Steffens DC, Fisher GG, Langa KM, Potter GG, Plassman BL. Prevalence of depression among older Americans: the aging, demographics and memory study. Int Psychogeriatr. 2009;21:879–88.
van Sloten TT, Sigurdsson S, van Buchem MA, Phillips CL, Jonsson PV, Ding J, Schram MT, Harris TB, Gudnason V, Launer LJ. Cerebral small vessel disease and association with higher incidence of depressive symptoms in a general elderly population: the Ages-Reykjavik study. Am J Psychiatry. 2015;172:570–8.
Lavretsky H, Zheng L, Weiner MW, Mungas D, Reed B, Kramer JH, Jagust W, Chui H, Mack WJ. Association of depressed mood and mortality in older adults with and without cognitive impairment in a prospective naturalistic study. Am J Psychiatry. 2010;167:589–97.
Korten NC, Comijs HC, Lamers F, Penninx BW. Early and late onset depression in young and middle aged adults: differential symptomatology, characteristics and risk factors? J Affect Disord. 2012;138:259–67.
Mitchell AJ, Subramaniam H. Prognosis of depression in old age compared to middle age: a systematic review of comparative studies. Am J Psychiatry. 2005;162:1588–601.
Beekman AT, Geerlings SW, Deeg DJ, Smit JH, Schoevers RS, de Beurs E, Braam AW, Penninx BW, van Tilburg W. The natural history of late-life depression: a 6-year prospective study in the community. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2002;59:605–11.
Aziz R, Steffens DC. What are the causes of late-life depression? Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2013;36:497–516.
Sivertsen H, Bjorklof GH, Engedal K, Selbaek G, Helvik AS. Depression and quality of life in older persons: a review. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2015;40:311–39.
Köhler S, Buntinx F, Palmer K, van den Akker M. Depression, vascular factors, and risk of dementia in primary care: a retrospective cohort study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2015;63:692–8.
Almeida OP, Hankey GJ, Yeap BB, Golledge J, Flicker L. Depression as a risk factor for cognitive impairment in later life: the Health in Men cohort study. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2015;31:412–20.
Santos M, Gold G, Kovari E, Herrmann FR, Bozikas VP, Bouras C, Giannakopoulos P. Differential impact of lacunes and microvascular lesions on poststroke depression. Stroke. 2009;40:3557–62.
Gaupp RE. Depressive states in older age. Med Wochenschrift. 1905;25:1531–7 [In German].
Alexopoulos GS, Bruce ML, Silbersweig D, Kalayam B, Stern E. Vascular depression: a new view of late-onset depression. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 1999;1:68–80.
Greenstein AS, Paranthaman R, Burns A, Jackson A, Malik RA, Baldwin RC, Heagerty AM. Cerebrovascular damage in late-life depression is associated with structural and functional abnormalities of subcutaneous small arteries. Hypertension. 2010;56:734–40.
Thomas AJ, Perry R, Kalaria RN, Oakley A, McMeekin W, O’Brien JT. Neuropathological evidence for ischemia in the white matter of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in late-life depression. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2003;18:7–13.
Alexopoulos GS, Meyers BS, Young RC, Campbell S, Silbersweig D, Charlson M. ‘Vascular depression’ hypothesis. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1997;54:915–22.
Park JH, Lee SB, Lee JJ, Yoon JC, Han JW, Kim TH, Jeong HG, Newhouse PA, Taylor WD, Kim JH, et al. Epidemiology of MRI-defined vascular depression: a longitudinal, community-based study in Korean elders. J Affect Disord. 2015;180:200–6.
Krishnan KR, Hays JC, Blazer DG. MRI-defined vascular depression. Am J Psychiatry. 1997;154:497–501.
Krishnan KR, Taylor WD, McQuoid DR, MacFall JR, Payne ME, Provenzale JM, Steffens DC. Clinical characteristics of magnetic resonance imaging-defined subcortical ischemic depression. Biol Psychiatry. 2004;55:390–7.
Pimontel MA, Reinlieb ME, Johnert LC, Garcon E, Sneed JR, Roose SP. The external validity of MRI-defined vascular depression. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2013;28:1189–96.
Kales HC, Maixner DF, Mellow AM. Cerebrovascular disease and late-life depression. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2005;13:88–98.
Turk BR, Gschwandtner ME, Mauerhofer M, Loffler-Stastka H. Can we clinically recognize a vascular depression? The role of personality in an expanded threshold model. Medicine (Baltimore). 2015;94:e743.
Licht-Strunk E, Bremmer MA, van Marwijk HW, Deeg DJ, Hoogendijk WJ, de Haan M, van Tilburg W, Beekman AT. Depression in older persons with versus without vascular disease in the open population: similar depressive symptom patterns, more disability. J Affect Disord. 2004;83:155–60.
Naarding P, Tiemeier H, Breteler MM, Schoevers RA, Jonker C, Koudstaal PJ, Beekman AT. Clinically defined vascular depression in the general population. Psychol Med. 2007;37:383–92.
Butters MA, Young JB, Lopez O, Aizenstein HJ, Mulsant BH, Reynolds 3rd CF, DeKosky ST, Becker JT. Pathways linking late-life depression to persistent cognitive impairment and dementia. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2008;10(3):345–57.
Thuile J, Even C, Guelfi JD. Validity of vascular depression as a specific diagnostic: a review. Encéphale. 2007;33:39–48.
