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Table 4 The number of modeling studies compared to the WHO and CDC lists of important AMR threats.

From: Population-level mathematical modeling of antimicrobial resistance: a systematic review

Pathogen WHO category CDC category AMR models References
Enterobacteriaceae, carbapenem-resistant C1 C1 1 [156]
Enterobacteriaceae, ESBL-producing C1 C2 3 [141, 157, 158]
Acinetobacter baumannii, carbapenem- or multidrug-resistant C1 C2 4 [158,159,160,161]
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, carbapenem-or multidrug-resistant C1 C2 2 [139, 158]
Neisseria gonorrhoeae, cephalosporin- or fluoroquinolone-resistant C2 C1 6 [162,163,164,165,166,167]
Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant C2 C2 65 [22, 31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38, 151, 158, 168,169,170,171,172,173,174,175,176,177,178,179,180,181,182,183,184,185,186,187,188,189,190,191,192,193,194,195,196,197,198,199,200,201,202,203,204,205,206,207,208,209,210,211,212,213,214,215,216,217,218,219,220,221]
Enterococcus faecium, vancomycin-resistant C2 C2 10 [158, 202, 222,223,224,225,226,227,228,229]
Campylobacter spp., fluoroquinolone-resistant C2 C2 2 [229, 230]
Salmonellae, (Typhi and non-typhoidal), fluoroquinolone-resistant C2 C2 2 [231, 232]
Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-intermediate and resistant C2 C3
Helicobacter pylori C2
Haemophilus influenzae, ampicillin-resistant C3
Streptococcus pneumoniae, penicillin-non-susceptible C3 C2 12 [37, 233,234,235,236,237,238,239,240]
Shigella spp., fluoroquinolone-resistant C3 C2 1 [241]
Clostridium difficile C1
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, MDR, XDR C2 43 [19, 20, 30, 39,40,41,42,43,44,45,46,47,48,49,50,51,52,53,54, 242,243,244,245,246,247,248,249,250,251,252,253,254,255,256,257,258,259,260,261,262,263,264,265]
Fluconazole-resistant Candida C2
Streptococcus agalactiae, clindamycin-resistant group B MDR, XDR C3
Streptococcus pyogenes, erythromycin-resistant group A MDR, XDR C3
  1. The pathogens that pose the greatest threat to human health according to the WHO and the top drug-resistant threats in the USA according to the CDC. Category 1 (C1) threats are described as “Critical” (WHO) or “Urgent” (CDC); category 2 (C2) as “High” (WHO) or “Serious” (CDC); and category 3 (C3) as “Medium” (WHO) or “Concerning” (CDC).