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Table 3 Results of the Mendelian randomization sensitivity analyses using summary-level data from genetic liability to ADHD (9 SNPs) to a standard deviation change in attained educational level, household income, Townsend deprivation index, and intelligence

From: The impact and causal directions for the associations between diagnosis of ADHD, socioeconomic status, and intelligence by use of a bi-directional two-sample Mendelian randomization design

Outcome Method OR (95% CI) p-value
Education Weighted median −0.07 (−0.1, −0.03) <0.001
MR-Egger 0.03 (−0.15, 0.21) 0.760
MR-PRESSO (4 outliers) −0.06 (−0.10, −0.02) 0.046
Contamination mixture 0.12 (0.19, 0.00) <0.001
MR-Mode −0.08 (−0.15, 0.00) 0.078
MR-Mix −0.15 (−0.21, −0.09) <0.001
GSMR (<10 SNPs) NA  
Household income IVW-random effects −0.09 (−0.11, −0.06) <0.001
Weighted median −0.09 (−0.12, −0.05) <0.001
MR-Egger −0.03 (−0.14, 0.07) 0.564
MR-PRESSO (0 outlier) NA NA
Contamination mixture −0.09 (−0.11, −0.07) <0.001
MR-Mode −0.08 (−0.14, −0.02) 0.026
MR-Mix −0.04 (−0.06, −0.02) 0.001
GSMR (<10 SNPs) NA  
Townsend deprivation index Weighted median 0.06 (0.04, 0.09) <0.001
MR-Egger 0.01 (−0.07, 0.09) 0.762
MR-PRESSO (0 outliers) NA NA
Contamination mixture 0.08 (0.05, 0.09) <0.001
MR-Mode 0.07 (0.03, 0.10) 0.003
MR-Mix 0.07 (−0.02, 0.16) 0.132
GSMR (<10 SNPs) NA  
Intelligence Weighted median −0.05 (−0.10, −0.01) 0.030
MR-Egger −0.24 (−0.49, 0.01) 0.108
MR-PRESSO (4 outliers) −0.06 (−0.13, 0.01) 0.149
Contamination mixture −0.11 (−0.15, −0.08) 0.020
MR-Mode −0.10 (−0.21, 0.02) 0.130
MR-Mix −0.14 (−0.22, −0.06) 0.001
GSMR (<10 SNPs) NA  
  1. NA not applicable given that the genetic instrument for the ADHD exposure included only 9 SNPs, GSMR is not a suitable method