Rainer MK, Mucke HA, Zehetmayer S, Krampla W, Kuselbauer T, Weissgram S, Jungwirth S, Tragl KH, Fischer P. Data from the VITA Study do not support the concept of vascular depression. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2006;14:531–7.
Sneed JR, Culang-Reinlieb ME. The vascular depression hypothesis: an update. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2011;19:99–103.
Aizenstein HJ, Khalaf A, Walker SE, Andreescu C. Magnetic resonance imaging predictors of treatment response in late-life depression. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 2014;27:24–32.
Diniz BS, Butters MA, Albert SM, Dew MA, Reynolds 3rd CF. Late-life depression and risk of vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease: systematic review and meta-analysis of community-based cohort studies. Br J Psychiatry. 2013;202:329–35.
Jellinger KA. Organic bases of late-life depression: a critical update. J Neural Transm. 2013;120:1109–25.
Naismith SL, Norrie LM, Mowszowski L, Hickie IB. The neurobiology of depression in later-life: clinical, neuropsychological, neuroimaging and pathophysiological features. Prog Neurobiol. 2012;98:99–143.
Yasuno F, Kazui H, Morita N, Kajimoto K, Ihara M, Taguchi A, Yamamoto A, Matsuoka K, Kosaka J, Kudo T, et al. High amyloid-beta deposition related to depressive symptoms in older individuals with normal cognition: a pilot study. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2016;31(8):920–8.
Mahgoub N, Alexopoulos GS. Amyloid hypothesis: is there a role for antiamyloid treatment in late-life depression? Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2016;24:239–47.
Culang-Reinlieb ME, Johnert LC, Brickman AM, Steffens DC, Garcon E, Sneed JR. MRI-defined vascular depression: a review of the construct. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2011;26:1101–8.
Disabato BM, Sheline YI. Biological basis of late life depression. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2012;14:273–9.
Taylor WD, Aizenstein HJ, Alexopoulos GS. The vascular depression hypothesis: mechanisms linking vascular disease with depression. Mol Psychiatry. 2013;18:963–74.
Serafini G, Amore M, Rihmer Z. Microstructural brain abnormalities, affective temperaments, and suicidal behavior in patients with major depression. Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation. 2015;2:200–14.
Agudelo C, Aizenstein HJ, Karp JF, Reynolds 3rd CF. Applications of magnetic resonance imaging for treatment-resistant late-life depression. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2015;17:151–69.
Hybels CF, Pieper CF, Payne ME, Steffens DC. Late-life depression modifies the association between cerebral white matter hyperintensities and functional decline among older adults. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2016;24(1):42–9.
Naarding P, Noorthoorn EO, Burm TL, van der Mast RC, Beekman AT, Comijs HC. Cerebrovascular involvement and clinical presentation of late-life depression, findings from the NESDO study. Aging Ment Health. 2016;20(10):1099–106.
Jellinger KA. The enigma of vascular depression. Austin Alzh Parkinson Dis. 2016;3:1026.
Paranthaman R, Burns AS, Cruickshank JK, Jackson A, Scott ML, Baldwin RC. Age at onset and vascular pathology in late-life depression. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2012;20:524–32.
Concerto C, Lanza G, Cantone M, Pennisi M, Giordano D, Spampinato C, Ricceri R, Pennisi G, Aguglia E, Bella R. Different patterns of cortical excitability in major depression and vascular depression: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study. BMC Psychiatry. 2013;13:300.
Pan A, Keum N, Okereke OI, Sun Q, Kivimaki M, Rubin RR, Hu FB. Bidirectional association between depression and metabolic syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies. Diabetes Care. 2012;35:1171–80.
Thomas AJ, Kalaria RN, O’Brien JT. Depression and vascular disease: what is the relationship? J Affect Disord. 2004;79:81–95.
Sexton CE, McDermott L, Kalu UG, Herrmann LL, Bradley KM, Allan CL, Le Masurier M, Mackay CE, Ebmeier KP. Exploring the pattern and neural correlates of neuropsychological impairment in late-life depression. Psychol Med. 2012;42:1195–202.
Vu NQ, Aizenstein HJ. Depression in the elderly: brain correlates, neuropsychological findings, and role of vascular lesion load. Curr Opin Neurol. 2013;26:656–61.
Byers AL, Yaffe K. Depression and risk of developing dementia. Nat Rev Neurol. 2011;7:323–31.
Alexopoulos GS. Depression in the elderly. Lancet. 2005;365:1961–70.
Thomas P, Hazif Thomas C, Billon R, Peix R, Faugeron P, Clement JP. Depression and frontal dysfunction: risks for the elderly? Encéphale. 2009;35:361–9.
Köhler S, Verhey FR. Cognitive deficits in late-life depression. Tijdschr Psychiatr. 2011;53:601–7.
Zuidersma M, Izaks GJ, Naarding P, Comijs HC, Oude Voshaar RC. Vascular burden and cognitive function in late-life depression. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2015;23:514–24.
Grool AM, Gerritsen L, Zuithoff NP, Mali WP, van der Graaf Y, Geerlings MI. Lacunar infarcts in deep white matter are associated with higher and more fluctuating depressive symptoms during three years follow-up. Biol Psychiatry. 2013;73:169–76.
Chang KJ, Hong CH, Kim SH, Lee KS, Roh HW, Kang DR, Choi SH, Kim SY, Na DL, Seo SW, et al. MRI-defined versus clinically-defined vascular depression; comparison of prediction of functional disability in the elderly. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2016;66:7–12.
