World Health Organisation (WHO). Global status report on noncommunicable diseases 2010. Geneva: WHO; 2011.
Swinburn BA, Sacks G, Hall KD, McPherson K, Finegood DT, Moodie ML, et al. The global obesity pandemic: shaped by global drivers and local environments. Lancet. 2011;378:804–14.
Adair LS, Popkin BM. Are child eating patterns being transformed globally? Obes Res. 2005;13:1281–99.
Jacka FN, Sacks G, Berk M, Allender S. Food policies for mental and physical health. BMC Psychiatry. 2014;14:132.
Sarris J, Logan AC, Akbaraly TS, Amminger GP, Balanzá-Martínez V, Freeman MP, et al. Nutritional medicine as mainstream in psychiatry. Lancet Psychiatry. 2015;2:271–4.
Lai JS, Hiles S, Bisquera A, Hure AJ, McEvoy M, Attia J. A systematic review and meta-analysis of dietary patterns and depression in community-dwelling adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;99:181–97.
Psaltopoulou T, Sergentanis TN, Panagiotakos DB, Sergentanis IN, Kosti R, Scarmeas N. Mediterranean diet, stroke, cognitive impairment, and depression: a meta-analysis. Ann Neurol. 2013;74:580–91.
Jacka F, Pasco J, Mykletun A, Williams L, Hodge A, O'Reilly S, et al. Association of Western and traditional diets with depression and anxiety in women. Am J Psychiatry. 2010;167:305–11.
Jacka FN, Mykletun A, Berk M, Bjelland I, Tell GS. The association between habitual diet quality and the common mental disorders in community-dwelling adults: the Hordaland Health study. Psychosom Med. 2011;73:483–90.
Jacka FN, Cherbuin N, Anstey KJ, Butterworth P. Dietary patterns and depressive symptoms over time: examining the relationships with socioeconomic position, health behaviours and cardiovascular risk. PLoS One. 2014;9:e87657.
Berk M, Williams LJ, Jacka F, O'Neil A, Pasco JA, Moylan S, et al. So depression is an inflammatory disease, but where does the inflammation come from? BMC Med. 2013;11:200.
Moylan S, Berk M, Dean OM, Samuni Y, Williams LJ, O'Neil A, et al. Oxidative & nitrosative stress in depression: Why so much stress? Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2014;45C:46–62.
Dash S, Clarke G, Berk M, Jacka FN. The gut microbiome and diet in psychiatry: focus on depression. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2015;28:1–6.
Sapolsky RM. Glucocorticoids and hippocampal atrophy in neuropsychiatric disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2000;57:925–35.
Das S, Basu A. Inflammation: a new candidate in modulating adult neurogenesis. J Neurosci Res. 2008;86:1199–208.
Dias GP, Cavegn N, Nix A, do Nascimento Bevilaqua MC, Stangl D, Zainuddin MS, et al. The role of dietary polyphenols on adult hippocampal neurogenesis: molecular mechanisms and behavioural effects on depression and anxiety. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2012;2012:541971.
Videbech P, Ravnkilde B. Hippocampal volume and depression: a meta-analysis of MRI studies. Am J Psychiatry. 2004;161:1957–66.
Malberg JE, Eisch AJ, Nestler EJ, Duman RS. Chronic antidepressant treatment increases neurogenesis in adult rat hippocampus. J Neurosci. 2000;20:9104–10.
Frodl T, Jager M, Smajstrlova I, Born C, Bottlender R, Palladino T, et al. Effect of hippocampal and amygdala volumes on clinical outcomes in major depression: a 3-year prospective magnetic resonance imaging study. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2008;33:423–30.
Santarelli L, Saxe M, Gross C, Surget A, Battaglia F, Dulawa S, et al. Requirement of hippocampal neurogenesis for the behavioral effects of antidepressants. Science. 2003;301:805–9.
Sen S, Duman R, Sanacora G. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor, depression, and antidepressant medications: meta-analyses and implications. Biol Psychiatry. 2008;64:527–32.
