Data accessed via the ESPEN portal belong to the Ministries of Health and we would like to acknowledge the national onchocerciasis control and elimination programs for making these data available. F Carvalho FCT acknowledges Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, I.P., in the scope of the project UIDP/04378/2020 and UIDB/04378/2020 of the Research Unit on Applied Molecular Biosciences - UCIBIO and the project LA/P/0140/2020 of the Associate Laboratory Institute for Health and Bioeconomy - i4HB; FCT/MCTES (Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Ensino Superior) through the project UIDB/50006/2020M Ausloos, A Pana and C Herteliu are partially supported by a grant of the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research and Innovation, CNDS-UEFISCDI, project number PN-III-P4-ID-PCCF-2016-0084. C Herteliu and A Pana are partially supported by a grant of the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research and Innovation, CNDS-UEFISCDI, project number PN-III-P2-2.1-SOL-2020-2-0351. A M Samy acknowledges the support from the Egyptian Fulbright Mission program and Ain Shams University. A I Ribeiro was supported by National Funds through FCT, under the program of Stimulus of Scientific Employment “Individual Support” within the contract CEECIND/02386/2018. A Sheikh acknowledges the support of Health Data Research UK. M N Khan acknowledges the support of Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. B Unnikrishnan acknowledges Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal. K Deribe is supported by the Wellcome Trust [grant number 201900/Z/16/Z] as part of his International Intermediate Fellowship. O Adetokunboh acknowledges the South African Department of Science and Innovation, and National Research Foundation. Y J Kim acknowledges support by the Research Management Centre, Xiamen University Malaysia [No. XMUMRF/2020-C6/ITCM/0004]. T Bärnighausen was supported by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation through the Alexander von Humboldt Professor award, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. W Stolk gratefully acknowledges funding from the NTD Modelling Consortium by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (grant number OPP1184344).
The members of the LBD 2019 Neglected Tropical Diseases Collaborators are the authors of this paper: Chris A Schmidt,1 Elizabeth A Cromwell,1,2 Elex Hill,1 Katie M Donkers,1 Megan F Schipp,1 Kimberly B Johnson,1 David M Pigott,1,2 Jaffar Abbas,3 Victor Adekanmbi,4 Olatunji O Adetokunboh,5,6 Muktar Beshir Ahmed,7,8 Fahad Mashhour Alanezi,9 Turki M Alanzi,10 Vahid Alipour,11,12 Catalina Liliana Andrei,13 Prof Tudorel Andrei,14 Davood Anvari,15,16 Seth Christopher Yaw Appiah,17,18 Muhammad Aqeel,19,19 Jalal Arabloo,11 Prof Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi,20,21 Prof Marcel Ausloos,22,14 Atif Amin Baig,23 Prof Maciej Banach,24,25 Prof Till Winfried Bärnighausen,26,27 Krittika Bhattacharyya,28,29 Prof Zulfiqar A Bhutta,30,31 Ali Bijani,32 Oliver J Brady,33 Nicola Luigi Bragazzi,34 Zahid A Butt,35,36 Prof Felix Carvalho,37 Vijay Kumar Chattu,38,39 Saad M A Dahlawi,40 Giovanni Damiani,41,42 Feleke Mekonnen Demeke,43 Kebede Deribe,44,45 Prof Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne,46,2,1 Prof Daniel Diaz,47,48 Alireza Didarloo,49 Lucas Earl,1 Prof Maysaa El Sayed Zaki,50 Prof Maha El Tantawi,51 Nazir Fattahi,52 Prof Eduarda Fernandes,53 Nataliya A Foigt,54 Masoud Foroutan,55,56 Richard Charles Franklin,57 Prof Yuming Guo,58,59 Arvin Haj-Mirzaian,60,61 Prof Samer Hamidi,62 Hadi Hassankhani,63,64 Prof Claudiu Herteliu,14,65 Prof Tarig B Higazi,66 Prof Mostafa Hosseini,67,68 Mehdi Hosseinzadeh,69,70 Prof Mowafa Househ,71 Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi,72,73 Irena M Ilic,74 Prof Milena D Ilic,75 Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani,64 Ravi Prakash Jha,76,77 John S Ji,78 Prof Jost B Jonas,79,80 Jacek Jerzy Jozwiak,81 Leila R Kalankesh,82 Naser Kamyari,83 Prof Behzad Karami Matin,52 Salah Eddin Karimi,84 Gbenga A Kayode,85,86 Ali Kazemi Karyani,52 Ejaz Ahmad Khan,87 Md Nuruzzaman Khan,88 Khaled Khatab,89,90 Mona M Khater,91 Neda Kianipour,92 Yun Jin Kim,93 Soewarta Kosen,94 Dian Kusuma,95,96 Prof Carlo La Vecchia,97 Prof Van Charles Lansingh,98,99 Paul H Lee,100 Shanshan Li,101 Shokofeh Maleki,102 Mohammad Ali Mansournia,67 Francisco Rogerlândio Martins-Melo,103 Colm McAlinden,104 Walter Mendoza,105 Tomislav Mestrovic,106,107 Masoud Moghadaszadeh,108,109 Abdollah Mohammadian-Hafshejani,110 Seyyede Momeneh Mohammadi,111 Shafiu Mohammed,112,113 Rahmatollah Moradzadeh,114 Paula Moraga,115 Mehdi Naderi,102 Ahamarshan Jayaraman Nagarajan,116,117 Ionut Negoi,118,119 Cuong Tat Nguyen,120 Huong Lan Thi Nguyen,120 Prof Bogdan Oancea,121 Andrew T Olagunju,122,123 Ahmed Omar Bali,124 Prof Obinna E Onwujekwe,125 Adrian Pana,14,126 Prof Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar,127 Kiana Ramezanzadeh,60 David Laith Rawaf,128,129 Prof Salman Rawaf,130,131 Reza Rawassizadeh,132 Aziz Rezapour,11 Ana Isabel Ribeiro,133 Abdallah M Samy,134 Masood Ali Shaikh,135 Kiomars Sharafi,52 Prof Aziz Sheikh,136,137 Prof Jasvinder A Singh,138,139 Eirini Skiadaresi,140 Shahin Soltani,52 Wilma A Stolk,141 Mu'awiyyah Babale Sufiyan,142 Alan J Thomson,143 Bach Xuan Tran,144 Khanh Bao Tran,145,146 Prof Bhaskaran Unnikrishnan,147 Prof Francesco S Violante,148,149 Giang Thu Vu,150 Tomohide Yamada,151 Prof Sanni Yaya,152,153 Prof Paul Yip,154,155 Naohiro Yonemoto,156,157 Prof Chuanhua Yu,158 Yong Yu,159 Maryam Zamanian,114 Yunquan Zhang,160,161 Zhi-Jiang Zhang,162 Arash Ziapour,163 Prof Simon I Hay.1,2
1Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Department of Health Metrics Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 3Antai College of Economics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China; 4Department of Population Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK; 5DSI-NRF Centre of Excellence for Epidemiological Modelling and Analysis (SACEMA), Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa; 6Division of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa; 7Department of Epidemiology, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia; 8Australian Center for Precision Health, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 9Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 10Health Information Management and Technology Department, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 11Health Management and Economics Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 12Department of Health Economics, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 13Cardiology Department, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania; 14Department of Statistics and Econometrics, Bucharest University of Economic Studies, Bucharest, Romania; 15Department of Parasitology, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran; 16Department of Parasitology, Iranshahr University of Medical Sciences, Iranshahr, Iran; 17Department of Sociology and Social Work, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana; 18Center for International Health, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany; 19Department of Psychology, Foundation University Islamabad, Rawalpandi, Pakistan; 20Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 21Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran; 22School of Business, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK; 23Unit of Biochemistry, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (Sultan Zainal Abidin University), Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia; 24Department of Hypertension, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland; 25Polish Mothers' Memorial Hospital Research Institute, Lodz, Poland; 26Heidelberg Institute of Global Health (HIGH), Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany; 27T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA; 28Department of Statistical and Computational Genomics, National Institute of Biomedical Genomics, Kalyani, India; 29Department of Statistics, University of Calcutta, Kolkata, India; 30Centre for Global Child Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 31Centre of Excellence in Women & Child Health, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan; 32Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran; 33Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK; 34University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy; 35School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada; 36Al Shifa School of Public Health, Al Shifa Trust Eye Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan; 37Research Unit on Applied Molecular Biosciences (UCIBIO), University of Porto, Porto, Portugal; 38Department of Community Medicine, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences, Sawangi, India; 39Saveetha Medical College, Saveetha University, Chennai, India; 40Environmental Health Department, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 41IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi (Galeazzi Orthopedic Institute IRCCS), University of Milan, Milan, Italy; 42Department of Dermatology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA; 43Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; 44Wellcome Trust Brighton and Sussex Centre for Global Health Research, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Brighton, UK; 45School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 46Department of Community Medicine, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka; 47Center of Complexity Sciences, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico; 48Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Zootechnics, Autonomous University of Sinaloa, Culiacán Rosales, Mexico; 49Department of Community Medicine and Public Health, Urmia University of Medical Science, Urmia, Iran; 50Reference Laboratory of Egyptian Universities-Cairo, Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Cairo, Egypt; 51Pediatric Dentistry and Dental Public Health Department, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt; 52Research Center for Environmental Determinants of Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran; 53Associated Laboratory for Green Chemistry (LAQV), University of Porto, Porto, Portugal; 54Institute of Gerontology, National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine; 55Department of Medical Parasitology, Abadan University of Medical Sciences, Abadan, Iran; 56Faculty of Medicine, Abadan University of Medical Sciences, Abadan, Iran; 57School of Public Health, Medical, and Veterinary Sciences, James Cook University, Douglas, QLD, Australia; 58Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 59Department of Epidemiology, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai City, China; 60Department of Pharmacology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 61Obesity Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 62School of Health and Environmental Studies, Hamdan Bin Mohammed Smart University, Dubai, United Arab Emirates; 63School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 64Independent Consultant, Tabriz, Iran; 65School of Business, London South Bank University, London, UK; 66Department of Biological Sciences, Ohio University, Zanesville, OH, USA; 67Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 68Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 69Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Vietnam; 70Department of Computer Science, University of Human Development, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq; 71College of Science and Engineering, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Doha, Qatar; 72Department of Community Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; 73Department of Community Medicine, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; 74Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia; 75Department of Epidemiology, University of Kragujevac, Kragujevac, Serbia; 76Department of Community Medicine, Dr. Baba Saheb Ambedkar Medical College & Hospital, Delhi, India; 77Department of Community Medicine, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India; 78Vanke School of Public Health, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China; 79Institute of Molecular and Clinical Ophthalmology Basel, Switzerland, Basel, Switzerland; 80Department of Ophthalmology, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany; 81Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of Opole, Opole, Poland; 82School of Management and Medical Informatics, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 83Department of Biostatistics, Abadan University of Medical Sciences, Abadan, Iran; 84Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 85International Research Center of Excellence, Institute of Human Virology Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria; 86Julius Centre for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands; 87Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Health Services Academy, Islamabad, Pakistan; 88Department of