Potter GG, McQuoid DR, Steffens DC, Welsh-Bohmer KA, Krishnan KR. Neuropsychological correlates of magnetic resonance imaging-defined subcortical ischemic depression. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2009;24:219–25.
Starkstein SE, Fedoroff JP, Price TR, Leiguarda R, Robinson RG. Apathy following cerebrovascular lesions. Stroke. 1993;24:1625–30.
Bergman Levy T, Barak Y, Sigler M, Aizenberg D. Suicide attempts and burden of physical illness among depressed elderly inpatients. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2011;52:115–7.
Reinlieb ME, Persaud A, Singh D, Garcon E, Rutherford BR, Pelton GH, Devanand DP, Roose SP, Sneed JR. Vascular depression: overrepresented among African Americans? Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2014;29:470–7.
McDermott MM, Guralnik JM, Tian L, Kibbe MR, Ferrucci L, Zhao L, Liu K, Liao Y, Gao Y, Criqui MH. Incidence and prognostic significance of depressive symptoms in peripheral artery disease. J Am Heart Assoc. 2016;5(3), e002959.
Daskalopoulou M, George J, Walters K, Osborn DP, Batty GD, Stogiannis D, Rapsomaniki E, Pujades-Rodriguez M, Denaxas S, Udumyan R, et al. Depression as a risk factor for the initial presentation of twelve cardiac, cerebrovascular, and peripheral arterial diseases: data linkage study of 1.9 million women and men. PLoS One. 2016;11, e0153838.
Pequignot R, Dufouil C, Prugger C, Peres K, Artero S, Tzourio C, Empana JP. High level of depressive symptoms at repeated study visits and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke over 10 years in older adults: The Three-City Study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2016;64:118–25.
D’Audiffret AC, Frisbee SJ, Stapleton PA, Goodwill AG, Isingrini E, Frisbee JC. Depressive behavior and vascular dysfunction: a link between clinical depression and vascular disease? J Appl Physiol (1985). 2010;108:1041–51.
Bouzinova EV, Wiborg O, Aalkjaer C, Matchkov VV. Role of peripheral vascular resistance for the association between major depression and cardiovascular disease. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2015;65:299–307.
Peters R, Pinto E, Beckett N, Swift C, Potter J, McCormack T, Nunes M, Grimley-Evans J, Fletcher A, Bulpitt C. Association of depression with subsequent mortality, cardiovascular morbidity and incident dementia in people aged 80 and over and suffering from hypertension. Data from the Hypertension in the Very Elderly Trial (HYVET). Age Ageing. 2010;39:439–45.
Kozela M, Bobak M, Besala A, Micek A, Kubinova R, Malyutina S, Denisova D, Richards M, Pikhart H, Peasey A, et al. The association of depressive symptoms with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in Central and Eastern Europe: prospective results of the HAPIEE study. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2016. doi:10.1177/2047487316649493.
Sun WJ, Xu L, Chan WM, Lam TH, Schooling CM. Are depressive symptoms associated with cardiovascular mortality among older Chinese: a cohort study of 64,000 people in Hong Kong? Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2013;21:1107–15.
Choi NG, Kim J, Marti CN, Chen GJ. Late-life depression and cardiovascular disease burden: examination of reciprocal relationship. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2014;22:1522–9.
Capistrant BD, Gilsanz P, Moon JR, Kosheleva A, Patton KK, Glymour MM. Does the association between depressive symptoms and cardiovascular mortality risk vary by race? Evidence from the Health and Retirement Study. Ethn Dis. 2013;23:155–60.
Van der Kooy K, van Hout H, Marwijk H, Marten H, Stehouwer C, Beekman A. Depression and the risk for cardiovascular diseases: systematic review and meta analysis. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2007;22:613–26.
Lee SR, Choi B, Paul S, Seo JH, Back DB, Han JS, Choi DH, Kwon KJ, Shin CY, Lee J, et al. Depressive-like behaviors in a rat model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Transl Stroke Res. 2015;6:207–14.
Jackson CA, Mishra GD. Depression and risk of stroke in midaged women: a prospective longitudinal study. Stroke. 2013;44:1555–60.
Cherbuin N, Kim S, Anstey KJ. Dementia risk estimates associated with measures of depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open. 2015;5, e008853.
Kim S, Woo SY, Kang HS, Lim SW, Choi SH, Myung W, Jeong JH, Lee Y, Hong CH, Kim JH, et al. Factors related to prevalence, persistence, and incidence of depressive symptoms in mild cognitive impairment: vascular depression construct. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2015;31:818–26.
Wu KY, Liu CY, Chen CS, Chen CH, Hsiao IT, Hsieh CJ, Lee CP, Yen TC, Lin KJ. Beta-amyloid deposition and cognitive function in patients with major depressive disorder with different subtypes of mild cognitive impairment: (18)F-florbetapir (AV-45/Amyvid) PET study. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2016;43:1067–76.
Mourao RJ, Mansur G, Malloy-Diniz LF, Castro Costa E, Diniz BS. Depressive symptoms increase the risk of progression to dementia in subjects with mild cognitive impairment: systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2016;31:905–11.
Kaup AR, Byers AL, Falvey C, Simonsick EM, Satterfield S, Ayonayon HN, Smagula SF, Rubin SM, Yaffe K. Trajectories of depressive symptoms in older adults and risk of dementia. JAMA Psychiat. 2016;73:525–31.
