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Table 1 Characteristics of studies included in the meta-analysis

From: Sex differences in the association between diabetes and risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all-cause and cause-specific mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 5,162,654 participants

Author Study location Study name Mean baseline age (years) No. of participants No. of diabetes Ascertainment of diabetes Outcome Mean follow-up years Maximum adjustment available
Jousilahti et al. 1999 [17] Finland Pekka et al-Finnish 44.4 14,786 NA Self-reported CHD mortality NA Age, study year, area, smoking, HDL, HDL/cholesterol ratio, SBP, BMI
Oba et al. 2008 [18] Japan Takayama study 54.6 29,079 1217 Self-reported All-cause mortality, cancer mortality, CVD mortality, CHD mortality, stroke mortality 7 Age, smoking, BMI, physical activity, length of education in years, history of hypertension, total energy intake, intake of vegetables, fat, and alcohol
Hu et al. 2005 [19] Finland Kuopio and North Karelia study 44.3 50,281 962 Self-reported All-cause mortality, CVD mortality, CHD mortality, stroke mortality 17.2 Age, study year, BMI, SBP, TC, smoking
Madssen et al. 2012 [20] Norway HUNT 1 study 74.6 47,586 2421 Self-reported, measured CHD mortality NA Age, BMI, hypertension, CVD, smoking, physical activity
DECODE Study Group 2001 [21] Europe DECODE Study 53.2 22,514 1807 Self-reported, measured All-cause mortality, CVD mortality, CHD mortality, stroke mortality 8.8 Age, center, TC, BMI, SBP, smoking
Keli et al. 1993 [22] USA Charleston Heart Study 50 2181 NA Self-reported All-cause mortality, CHD mortality 30 Age, SBP, serum cholesterol, smoking, BMI, years of education, history of diabetes
Friberg et al. 2004 [23] Denmark Copenhagen City Heart Study 58.4 29,310 1072 Self-reported, measured CVD mortality 4.7 Age, AF, arterial hypertension, SBP, MI, ELVH, smoking, FEV2
VR et al. 1996 [24] Pacific island nation of Fiji NA 50.5 2546 2638 Self-reported, measured All-cause mortality, CVD mortality, CHD mortality, stroke mortality 11 Age, SBP, BMI, TC, smoking, survey area
Bozorgmanesh et al. 2011 [25] Iran Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study 47 6331 897 Self-reported, measured All-cause mortality 8.6 Age, smoking, SBP, WC, TC, TG, HDL-C, non-HDL-C, CVD, intervention
Kleinman et al. 1988 [26] USA First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 58.1 7381 407 Self-reported, measured All-cause mortality, CVD mortality, CHD mortality 10 Age, SBP, serum cholesterol, BMI, smoking
Magliano et al. 2010 [27] Mauritius NA 40.9 9559 NA Self-reported, measured All-cause mortality, CVD mortality 15 Age, WC, HIP, smoking, hypertension, ethnicity, CVD, education, HDL-C, TG, TC
Elizabeth et al. 1991 [28] USA The Rancho Bernardo Study 61.9 2471 334 Self-reported, measured CHD mortality 14.4 Age, SBP, cholesterol, BMI, smoking
Fraser et al. 1992 [29] USA The Adventist Health Study 52.8 27,658 NA Self-reported CHD mortality 6 Age, hypertension, smoking, physical activity, BMI
Sievers et al. 1992 [30] India NA 49.5 5131 1266 Measured All-cause mortality, cancer mortality, IHD mortality, stroke mortality, infections mortality 10 Age
Seeman et al. 1993 [31] USA The New Haven EPESE cohort NA 2812 386 Self-reported CHD mortality 6 Age, education, BMI, smoking, alcohol, vegetable intake, red meat intake, physical activity, aspirin use
Campbell et al. 2012 [6] USA Cancer Prevention Study-II NA 1,053,831 52,655 Self-reported All-cause mortality, cancer mortality, CVD mortality, CHD mortality, stroke mortality, respiratory system mortality, infections mortality 26 Age, high blood pressure, BMI, smoking, elevated serum cholesterol, elevated serum triglycerides, elevated serum uric acid, IGT, obesity, hyperuricemia
Wang et al. 2012 [32] Taiwan Taiwan Survey of Hypertension, Hyperglycemia, and Hyperlipidemia 45.6 4289 335 Measured All-cause mortality, CVD mortality 7.7 Age, education, marital status, housing tenure, car ownership