Population Science, Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh; 89Faculty of Health and Wellbeing, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK; 90College of Arts and Sciences, Ohio University, Zanesville, OH, USA; 91Department of Medical Parasitology, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt; 92Department of Public Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran; 93School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Xiamen University Malaysia, Sepang, Malaysia; 94Independent Consultant, Jakarta, Indonesia; 95Imperial College Business School, Imperial College London, London, UK; 96Faculty of Public Health, University of Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia; 97Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Milan, Italy; 98HelpMeSee, New York, NY, USA; 99Mexican Institute of Ophthalmology, Queretaro, Mexico; 100Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK; 101School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 102Clinical Research Development Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran; 103Campus Caucaia, Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Ceará, Caucaia, Brazil; 104Department of Ophthalmology, Singleton Hospital, Swansea, UK; 105Peru Country Office, United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), Lima, Peru; 106Clinical Microbiology and Parasitology Unit, Dr. Zora Profozic Polyclinic, Zagreb, Croatia; 107University Centre Varazdin, University North, Varazdin, Croatia; 108Biotechnology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 109Molecular Medicine Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 110Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran; 111Department of Anatomical Sciences, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran; 112Health Systems and Policy Research Unit, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria; 113Department of Health Care Management, Technical University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany; 114Department of Epidemiology, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran; 115Computer, Electrical, and Mathematical Sciences and Engineering Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia; 116Research and Analytics Department, Initiative for Financing Health and Human Development, Chennai, India; 117Department of Research and Analytics, Bioinsilico Technologies, Chennai, India; 118Department of General Surgery, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania; 119Department of General Surgery, Emergency Hospital of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania; 120Institute for Global Health Innovations, Duy Tan University, Hanoi, Vietnam; 121Administrative and Economic Sciences Department, University of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania; 122Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 123Department of Psychiatry, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria; 124Diplomacy and Public Relations Department, University of Human Development, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq; 125Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Enugu, Nigeria; 126Department of Health Metrics, Center for Health Outcomes & Evaluation, Bucharest, Romania; 127Sina Trauma and Surgery Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 128WHO Collaborating Centre for Public Health Education and Training, Imperial College London, London, UK; 129University College London Hospitals, London, UK; 130Department of Primary Care and Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK; 131Academic Public Health England, Public Health England, London, UK; 132Department of Computer Science, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA; 133Epidemiology Research Unit (EPIUnit), University of Porto, Porto, Portugal; 134Department of Entomology, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt; 135Independent Consultant, Karachi, Pakistan; 136Centre for Medical Informatics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK; 137Division of General Internal Medicine, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA; 138School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, UK; 139Medicine Service, US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), Birmingham, AL, USA; 140Department of Ophthalmology, Hywel Dda University Health Board, Llanelli, UK; 141Department of Public Health, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands; 142Department of Community Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria; 143Department of Global Health Research, Adaptive Knowledge Management, Victoria, BC, Canada; 144Department of Health Economics, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam; 145Department of Molecular Medicine and Pathology, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 146Clinical Hematology and Toxicology, Maurice Wilkins Centre, Auckland, New Zealand; 147Kasturba Medical College, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Mangalore, India; 148Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy; 149Occupational Health Unit, Sant'Orsola Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy; 150Center of Excellence in Behavioral Medicine, Nguyen Tat Thanh University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam; 151Department of Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; 152School of International Development and Global Studies, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 153The George Institute for Global Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; 154Centre for Suicide Research and Prevention, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China; 155Department of Social Work and Social Administration, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China; 156Department of Neuropsychopharmacology, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Japan; 157Department of Public Health, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan; 158Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China; 159School of Public Health and Management, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, China; 160School of Public Health, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China; 161Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Occupational Hazard Identification and Control, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China; 162School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China; 163Department of Health Education and Health Promotion, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.