Mirza SS, Wolters FJ, Swanson SA, Koudstaal PJ, Hofman A, Tiemeier H, Ikram MA. 10-year trajectories of depressive symptoms and risk of dementia: a population-based study. Lancet Psychiatry. 2016;3:628–35.
Ravaglia G, Forti P, Lucicesare A, Rietti E, Pisacane N, Mariani E, Dalmonte E. Prevalent depressive symptoms as a risk factor for conversion to mild cognitive impairment in an elderly Italian cohort. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2008;16:834–43.
Godin O, Dufouil C, Ritchie K, Dartigues JF, Tzourio C, Peres K, Artero S, Alperovitch A. Depressive symptoms, major depressive episode and cognition in the elderly: the three-city study. Neuroepidemiology. 2007;28:101–8.
Barnes DE, Alexopoulos GS, Lopez OL, Williamson JD, Yaffe K. Depressive symptoms, vascular disease, and mild cognitive impairment: findings from the Cardiovascular Health Study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006;63:273–9.
Zuidersma M, Comijs HC, Naarding P, Oude Voshaar RC. Cognitive performance in depressed older persons: the impact of vascular burden and remission. A two-year follow-up study. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2016;31(9):1029–39.
Pasi M, Poggesi A, Salvadori E, Diciotti S, Ciolli L, Del Bene A, Marini S, Nannucci S, Pescini F, Valenti R, et al. White matter microstructural damage and depressive symptoms in patients with mild cognitive impairment and cerebral small vessel disease: the VMCI-Tuscany Study. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2016;31(6):611–8. doi:10.1002/gps.4368.
Panza F, D'Introno A, Colacicco AM, Capurso C, Del Parigi A, Caselli RJ, Todarello O, Pellicani V, Santamato A, Scapicchio P, et al. Depressive symptoms, vascular risk factors and mild cognitive impairment. The Italian longitudinal study on aging. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2008;25:336–46.
Alexopoulos GS. Vascular disease, depression, and dementia. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2003;51:1178–80.
Lin WC, Hu LY, Tsai SJ, Yang AC, Shen CC. Depression and the risk of vascular dementia: a population-based retrospective cohort study. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2016. doi:10.1002/gps.4493.
van den Kommer TN, Comijs HC, Aartsen MJ, Huisman M, Deeg DJ, Beekman AT. Depression and cognition: how do they interrelate in old age? Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2013;21:398–410.
Park JH, Lee SB, Lee TJ, Lee DY, Jhoo JH, Youn JC, Choo IH, Choi EA, Jeong JW, Choe JY, et al. Depression in vascular dementia is quantitatively and qualitatively different from depression in Alzheimer’s disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2007;23:67–73.
Wilson RS, Capuano AW, Boyle PA, Hoganson GM, Hizel LP, Shah RC, Nag S, Schneider JA, Arnold SE, Bennett DA. Clinical-pathologic study of depressive symptoms and cognitive decline in old age. Neurology. 2014;83:702–9.
Wilson RS, Boyle PA, Capuano AW, Shah RC, Hoganson GM, Nag S, Bennett DA. Late-life depression is not associated with dementia-related pathology. Neuropsychology. 2016;30(2):135–42. doi:10.1037/neu0000223.
McCutcheon ST, Han D, Troncoso J, Koliatsos VE, Albert M, Lyketsos CG, Leoutsakos JS. Clinicopathological correlates of depression in early Alzheimer's disease in the NACC. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2016. Ahead of print. doi:10.1002/gps.4435.
De Roeck E, Ponjaert-Kristoffersen I, Bosmans M, De Deyn PP, Engelborghs S, Dierckx E. Are depressive symptoms in mild cognitive impairment predictive of conversion to dementia? Int Psychogeriatr. 2016;28(6):921–8.
Osorio RS, Gumb T, Pomara N. Soluble amyloid-beta levels and late-life depression. Curr Pharm Des. 2014;20:2547–54.
Sexton CE, Mackay CE, Ebmeier KP. A systematic review and meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging studies in late-life depression. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2013;21:184–95.
Sneed JR, Rindskopf D, Steffens DC, Krishnan KR, Roose SP. The vascular depression subtype: evidence of internal validity. Biol Psychiatry. 2008;64:491–7.
Colloby SJ, Firbank MJ, Thomas AJ, Vasudev A, Parry SW, O’Brien JT. White matter changes in late-life depression: a diffusion tensor imaging study. J Affect Disord. 2011;135:216–20.
Firbank MJ, O’Brien JT, Pakrasi S, Pantoni L, Simoni M, Erkinjuntti T, Wallin A, Wahlund LO, van Straaten I, Inzitari D. White matter hyperintensities and depression--preliminary results from the LADIS study. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2005;20:674–9.
Herrmann LL, Le Masurier M, Ebmeier KP. White matter hyperintensities in late life depression: a systematic review. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2008;79:619–24.
Shimony JS, Sheline YI, D’Angelo G, Epstein AA, Benzinger TL, Mintun MA, McKinstry RC, Snyder AZ. Diffuse microstructural abnormalities of normal-appearing white matter in late life depression: a diffusion tensor imaging study. Biol Psychiatry. 2009;66:245–52.
Steffens DC, Taylor WD, Denny KL, Bergman SR, Wang L. Structural integrity of the uncinate fasciculus and resting state functional connectivity of the ventral prefrontal cortex in late life depression. PLoS One. 2011;6, e22697.