Molteni R, Barnard RJ, Ying Z, Roberts CK, Gomez-Pinilla F. A high-fat, refined sugar diet reduces hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor, neuronal plasticity, and learning. Neuroscience. 2002;112:803–14.
Martire SI, Maniam J, South T, Holmes N, Westbrook RF, Morris MJ. Extended exposure to a palatable cafeteria diet alters gene expression in brain regions implicated in reward, and withdrawal from this diet alters gene expression in brain regions associated with stress. Behav Brain Res. 2014;265:132–41.
Fotuhi M, Mohassel P, Yaffe K. Fish consumption, long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and risk of cognitive decline or Alzheimer disease: a complex association. Nat Clin Pract Neurol. 2009;5:140–52.
Granzotto A, Zatta P. Resveratrol and Alzheimer’s disease: message in a bottle on red wine and cognition. Front Aging Neurosci. 2014;6:95.
Zainuddin MS, Thuret S. Nutrition, adult hippocampal neurogenesis and mental health. Br Med Bull. 2012;103:89–114.
Anstey KJ, Christensen H, Butterworth P, Easteal S, Mackinnon A, Jacomb T, et al. Cohort profile: the PATH through life project. Int J Epidemiol. 2012;41:951–60.
Cherbuin N, Sachdev P, Anstey KJ. Higher normal fasting plasma glucose is associated with hippocampal atrophy: The PATH Study. Neurology. 2012;79:1019–26.
Anstey KJ, Maller JJ, Meslin C, Christensen H, Jorm AF, Wen W, et al. Hippocampal and amygdalar volumes in relation to handedness in adults aged 60–64. Neuroreport. 2004;15:2825–9.
Marmot MG, Smith GD, Stansfeld S, Patel C, North F, Head J, et al. Health inequalities among British civil servants: the Whitehall II study. Lancet. 1991;337:1387–93.
Goldberg D, Bridges K, Duncan-Jones P, Grayson D. Detecting anxiety and depression in general medical settings. BMJ. 1988;297:897–9.
Lassale C, Guilbert C, Keogh J, Syrette J, Lange K, Cox DN. Estimating food intakes in Australia: validation of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) food frequency questionnaire against weighed dietary intakes. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2009;22:559–66.
Watson C, Andermann F, Gloor P, Jones-Gotman M, Peters T, Evans A, et al. Anatomic basis of amygdaloid and hippocampal volume measurement by magnetic resonance imaging. Neurology. 1992;42:1743–50.
Maller JJ, Anstey KJ, Reglade-Meslin C, Christensen H, Wen W, Sachdev P. Hippocampus and amygdala volumes in a random community-based sample of 60–64 year olds and their relationship to cognition. Psychiatry Res. 2007;156:185–97.
Maller JJ, Reglade-Meslin C, Anstey KJ, Sachdev P. Sex and symmetry differences in hippocampal volumetrics: before and beyond the opening of the crus of the fornix. Hippocampus. 2006;16:80–90.
Freesurfer 5.3 package. http://surfer.nmr.mgh.harvard.edu
Heyward FD, Walton RG, Carle MS, Coleman MA, Garvey WT, Sweatt JD. Adult mice maintained on a high-fat diet exhibit object location memory deficits and reduced hippocampal SIRT1 gene expression. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2012;98:25–32.
Wu A, Molteni R, Ying Z, Gomez-Pinilla F. A saturated-fat diet aggravates the outcome of traumatic brain injury on hippocampal plasticity and cognitive function by reducing brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Neuroscience. 2003;119:365–75.
Beilharz JE, Maniam J, Morris MJ. Short exposure to a diet rich in both fat and sugar or sugar alone impairs place, but not object recognition memory in rats. Brain Behav Immun. 2014;37:134–41.
Ross AP, Bartness TJ, Mielke JG, Parent MB. A high fructose diet impairs spatial memory in male rats. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2009;92:410–6.
Morrison CD, Pistell PJ, Ingram DK, Johnson WD, Liu Y, Fernandez-Kim SO, et al. High fat diet increases hippocampal oxidative stress and cognitive impairment in aged mice: implications for decreased Nrf2 signaling. J Neurochem. 2010;114:1581–9.
