These articles highlight the complex and wide-ranging healthcare needs of various refugee groups in their destination countries and show that refugees require accessible and culturally appropriate health services. Factors that determine the varying needs are influenced by where the refugee population originates from, the reason for their forced departure, the nature and added risks of their journeys, the cultural context they encounter on arrival, and the type of health system in their destination country.
In a study in Durban, South Africa, Meyer-Weitz et al.  explored the health access perception of predominantly female caregivers of Congolese refugee children and concluded that long waiting times, negative attitudes, and discrimination are key sources of dissatisfaction with primary healthcare. By contrast, in Australia, an analysis of longitudinal data to investigate levels of post migration psychological adjustment among refugee children concluded that the majority of resettled children and adolescents was well adjusted, especially those with better physical health and school attendance, although young refugees reported greater peer difficulties . Another Australian study investigated psychiatric symptoms among resettled refugee women , reporting a high risk of mental health disorders in this group, with particular effects observed in those from Sudan or Burma and those with a reported history of more past trauma events and post migration living difficulties. Similarly, a German questionnaire-based study among female refugees from Afghanistan, Syria, Iran, Iraq, Somalia, and Eritrea concluded that gender-specific trauma, including by family members, determines physical and mental health, quality of life, and the ability to integrate post migration . Further, Kizilhan et al.  describe the devastating impact of the Iraqi conflict on Yazidis, a religious minority that has borne a disproportionate burden of violence and mental and physical harm, highlighting the urgent need for an integrated medical response. Additionally, a review of systematic reviews on perinatal outcomes among refugee and asylum-seeking women found adverse pregnancy outcomes complicated by poor access and discrimination , and identified the need to overcome access barriers and tackle inequalities in this vulnerable population. An infectious disease screening data analysis of the refugees in the UK resettlement program found variations in the levels of disease by country of origin and pre-migration circumstance, concluding that a tailored and targeted program using a risk-based approach may be appropriate . These studies add to our knowledge of the levels of physical and mental ill health in refugee populations, yet more research is needed on interventions for their reduction and to improve prevention.
Within refugee camps, the provision of healthcare is often challenged due to the inadequacy of resources, ongoing security risks, and the diverse health needs of the populations as determined by previous physical and mental trauma. Through assessments in Greek refugee camps, Rojek et al.  surmised that useful clinical data are available via consultations and that these data need to be collected and fed into planning to inform outbreak investigation and control. Similarly, another Greek mixed methods study identified high levels of anxiety disorder and prior violence among a largely Syrian refugee population .
Internally displaced persons often suffer equally adverse consequences without the protection and rights sometimes afforded to refugees. In Syria, in the context of the challenges of the ongoing conflict, Aburas et al.  describe a case study based on a health center providing maternal and child healthcare in collaboration with the Syrian Expatriate Medical Association, illustrating the potential impact of local groups to complement wider international efforts. Additionally, tackling mental health issues in refugees requires both psychological and pharmacological measures; Ostuzzi et al.  describe the UNHCR guidelines on pharmacological interventions for non-affective psychosis which, while limited by the quality of underlying evidence, provide robust practical guidance.