Wang L, Leonards CO, Sterzer P, Ebinger M. White matter lesions and depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Psychiatr Res. 2014;56:56–64.
Taylor WD, MacFall JR, Payne ME, McQuoid DR, Steffens DC, Provenzale JM, Krishnan RR. Greater MRI lesion volumes in elderly depressed subjects than in control subjects. Psychiatry Res. 2005;139:1–7.
Dalby RB, Chakravarty MM, Ahdidan J, Sorensen L, Frandsen J, Jonsdottir KY, Tehrani E, Rosenberg R, Ostergaard L, Videbech P. Localization of white-matter lesions and effect of vascular risk factors in late-onset major depression. Psychol Med. 2010;40:1389–99.
Sheline YI, Price JL, Vaishnavi SN, Mintun MA, Barch DM, Epstein AA, Wilkins CH, Snyder AZ, Couture L, Schechtman K, McKinstry RC. Regional white matter hyperintensity burden in automated segmentation distinguishes late-life depressed subjects from comparison subjects matched for vascular risk factors. Am J Psychiatry. 2008;165:524–32.
Taylor WD, Zhao Z, Ashley-Koch A, Payne ME, Steffens DC, Krishnan RR, Hauser E, MacFall JR. Fiber tract-specific white matter lesion severity findings in late-life depression and by AGTR1 A1166C genotype. Hum Brain Mapp. 2013;34:295–303.
Wen MC, Steffens DC, Chen MK, Zainal NH. Diffusion tensor imaging studies in late-life depression: systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2014;29:1173–84.
Krishnan MS, O'Brien JT, Firbank MJ, Pantoni L, Carlucci G, Erkinjuntti T, Wallin A, Wahlund LO, Scheltens P, van Straaten EC, Inzitari D. Relationship between periventricular and deep white matter lesions and depressive symptoms in older people. The LADIS Study. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2006;21:983–9.
Delano-Wood L, Abeles N, Sacco JM, Wierenga CE, Horne NR, Bozoki A. Regional white matter pathology in mild cognitive impairment: differential influence of lesion type on neuropsychological functioning. Stroke. 2008;39:794–9.
O'Brien JT, Firbank MJ, Krishnan MS, van Straaten EC, van der Flier WM, Petrovic K, Pantoni L, Simoni M, Erkinjuntti T, Wallin A, et al. White matter hyperintensities rather than lacunar infarcts are associated with depressive symptoms in older people: the LADIS study. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2006;14:834–41.
Godin O, Dufouil C, Maillard P, Delcroix N, Mazoyer B, Crivello F, Alperovitch A, Tzourio C. White matter lesions as a predictor of depression in the elderly: the 3C-Dijon study. Biol Psychiatry. 2008;63:663–9.
Yao H, Takashima Y, Araki Y, Uchino A, Yuzuriha T, Hashimoto M. Leisure-time physical inactivity associated with vascular depression or apathy in community-dwelling elderly subjects: the Sefuri study. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2015;24:2625–31.
Firbank MJ, Teodorczuk A, van der Flier WM, Gouw AA, Wallin A, Erkinjuntti T, Inzitari D, Wahlund LO, Pantoni L, Poggesi A, et al. Relationship between progression of brain white matter changes and late-life depression: 3-year results from the LADIS study. Br J Psychiatry. 2012;201:40–5.
Teodorczuk A, O’Brien JT, Firbank MJ, Pantoni L, Poggesi A, Erkinjuntti T, Wallin A, Wahlund LO, Gouw A, Waldemar G, et al. White matter changes and late-life depressive symptoms: longitudinal study. Br J Psychiatry. 2007;191:212–7.
Teodorczuk A, Firbank MJ, Pantoni L, Poggesi A, Erkinjuntti T, Wallin A, Wahlund LO, Scheltens P, Waldemar G, Schrotter G, et al. Relationship between baseline white-matter changes and development of late-life depressive symptoms: 3-year results from the LADIS study. Psychol Med. 2010;40:603–10.
Qiu WQ, Himali JJ, Wolf PA, DeCarli DC, Beiser A, Au R. Effects of white matter integrity and brain volumes on late life depression in the Framingham Heart Study. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2016. doi:10.1002/gps.4469.
Takahashi K, Oshima A, Ida I, Kumano H, Yuuki N, Fukuda M, Amanuma M, Endo K, Mikuni M. Relationship between age at onset and magnetic resonance image-defined hyperintensities in mood disorders. J Psychiatr Res. 2008;42:443–50.
Allan CL, Sexton CE, Kalu UG, McDermott LM, Kivimaki M, Singh-Manoux A, Mackay CE, Ebmeier KP. Does the Framingham Stroke Risk Profile predict white-matter changes in late-life depression? Int Psychogeriatr. 2012;24(4):524–31.
Mast BT, Miles T, Penninx BW, Yaffe K, Rosano C, Satterfield S, Ayonayon HN, Harris T, Simonsick EM. Vascular disease and future risk of depressive symptomatology in older adults: findings from the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study. Biol Psychiatry. 2008;64:320–6.
Sheline YI, Pieper CF, Barch DM, Welsh-Bohmer K, McKinstry RC, MacFall JR, D'Angelo G, Garcia KS, Gersing K, Wilkins C, et al. Support for the vascular depression hypothesis in late-life depression: results of a 2-site, prospective, antidepressant treatment trial. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010;67:277–85.
van der Heijden FM, Zeebregts CJ, Reijnen MM. Does extracranial arterial pathology play a role in late-onset psychiatric disorders? Cogn Behav Neurol. 2010;23:147–51.
