Skip to main content

Table 1 Results of the Mendelian randomization sensitivity analyses associating the liability for one standard deviation increase in attained educational level, household income, Townsend deprivation index, and intelligence with the odds of ADHD

From: The impact and causal directions for the associations between diagnosis of ADHD, socioeconomic status, and intelligence by use of a bi-directional two-sample Mendelian randomization design

Exposure Method OR (95% C)) p-value
Education (219 SNPs) Weighted median 0.34 (0.27, 0.43) <0.001
MR-Egger 0.39 (0.18, 0.85) 0.018
MR-PRESSO (3 outliers) 0.30 (0.25, 0.36) <0.001
Contamination mixture 0.23 (0.17, 0.32) <0.001
MR-Mode 0.58 (0.27, 1.26) 0.168
MR-Mix 0.37 (0.23, 0.59) <0.001
GSMR 0.29 (0.25–0.34) <0.001
Household income (42 SNPs) Weighted median 0.49 (0.34, 0.72) <0.001
MR-Egger 1.64 (0.38, 7.00) 0.508
MR-PRESSO (1 outlier) 0.38 (0.29, 0.51) <0.001
Contamination mixture 0.37 (0.25, 0.54) <0.001
MR-Mode 0.69 (0.34, 1.40) 0.308
MR-Mix 0.37 (0.23, 0.60) <0.001
GSMR 0.28 (0.21, 0.38) <0.001
Townsend deprivation index (17 SNPs) Weighted median 5.51 (2.22, 13.71) <0.001
MR-Egger 0.04 (0.00, 229.4) 0.482
MR-PRESSO (2 outliers) 4.86 (2.11, 11.19) 0.002
Contamination mixture 8.25 (3.78, 27.39) 0.001
MR-Mode 8.94 (1.58, 50.69) 0.025
MR-Mix 1.00 (1.00, 1.00) 0.99
GSMR 4.92 (2.95, 8.21) <0.001
Intelligence (132 SNPs) Weighted median 0.59 (0.48, 0.73) <0.001
MR-Egger 0.68 (0.27, 1.72) 0.416
MR-PRESSO (4 outliers) 0.58 (0.48, 0.69) <0.001
Contamination mixture 0.53 (0.44, 0.62) <0.001
MR-Mode 0.59 (0.37, 0.97) 0.037
MR-Mix 0.50 (0.31–0.81) 0.005
GSMR 0.53 (0.46–0.60) <0.001