Natarajan et al. 2003 [33] USA Framingham Heart Study and the Framingham Offspring Study 52.2 5243 229 Measured CHD mortality 20 Age, chest pain on exertion, BP, use of anti-hypertensive medication, smoking, BMI
Vilbergsson et al. 1998 [34] Iceland The Reykjavik Study 52.8 18,912 477 Self-reported, measured All-cause mortality, CVD mortality 17 Age strata, CAD, stroke, BMI, alcohol, smoking, betel nut chewing, physical activity, income
Qvist et al. 1996 [35] Sweden NA 59.1 5306 NA Self-reported CVD mortality, stroke mortality 10 Age, smoking, hypertension, TC, HDL-C, BMI
Tunstall-Pedoe et al. 1997 [36] England Edinburgh and north Glasgow MONICA population surveys 49.5 11,629 NA Self-reported All-cause mortality, CHD mortality 7.6 Age, smoking, BMI, hypertension, TC, TG, calendar year
Nilsson et al. 1998 [37] Sweden Swedish Annual Level-of-Living Survey NA 39,055 776 Self-reported All-cause mortality, CVD mortality, CHD mortality, stroke mortality 16 Age
Imazu et al. 2002 [38] USA The Hawaii-Los Angeles-Hiroshima study 60.9 927 169 Measured CVD mortality, CHD mortality 14 Age, BMI, serum uric acid, TC, TG, hypertension, ECG (abnormal Q), ECG (ST-T changes), smoking
Hart et al. 1999 [39] England The Renfrew/Paisley general population study NA 15,406 NA Self-reported Stroke mortality 20 Age, DBP, smoking, FEV1, height, BMI, diabetes, preexisting CHD
Bragg et al. 2014 [40] China The China Kadoorie Biobank 51.5 512,869 512,869 Self-reported Measured All-cause mortality, cancer mortality, IHD mortality, stroke mortality, respiratory disease mortality, infections mortality 7 Age, geographic area, education, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, BMI.
Kato et al. 2015 [41] Japan Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study 50.2 99,584 4286 Self-reported All-cause mortality, cancer mortality, IHD mortality, stroke mortality 20 Age, BMI, alcohol, smoking, hypertension, physical activity, area
Johansen et al. 1987 [42] Canada The Nutrition Canada survey NA 8094 NA Self-reported All-cause mortality 10 Age, respondent status, smoking, DBP, history of diabetes or presence of glucose in the urine, BMI, serum cholesterol level, alcohol consumption
Suemoto et al. 2014 [43] Brazil The SABE Study 71 1882 312 Self-reported All-cause mortality 7 Age, race, marital status, years of education, childhood socioeconomic status, occupation, income, heart disease, lung disease, stroke, arthritis, depressive symptoms, alcohol, smoking, BMI, physical activity, frailty, nutritional status, year of entry in the study
Jee et al. 2005 [44] Korea The National Health Insurance Corp 46.9 1,298,358 62,924 Self-reported, measured All-cause mortality, all-cancer mortality 10 Age, age squared, smoking, alcohol
Fraser et al. 1997 [45] Spain Non-Hispanic white Seventh-Day Adventists from California NA 603 NA Self-reported All-cause mortality, CHD mortality 12 Age, smoking, physical activity, nuts per week, fruit per day, bread, sweet desserts per week, beef per week, fish per week
Moe et al. 2013 [46] Norway HUNT 2 46.5 53,587 1195 Self-reported, measured CVD mortality 12 Age, physical activity, smoking, alcohol, education, BMI, SBP, TC
Liu et al. 2011 [47] USA The LSOA II study 80 9246 NA Self-reported All-cause mortality 8 Age, marital status, living arrangement, educational attainments, hypertension, CHD, stroke
Vimalananda et al. 2014 [48] USA The Cardiovascular Health Study 72.6 4817 681 Self-reported, measured All-cause mortality 12.5 Age, clinical site, HDL-C, LDL-C, SBP, anti-hypertensive medication use, CRP
Eichner et al. 2010 [49] USA The Strong Heart Study 56 4293 265 Self-reported, measured CVD mortality 17 Age, BMI, LDL-C, HDL-C, physical activity, hypertension, diabetes, macro- and microalbuminuria
Bozorgmanesh et al. 2012 [50] Iran The Tehran lipid and glucose study 33.3 8795 1449 Self-reported, measured All-cause mortality, CVD mortality 9 Age, smoking, SBP, using antihypertensive drugs, TC, HDL-C