Prins ND, Scheltens P. White matter hyperintensities, cognitive impairment and dementia: an update. Nat Rev Neurol. 2015;11:157–65.
Nebes RD, Reynolds 3rd CF, Boada F, Meltzer CC, Fukui MB, Saxton J, Halligan EM, DeKosky ST. Longitudinal increase in the volume of white matter hyperintensities in late-onset depression. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2002;17:526–30.
Taylor WD, Steffens DC, MacFall JR, McQuoid DR, Payne ME, Provenzale JM, Krishnan KR. White matter hyperintensity progression and late-life depression outcomes. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003;60:1090–6.
Lee JJ, Lee EY, Lee SB, Park JH, Kim TH, Jeong HG, Kim JH, Han JW, Kim KW. Impact of white matter lesions on depression in the patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Psychiatry Investig. 2015;12:516–22.
Olazarán J, García-Polo P, García-Frank D, Quirós A, Hernández-Tamames JA, Acedo C, Álvarez-Linera J, Frank A. Structural correlates of depressive symptoms in prodromal Alzheimer’s disease. Br J Med Med Res. 2016;14:1–10.
Canu E, Kostic M, Agosta F, Munjiza A, Ferraro PM, Pesic D, Copetti M, Peljto A, Lecic Tosevski D, Filippi M. Brain structural abnormalities in patients with major depression with or without generalized anxiety disorder comorbidity. J Neurol. 2015;262:1255–65.
Gudayol-Ferre E, Pero-Cebollero M, Gonzalez-Garrido AA, Guardia-Olmos J. Changes in brain connectivity related to the treatment of depression measured through fMRI: a systematic review. Front Hum Neurosci. 2015;9:582.
Disabato BM, Morris C, Hranilovich J, D’Angelo GM, Zhou G, Wu N, Doraiswamy PM, Sheline YI. Comparison of brain structural variables, neuropsychological factors, and treatment outcome in early-onset versus late-onset late-life depression. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2014;22:1039–46.
Ribeiz SR, Duran F, Oliveira MC, Bezerra D, Castro CC, Steffens DC, Busatto Filho G, Bottino CM. Structural brain changes as biomarkers and outcome predictors in patients with late-life depression: a cross-sectional and prospective study. PLoS One. 2013;8, e80049.
Du M, Liu J, Chen Z, Huang X, Li J, Kuang W, Yang Y, Zhang W, Zhou D, Bi F, et al. Brain grey matter volume alterations in late-life depression. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2014;39:397–406.
Jayaweera HK, Hickie IB, Duffy SL, Hermens DF, Mowszowski L, Diamond K, Terpening Z, Paradise M, Lewis SJ, Lagopoulos J, Naismith SL. Mild cognitive impairment subtypes in older people with depressive symptoms: relationship with clinical variables and hippocampal change. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 2015;28:174–83.
Harada K, Matsuo K, Nakashima M, Hobara T, Higuchi N, Higuchi F, Nakano M, Otsuki K, Shibata T, Watanuki T, et al. Disrupted orbitomedial prefrontal limbic network in individuals with later-life depression. J Affect Disord. 2016;204:112–9.
Tudorascu DL, Rosano C, Venkatraman VK, MacCloud RL, Harris T, Yaffe K, Newman AB, Aizenstein HJ. Multimodal MRI markers support a model of small vessel ischemia for depressive symptoms in very old adults. Psychiatry Res. 2014;224:73–80.
Gudmundsson P, Olesen PJ, Simoni M, Pantoni L, Ostling S, Kern S, Guo X, Skoog I. White matter lesions and temporal lobe atrophy related to incidence of both dementia and major depression in 70-year-olds followed over 10 years. Eur J Neurol. 2015;22:781–8. e49–50.
Schmaal L, Veltman DJ, van Erp TG, Samann PG, Frodl T, Jahanshad N, Loehrer E, Tiemeier H, Hofman A, Niessen WJ, et al. Subcortical brain alterations in major depressive disorder: findings from the ENIGMA Major Depressive Disorder working group. Mol Psychiatry. 2016;21(6):806–12.
Bijanki KR, Matsui JT, Mayberg HS, Magnotta VA, Arndt S, Johnson HJ, Nopoulos P, Paradiso S, McCormick LM, Fiedorowicz JG, et al. Depressive symptoms related to low fractional anisotropy of white matter underlying the right ventral anterior cingulate in older adults with atherosclerotic vascular disease. Front Hum Neurosci. 2015;9:408.
Newson RS, Hek K, Luijendijk HJ, Hofman A, Witteman JC, Tiemeier H. Atherosclerosis and incident depression in late life. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010;67:1144–51.
Paranthaman R, Greenstein AS, Burns AS, Cruickshank JK, Heagerty AM, Jackson A, Malik RA, Scott ML, Baldwin RC. Vascular function in older adults with depressive disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2010;68:133–9.
Brookes RL, Herbert V, Lawrence AJ, Morris RG, Markus HS. Depression in small-vessel disease relates to white matter ultrastructural damage, not disability. Neurology. 2014;83:1417–23.
Wu M, Andreescu C, Butters MA, Tamburo R, Reynolds 3rd CF, Aizenstein H. Default-mode network connectivity and white matter burden in late-life depression. Psychiatry Res. 2011;194:39–46.
