien-Hospital Wesel, Pediatric Practice, Bad Honnef, IUF–Leibniz-Research Institute for Environmental Medicine at the University of Düsseldorf) and in addition by a grant from the Federal Ministry for Environment (IUF Düsseldorf, FKZ 20462296). Further, the 15-year follow-up examination of the LISAplus study was supported by the Commission of the European Communities and the 7th Framework Program: MeDALL project.
The grants from the Academy of Finland (grants 139021;287675); the Juho Vainio Foundation; the Foundation for Pediatric Research; EVO/VTR-funding; Päivikki and Sakari Sohlberg Foundation; The Finnish Cultural Foundation; European Union QLK4-CT-2001-00250; and by the National Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland.
The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study is supported by the Norwegian Ministry of Health and Care Services and the Ministry of Education and Research, NIH/NIEHS (contract no. N01-ES-75558), NIH/NINDS (grant no. 1 UO1 NS 047537-01 and grant no. 2 UO1 NS 047537-06A1).
The NINFEA cohort was partially funded by the Compagnia San Paolo Fundation and by the Piedmont Region.
The Pélagie cohort was supported by the French National Research Agency (ANR-2010-PRSP-007) and the French Research Institute for Public Health (AMC11004NSA-DGS).
The PIAMA study was supported by the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development; The Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research; The Netherlands Asthma Fund; The Netherlands Ministry of Spatial Planning, Housing, and the Environment; and The Netherlands Ministry of Health, Welfare, and Sport.
The Piccolipiù project was financially supported by the Italian National Center for Disease Prevention and Control (CCM grants years 2010 and 2014) and by the Italian Ministry of Health (art 12 and 12 bis D.lgs 502/92).
The PRIDE Study is supported by grants from the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development, the Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, and the Lung Foundation Netherlands.
National Institutes of Health (R01 HD034568, UG3OD023286).
The Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine Study) has been funded by program and project grants from the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Healthway, and the Lions Eye Institute in Western Australia. The University of Western Australia (UWA), Curtin University, the Raine Medical Research Foundation, the Telethon Kids Institute, the Women’s and Infant’s Research Foundation (KEMH), Murdoch University, The University of Notre Dame Australia, and Edith Cowan University provide funding for the Core Management of the Raine Study.
National Science Centre, Poland, under the grant DEC-2014/15/B/NZ7/00998, FP7 HEALS Grant No. 603946 and the Ministry of Science and Higher Education under grant agreement no. 3068/7.PR/2014/2.
The “Rhea” project was financially supported by European projects (EU FP6-2003-Food-3-NewGeneris, EU FP6. STREP Hiwate, EU FP7 ENV.2007.1.2.2.2. Project No. 211250 Escape, EU FP7-2008-ENV-18.104.22.168 Envirogenomarkers, EU FP7-HEALTH-2009-single stage CHICOS, EU FP7 ENV.2008.1.2.1.6. Proposal No. 226285 ENRIECO, EU-FP7-HEALTH-2012 Proposal No. 308333 HELIX) and the Greek Ministry of Health (Program of Prevention of obesity and neurodevelopmental disorders in preschool children, in Heraklion District, Crete, Greece: 2011–2014; “Rhea Plus”: Primary Prevention Program of Environmental Risk Factors for Reproductive Health, and Child Health: 2012–15).
Slovak PCB study
Support was provided by US National Institutes of Health grants R01 CA096525, R03 TW007152, P30 ES001247, and K12 ES019852.
This study was supported by the University of Turku, Abo Akademi University, the Turku University Hospital, and the City of Turku, as well as by the Academy of Finland (grants 121569 and 123571), the Juho Vainio Foundation, the Yrjö Jahnsson Foundation, the Turku.
The SWS is supported by grants from the Medical Research Council, National Institute for Health Research Southampton Biomedical Research Centre, University of Southampton and University Hospital Southampton National Health Service Foundation Trust, and the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007–2013), project EarlyNutrition (grant 289346). Study participants were drawn from a cohort study funded by the Medical Research Council and the Dunhill Medical Trust.
Availability of data and materials
The datasets generated and analyzed during the current study are available upon request to the cohorts.