Moe et al. 2013 [51] Norway HUNT 1 study 47.9 56,170 1105 Self-reported CVD mortality, IHD mortality 24 Age, birth, smoking, education, alcohol, SBP, BMI, physical activity
Kakehi et al. 2014 [52] Japan The Jichi Medical School Cohort Study 55.1 11,998 2706 Measured All-cause mortality, cancer mortality, CVD mortality, stroke mortality 10.7 Age, BMI, SBP, TC, HDL-C, TC, smoking, alcohol
Shen et al. 2014 [53] China Elderly health centers in Hong Kong 69.5 66,820 9225 Self-reported All-cause mortality, cancer mortality, CVD mortality, IHD mortality, stroke mortality, respiratory disease mortality, infectious disease mortality 12.5 Age, alcohol, smoking, physical activity, education, housing, monthly expenditure
Hiltunen et al. 2005 [54] Finland Kempele, Oulunsalo and Hailuoto study 76 379 98 Self-reported, measured All-cause mortality 9.8 Age, BMI, CVD, hypertension, physical activity, self-rated health
Gordon-Dseagu et al. 2014 [55] England The Health Survey for England or Scottish Health Survey 47 204,533 7199 Self-reported All-cause mortality, cancer mortality, CVD mortality 10 Age, sex, smoking, BMI
Yeh et al. 2012 [56] USA The CLUE II (Give Us a Clue to Cancer and Heart Disease) cohort 51.8 18,280 599 Treated diabetes All-cancer mortality 17 Age, BMI, smoking, education level, hypertension treatment, and high cholesterol treatment, menopausal status, history of use of oral contraceptives, history of use of hormone replacement therapy
Chen et al. 2017 [57] Asia The ACC 53.9 771,297 NA Self-reported All-cancer mortality 12.7 Age, BMI, smoking, alcohol, educational attainment, urban residence
Zhou et al. 2010 [58] Europe The DECODE study 53.4 44,655 NA Self-reported, measured All-cancer mortality 21.4 Age, study cohort, BMI, SBP, cholesterol, smoking
Drake et al. 2017 [59] Sweden The MDCS 57.9 26,953 21,940 Self-reported Cancer mortality 17 Age, calendar year of study entry, height, smoking, physical activity, alcohol, educational level, past food habit change, hypertension, use of lipid-age, lowering drugs, family history of cancer, BMI
Preis et al. 2009 [60] USA The Framingham Heart Study 58.1 10,333 NA Self-reported, measured All-cause mortality, CVD mortality 25 Age
NHIS USA NHIS 46.8 339,113 26,039 Self-reported All-cause mortality, cancer mortality, CVD mortality, stroke mortality 6.6 Age, race, BMI, smoking, drinking, education level, hypertension, physical activity, marital status, CVD, cancer
Natarajan et al. 2005 [61] USA National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-up Study 52.4 10,871 539 Measured CHD mortality NA Age, race, smoking, hypertension, serum cholesterol level, body mass index
Hirakawa et al. 2017 [62] Japan EPOCH-JAPAN study 58.2 38,854 1867 Measured All-cause mortality, CVD mortality, CHD mortality, stroke mortality 10.3 Age, SBP, serum total cholesterol, BMI, current smoking status, habitual alcohol intake
Alegre-Díaz et al. 2016 [63] Mexico Mexico City Study 51.7 146,046 17,411 Self-reported All-cause mortality 12 Age, smoking, district, education level, height, weight, WC, Hip
  1. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index (Quetelet index), BP blood pressure, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, TC total cholesterol, HDL high-density lipoprotein, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, TG triglyceride, TG/HDL-C triglyceride-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, ELVF electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy, AF atrial fibrillation, MI myocardial infarction, FEV1 forced expiratory volume in 1 s, FEV2 forced expiratory volume in 2 s, CVD cardiovascular disease (angina, coronary heart disease, stroke, or amputation) (family history of premature CVD), IHD ischemic heart disease, CHD coronary heart disease, WC waist circumference, Hip hip circumference, IGT impaired glucose tolerance, CRP C-reactive protein, NA not available