Venkatraman VK, Aizenstein H, Guralnik J, Newman AB, Glynn NW, Taylor C, Studenski S, Launer L, Pahor M, Williamson J, Rosano C. Executive control function, brain activation and white matter hyperintensities in older adults. Neuroimage. 2010;49:3436–42.
Tadayonnejad R, Ajilore O. Brain network dysfunction in late-life depression: a literature review. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 2014;27:5–12.
Dutta A, McKie S, Deakin JF. Resting state networks in major depressive disorder. Psychiatry Res. 2014;224:139–51.
Santos M, Kovari E, Hof PR, Gold G, Bouras C, Giannakopoulos P. The impact of vascular burden on late-life depression. Brain Res Rev. 2009;62:19–32.
Wu RH, Li Q, Tan Y, Liu XY, Huang J. Depression in silent lacunar infarction: a cross-sectional study of its association with location of silent lacunar infarction and vascular risk factors. Neurol Sci. 2014;35:1553–9.
Feng C, Fang M, Xu Y, Hua T, Liu XY. Microbleeds in late-life depression: comparison of early- and late-onset depression. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:682092.
Direk N, Perez HS, Akoudad S, Verhaaren BF, Niessen WJ, Hofman A, Vernooij MW, Ikram MA, Tiemeier H. Markers of cerebral small vessel disease and severity of depression in the general population. Psychiatry Res. 2016;253:1–6.
Colloby SJ, Firbank MJ, He J, Thomas AJ, Vasudev A, Parry SW, O’Brien JT. Regional cerebral blood flow in late-life depression: arterial spin labelling magnetic resonance study. Br J Psychiatry. 2012;200:150–5.
Direk N, Koudstaal PJ, Hofman A, Ikram MA, Hoogendijk WJ, Tiemeier H. Cerebral hemodynamics and incident depression: the Rotterdam Study. Biol Psychiatry. 2012;72:318–23.
Pavlovic AM, Pekmezovic T, Zidverc Trajkovic J, Svabic Medjedovic T, Veselinovic N, Radojicic A, Mijajlovic M, Tomic G, Jovanovic Z, Norton M, Sternic N. Baseline characteristic of patients presenting with lacunar stroke and cerebral small vessel disease may predict future development of depression. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2015;31:58–65.
Kozdag G, Yalug I, Inan N, Ertas G, Selekler M, Kutlu H, Kutlu A, Emre E, Cetin M, Ural D. Major depressive disorder in chronic heart failure patients: Does silent cerebral infarction cause major depressive disorder in this patient population? Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars. 2015;43:505–12.
Hickie I, Simons L, Naismith S, Simons J, McCallum J, Pearson K. Vascular risk to late-life depression: evidence from a longitudinal community study. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2003;37:62–5.
Grool AM, van der Graaf Y, Mali WP, Geerlings MI. Location of cerebrovascular and degenerative changes, depressive symptoms and cognitive functioning in later life: the SMART–Medea study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2011;82:1093–100.
Grool AM, van der Graaf Y, Mali WP, Witkamp TD, Vincken KL, Geerlings MI. Location and progression of cerebral small-vessel disease and atrophy, and depressive symptom profiles: the Second Manifestations of ARTerial disease (SMART)-Medea study. Psychol Med. 2012;42:359–70.
Hollocks MJ, Lawrence AJ, Brookes RL, Barrick TR, Morris RG, Husain M, Markus HS. Differential relationships between apathy and depression with white matter microstructural changes and functional outcomes. Brain. 2015;138:3803–15.
Smagula SF, Butters MA, Anderson SJ, Lenze EJ, Dew MA, Mulsant BH, Lotrich FE, Aizenstein H, Reynolds 3rd CF. Antidepressant response trajectories and associated clinical prognostic factors among older adults. JAMA Psychiat. 2015;72:1021–8.
Diniz BS, Teixeira AL, Talib L, Gattaz WF, Forlenza OV. Interleukin-1beta serum levels is increased in antidepressant-free elderly depressed patients. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2010;18:172–6.
Diniz BS, Teixeira AL, Miranda AS, Talib LL, Gattaz WF, Forlenza OV. Circulating glial-derived neurotrophic factor is reduced in late-life depression. J Psychiatr Res. 2012;46:135–9.
Diniz BS, Teixeira AL, Campos AC, Miranda AS, Rocha NP, Talib LL, Gattaz WF, Forlenza OV. Reduced serum levels of adiponectin in elderly patients with major depression. J Psychiatr Res. 2012;46:1081–5.
Diniz BS, Teixeira AL, Talib LL, Mendonca VA, Gattaz WF, Forlenza OV. Increased soluble TNF receptor 2 in antidepressant-free patients with late-life depression. J Psychiatr Res. 2010;44:917–20.
Diniz BS, Teixeira AL, Talib LL, Mendonca VA, Gattaz WF, Forlenza OV. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor level is reduced in antidepressant-free patients with late-life depression. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2010;11:550–5.
Torres-Platas SG, Nagy C, Wakid M, Turecki G, Mechawar N. Glial fibrillary acidic protein is differentially expressed across cortical and subcortical regions in healthy brains and downregulated in the thalamus and caudate nucleus of depressed suicides. Mol Psychiatry. 2016;21:509–15.
Diniz BS, Sibille E, Ding Y, Tseng G, Aizenstein HJ, Lotrich F, Becker JT, Lopez OL, Lotze MT, Klunk WE, et al. Plasma biosignature and brain pathology related to persistent cognitive impairment in late-life depression. Mol Psychiatry. 2015;20:594–601.
