Holick MF: Resurrection of vitamin D deficiency and rickets. J Clin Invest. 2006, 116: 2062-2072. 10.1172/JCI29449.
Zittermann A, Iodice S, Pilz S, Grant WB, Bagnardi V, Gandini S: Vitamin D deficiency and mortality risk in the general population: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012, 95: 91-100. 10.3945/ajcn.111.014779.
Schottker B, Ball D, Gellert C, Brenner H: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and overall mortality. A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Ageing Res Rev. 2013, 12: 708-718. 10.1016/j.arr.2012.02.004.
Melamed ML, Michos ED, Post W, Astor B: 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and the risk of mortality in the general population. Arch Intern Med. 2008, 168: 1629-1637. 10.1001/archinte.168.15.1629.
Pittas AG, Lau J, Hu FB, Dawson-Hughes B: The role of vitamin D and calcium in type 2 diabetes. A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007, 92: 2017-2029. 10.1210/jc.2007-0298.
Mitri J, Muraru MD, Pittas AG: Vitamin D and type 2 diabetes: a systematic review. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011, 65: 1005-1015. 10.1038/ejcn.2011.118.
Pittas AG, Nelson J, Mitri J, Hillmann W, Garganta C, Nathan DM, Hu FB, Dawson-Hughes B, Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group: Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D and progression to diabetes in patients at risk for diabetes: an ancillary analysis in the Diabetes Prevention Program. Diabetes Care. 2012, 35: 565-573. 10.2337/dc11-1795.
Sun Q, Shi L, Rimm EB, Giovannucci EL, Hu FB, Manson JE, Rexrode KM: Vitamin D intake and risk of cardiovascular disease in US men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011, 94: 534-542. 10.3945/ajcn.110.008763.
Leu M, Giovannucci E: Vitamin D: epidemiology of cardiovascular risks and events. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011, 25: 633-646. 10.1016/j.beem.2011.04.001.
Giovannucci E: Epidemiological evidence for vitamin D and colorectal cancer. J Bone Miner Res. 2007, 22: V81-V85. 10.1359/jbmr.07s206.
Lee JE, Li H, Chan AT, Hollis BW, Lee IM, Stampfer MJ, Wu K, Giovannucci E, Ma J: Circulating levels of vitamin D and colon and rectal cancer: the Physicians’ Health Study and a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2011, 4: 735-743. 10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-10-0289.
Huncharek M, Muscat J, Kupelnick B: Colorectal cancer risk and dietary intake of calcium, vitamin D, and dairy products: a meta-analysis of 26,335 cases from 60 observational studies. Nutr Cancer. 2009, 61: 47-69. 10.1080/01635580802395733.
Manson JE, Mayne ST, Clinton SK: Vitamin D and prevention of cancer - ready for prime time?. N Engl J Med. 2011, 364: 1385-1387. 10.1056/NEJMp1102022.
Shapses SA, Manson JE: Vitamin D and prevention of cardiovascular disease and diabetes: why the evidence falls short. JAMA. 2011, 305: 2565-2566. 10.1001/jama.2011.881.
Grant WB: Effect of interval between serum draw and follow-up period on relative risk of cancer incidence with respect to 25-hydroxyvitamin D level: implications for meta-analyses and setting vitamin D guidelines. Dermatoendocrinol. 2011, 3: 199-204.
Grant WB: Effect of follow-up time on the relation between prediagnostic serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and all-cause mortality rate. Dermatoendocrinol. 2012, 4: 198-202. 10.4161/derm.20514.
Manson JE, Bassuk SS, Lee IM, Cook NR, Albert MA, Gordon D, Zaharris E, Macfadyen JG, Danielson E, Lin J, Zhang SM, Buring JE: The VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL (VITAL): rationale and design of a large randomized controlled trial of vitamin D and marine omega-3 fatty acid supplements for the primary prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease. Contemp Clin Trials. 2012, 33: 159-171. 10.1016/j.cct.2011.09.009.
Mithal A, Wahl DA, Bonjour JP, Burckhardt P, Dawson-Hughes B, Eisman JA, El-Hajj Fuleihan G, Josse RG, Lips P, Morales-Torres J, IOF Committee of Scientific Advisors (CSA) Nutrition Working Group: Global vitamin D status and determinants of hypovitaminosis D. Osteoporos Int. 2009, 20: 1807-1820. 10.1007/s00198-009-0954-6.
International Agency for Research on Cancer: Vitamin D and Cancer - a report of the IARC working group on vitamin D. 2008, Lyon, France: World Health Organization Press
Garland CF, French CB, Baggerly LL, Heaney RP: Vitamin D supplement doses and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the range associated with cancer prevention. Anticancer Res. 2011, 31: 607-611.
Reddy V, Sivakumar B: Magnesium-dependent vitamin-D-resistant rickets. Lancet. 1974, 1: 963-965.
Risco F, Traba ML: Influence of magnesium on the in vitro synthesis of 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Magnes Res. 1992, 5: 5-14.
