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Table 2 Sample comparisons: CA+ (n = 638) versus CA− (n = 501) groups

From: Unravelling the complex nature of resilience factors and their changes between early and later adolescence

 CA+CA−t*1/z*2/X2*3 (DF)95% CI*4p
Gendern girls = 358n girls = 2621.50 (1) .22
n boys = 280n boys = 239
SES*5n hard pressed = 77n hard pressed = 305.45 < .001
n moderate means = 36n moderate means = 11
n comfortably off = 170n comfortably off = 105
n urban prosperity = 37n urban prosperity = 41
n wealthy achievers = 318n wealthy achievers = 314
Age 14
 AgeM = 14.49, SD = 0.28M = 14.48, SD = 0.28− 0.43 (1049.3)− .04 to .03.67
 Psychiatric history (PH)*6n PH = 201n PH = 7442 (1) < .001
n no-PH = 437n no-PH = 427
 Depression symptomsM = 17.42, SD = 11.61M = 14.03, SD = 10.46− 5.10 (1088.5)− 4.69 to − 2.09< .001
 Anxiety symptomsM = 16.92, SD = 12.61M = 13.92, SD = 11.28− 4.17 (1089.2)− 4.42 to − 1.59< .001
Age 17
 AgeM = 17.49, SD = 0.34M = 17.48, SD = 0.32− 0.56 (1017.5)−.05 to .03.58
 PH*6n PH = 268n PH = 12248.48 (1) < .001
n no-PH = 297n no-PH = 345
 Depression symptomsM = 16.36, SD = 12.27M = 12.38, SD = 10.19− 5.51 (967.61)− 5.39 to − 2.56< .001
 Anxiety symptomsM = 15.02, SD = 12.72M = 11.53, SD = 10.96− 4.58 (967.76)−4.98 to − 1.99< .001
  1. Note. CA childhood adversity, SES socio-economic status. *1We applied Welsh’s two-tailed independent sample t test to account for potentially unequal variances across groups. *2As SES was split in five ordered categories, we applied the two-tailed Asymptotic Cochran-Armitage test [28]. *3We applied two-tailed Pearson’s chi-square tests. *4The confidence interval (CI) for the difference in location estimates, corresponding to the alternative hypothesis. *5SES was assessed with the ACORN classification system (http://www.caci.co.uk) [29]. *6Psychiatric history was assessed with the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children (Present and Lifetime Version), at age 14 additionally including learning disabilities, clinical sub-threshold diagnoses, and deliberate self-harm, and at age 17 additionally including clinical sub-threshold diagnoses and deliberate self-harm [30]