Wu A, Ying Z, Gomez-Pinilla F. The interplay between oxidative stress and brain-derived neurotrophic factor modulates the outcome of a saturated fat diet on synaptic plasticity and cognition. Eur J Neurosci. 2004;19:1699–707.
Wu A, Ying Z, Gomez-Pinilla F. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids normalize BDNF levels, reduce oxidative damage, and counteract learning disability after traumatic brain injury in rats. J Neurotrauma. 2004;21:1457–67.
Lee S, Kim DH, Lee DH, Jeon SJ, Lee CH, Son KH, et al. Oroxylin A, a flavonoid, stimulates adult neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus region of mice. Neurochem Res. 2010;35:1725–32.
An L, Zhang YZ, Yu NJ, Liu XM, Zhao N, Yuan L, et al. The total flavonoids extracted from Xiaobuxin-Tang up-regulate the decreased hippocampal neurogenesis and neurotrophic molecules expression in chronically stressed rats. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2008;32:1484–90.
Williams CM, El Mohsen MA, Vauzour D, Rendeiro C, Butler LT, Ellis JA, et al. Blueberry-induced changes in spatial working memory correlate with changes in hippocampal CREB phosphorylation and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels. Free Radic Biol Med. 2008;45:295–305.
Valente T, Hidalgo J, Bolea I, Ramirez B, Angles N, Reguant J, et al. A diet enriched in polyphenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids, LMN diet, induces neurogenesis in the subventricular zone and hippocampus of adult mouse brain. J Alzheimers Dis. 2009;18:849–65.
Kawakita E, Hashimoto M, Shido O. Docosahexaenoic acid promotes neurogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Neuroscience. 2006;139:991–7.
Albanes D, Heinonen OP, Huttunen JK, Taylor PR, Virtamo J, Edwards BK, et al. Effects of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplements on cancer incidence in the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995;62:1427S–30S.
Guimaraes LR, Jacka FN, Gama CS, Berk M, Leitao-Azevedo CL, de Abreu MG B, et al. Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in schizophrenia on a hypocaloric diet. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2008;32:1595–8.
Edwards LM, Murray AJ, Holloway CJ, Carter EE, Kemp GJ, Codreanu I, et al. Short-term consumption of a high-fat diet impairs whole-body efficiency and cognitive function in sedentary men. FASEB J. 2011;25:1088–96.
Cherbuin N, Anstey KJ. The Mediterranean diet is not related to cognitive change in a large prospective investigation: the PATH Through Life study. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2012;20:635–9.
Samieri C, Okereke OI, E Devore E, Grodstein F. Long-term adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with overall cognitive status, but not cognitive decline, in women. J Nutr. 2013;143:493–9.
Scarmeas N, Stern Y, Tang MX, Mayeux R, Luchsinger JA. Mediterranean diet and risk for Alzheimer’s disease. Ann Neurol. 2006;59:912–21.
Gardener S, Gu Y, Rainey-Smith SR, Keogh JB, Clifton PM, Mathieson SL, et al. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet and Alzheimer’s disease risk in an Australian population. Transl Psychiatry. 2012;2:e164.
Thompson PM, Hayashi KM, Dutton RA, Chiang MC, Leow AD, Sowell ER, et al. Tracking Alzheimer’s disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007;1097:183–214.
Shi F, Liu B, Zhou Y, Yu C, Jiang T. Hippocampal volume and asymmetry in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease: meta-analyses of MRI studies. Hippocampus. 2009;19:1055–64.
Fraser MA, Shaw ME, Cherbuin N. A systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal hippocampal atrophy in healthy human ageing. Neuroimage. 2015;112:364–74.
Giannakopoulos P, Kovari E, Herrmann FR, Hof PR, Bouras C. Interhemispheric distribution of Alzheimer disease and vascular pathology in brain aging. Stroke. 2009;40:983–6.
O'Neil A, Quirk SE, Housden S, Brennan SL, Williams LJ, Pasco JA, et al. Relationship between diet and mental health in children and adolescents: a systematic review. Am J Public Health. 2014;104:e31–42.