Rude RK, Adams JS, Ryzen E, Endres DB, Niimi H, Horst RL, Haddad JG, Singer FR: Low serum concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in human magnesium deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1985, 61: 933-940. 10.1210/jcem-61-5-933.
Risco F, Traba ML: Possible involvement of a magnesium dependent mitochondrial alkaline phosphatase in the regulation of the 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1 alpha-and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-24R-hydroxylases in LLC-PK1 cells. Magnes Res. 1994, 7: 169-178.
Rosler A, Rabinowitz D: Magnesium-induced reversal of vitamin-D resistance in hypoparathyroidism. Lancet. 1973, 1: 803-804.
Sahota O, Mundey MK, San P, Godber IM, Hosking DJ: Vitamin D insufficiency and the blunted PTH response in established osteoporosis: the role of magnesium deficiency. Osteoporos Int. 2006, 17: 1013-1021. 10.1007/s00198-006-0084-3.
Fuss M, Bergmann P, Bergans A, Bagon J, Cogan E, Pepersack T, Van Gossum M, Corvilain J: Correction of low circulating levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D by 25-hydroxyvitamin D during reversal of hypomagnesaemia. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1989, 31: 31-38. 10.1111/j.1365-2265.1989.tb00451.x.
Freedman DM, Looker AC, Abnet CC, Linet MS, Graubard BI: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and cancer mortality in the NHANES III study (1988–2006). Cancer Res. 2010, 70: 8587-8597. 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-10-1420.
Michos ED, Reis JP, Post WS, Lutsey PL, Gottesman RF, Mosley TH, Sharrett AR, Melamed ML: 25-Hydroxyvitamin D deficiency is associated with fatal stroke among whites but not blacks: the NHANES-III linked mortality files. Nutrition. 2012, 28: 367-371. 10.1016/j.nut.2011.10.015.
[No authors listed]: Plan and operation of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–94. Series 1: programs and collection procedures. Vital Health Stat 1. 1994, 1-407.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: The National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) Analytic and Reporting Guidelines. 2006, Atlanta, GA: CDC
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Laboratory Procedure Manual Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Diasorin (formerly Incstar) 25-OH-D assay. 2008, Atlanta, GA: CDC
Committee to Review Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin D and Calcium IoM: Implications and Special Concerns: Conclusions About Vitamin D Deficiency in the United States and Canada. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. 2011, Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 487.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: The National Health and Nutritiona Examination Survey Documentation, Codebook, and Frequencies; Dietary Interview - Individual Foods, First Day. 2008, Atlanta, GA: CDC
Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes FaNBIoM: Dietary Reference Intakes. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. 17, Washington, DC: National Academy Press
Tretli S, Schwartz GG, Torjesen PA, Robsahm TE: Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and survival in Norwegian patients with cancer of breast, colon, lung, and lymphoma: a population-based study. Cancer Causes Control. 2012, 23: 363-370. 10.1007/s10552-011-9885-6.
Sakaki T, Kagawa N, Yamamoto K, Inouye K: Metabolism of vitamin D3 by cytochromes P450. Front Biosci. 2005, 10: 119-134.
Wang TJ, Jea ZFR: Common genetic determinants of vitamin D insufficiency: a genome-wide association study. Lancet. 2010, 376: 180-188. 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60588-0.
Horsting M, Deluca HF: In vitro production of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1969, 36: 251-256. 10.1016/0006-291X(69)90322-2.
Haddad JG, Matsuoka LY, Hollis BW, Hu YZ, Wortsman J: Human plasma transport of vitamin D after its endogenous synthesis. J Clin Invest. 1993, 91: 2552-2555. 10.1172/JCI116492.
Gutierrez OM, Farwell WR, Kermah D, Taylor EN: Racial differences in the relationship between vitamin D, bone mineral density, and parathyroid hormone in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Osteoporos Int. 2011, 22: 1745-1753. 10.1007/s00198-010-1383-2.
Larsson SC, Orsini N, Wolk A: Dietary magnesium intake and risk of stroke: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012, 95: 362-366. 10.3945/ajcn.111.022376.
Song Y, Manson JE, Cook NR, Albert CM, Buring JE, Liu S: Dietary magnesium intake and risk of cardiovascular disease among women. Am J Cardiol. 2005, 96: 1135-1141. 10.1016/j.amjcard.2005.06.045.
Zhang W, Iso H, Ohira T, Date C, Tamakoshi A: Associations of dietary magnesium intake with mortality from cardiovascular disease: the JACC study. Atherosclerosis. 2012, 221: 587-595. 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2012.01.034.
Dai Q, Shrubsole MJ, Ness RM, Schlundt D, Cai Q, Smalley WE, Li M, Shyr Y, Zheng W: The relation of magnesium and calcium intakes and a genetic polymorphism in the magnesium transporter to colorectal neoplasia risk. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007, 86: 743-751.