Carvalho AF, Kohler CA, McIntyre RS, Knochel C, Brunoni AR, Thase ME, Quevedo J, Fernandes BS, Berk M. Peripheral vascular endothelial growth factor as a novel depression biomarker: a meta-analysis. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2015;62:18–26.
Tseng PT, Cheng YS, Chen YW, Wu CK, Lin PY. Increased levels of vascular endothelial growth factor in patients with major depressive disorder: a meta-analysis. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2015;25:1622–30.
Krishnan V, Nestler EJ. Linking molecules to mood: new insight into the biology of depression. Am J Psychiatry. 2010;167:1305–20.
Hodes GE, Kana V, Menard C, Merad M, Russo SJ. Neuroimmune mechanisms of depression. Nat Neurosci. 2015;18:1386–93.
Medina A, Watson SJ, Bunney Jr W, Myers RM, Schatzberg A, Barchas J, Akil H, Thompson RC. Evidence for alterations of the glial syncytial function in major depressive disorder. J Psychiatr Res. 2016;72:15–21.
Bremmer MA, Beekman AT, Deeg DJ, Penninx BW, Dik MG, Hack CE, Hoogendijk WJ. Inflammatory markers in late-life depression: results from a population-based study. J Affect Disord. 2008;106:249–55.
Paradise MB, Naismith SL, Norrie LM, Graeber MB, Hickie IB. The role of glia in late-life depression. Int Psychogeriatr. 2012;24:1878–90.
Hendricksen M, Thomas AJ, Ferrier IN, Ince P, O’Brien JT. Neuropathological study of the dorsal raphe nuclei in late-life depression and Alzheimer's disease with and without depression. Am J Psychiatry. 2004;161:1096–102.
Wilson RS, Nag S, Boyle PA, Hizel LP, Yu L, Buchman AS, Shah RC, Schneider JA, Arnold SE, Bennett DA. Brainstem aminergic nuclei and late-life depressive symptoms. JAMA Psychiat. 2013;70:1320–8.
Baldwin RC, O’Brien J. Vascular basis of late-onset depressive disorder. Br J Psychiatry. 2002;180:157–60.
Santos M, Kovari E, Gold G, Bozikas VP, Hof PR, Bouras C, Giannakopoulos P. The neuroanatomical model of post-stroke depression: towards a change of focus? J Neurol Sci. 2009;283:158–62.
Santos M, Gold G, Kovari E, Herrmann FR, Hof PR, Bouras C, Giannakopoulos P. Neuropathological analysis of lacunes and microvascular lesions in late-onset depression. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2010;36:661–72.
Xekardaki A, Santos M, Hof P, Kövari E, Bouras C, Giannakopoulos G. Neuropathological substrates and structural changes in late-life depression: the impact of vascular burden. Acta Neuropathol. 2012;124:453–64.
Lloyd AJ, Grace JB, Jaros E, Perry RH, Fairbairn AF, Swann AG, O’Brien JT, McKeith IG. Depression in late life, cognitive decline and white matter pathology in two clinico-pathologically investigated cases. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2001;16:281–7.
O’Brien J, Thomas A, Ballard C, Brown A, Ferrier N, Jaros E, Perry R. Cognitive impairment in depression is not associated with neuropathologic evidence of increased vascular or Alzheimer-type pathology. Biol Psychiatry. 2001;49:130–6.
Thomas AJ, O’Brien JT, Davis S, Ballard C, Barber R, Kalaria RN, Perry RH. Ischemic basis for deep white matter hyperintensities in major depression: a neuropathological study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2002;59:785–92.
Tsopelas C, Stewart R, Savva GM, Brayne C, Ince P, Thomas A, Matthews FE. Neuropathological correlates of late-life depression in older people. Br J Psychiatry. 2011;198:109–14.
Wilson RS, Schneider JA, Bienias JL, Arnold SE, Evans DA, Bennett DA. Depressive symptoms, clinical AD, and cortical plaques and tangles in older persons. Neurology. 2003;61:1102–7.
Rapp MA, Schnaider-Beeri M, Grossman HT, Sano M, Perl DP, Purohit DP, Gorman JM, Haroutunian V. Increased hippocampal plaques and tangles in patients with Alzheimer disease with a lifetime history of major depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006;63:161–7.
Rapp MA, Schnaider-Beeri M, Purohit DP, Perl DP, Haroutunian V, Sano M. Increased neurofibrillary tangles in patients with Alzheimer disease with comorbid depression. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2008;16:168–74.
Gunning-Dixon FM, Walton M, Cheng J, Acuna J, Klimstra S, Zimmerman ME, Brickman AM, Hoptman MJ, Young RC, Alexopoulos GS. MRI signal hyperintensities and treatment remission of geriatric depression. J Affect Disord. 2010;126:395–401.
Olesen PJ, Gustafson DR, Simoni M, Pantoni L, Ostling S, Guo X, Skoog I. Temporal lobe atrophy and white matter lesions are related to major depression over 5 years in the elderly. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2010;35:2638–45.
Beekman AT. Neuropathological correlates of late-life depression. Expert Rev Neurother. 2011;11:947–9.
Sweet RA, Hamilton RL, Butters MA, Mulsant BH, Pollock BG, Lewis DA, Lopez OL, DeKosky ST, Reynolds 3rd CF. Neuropathologic correlates of late-onset major depression. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2004;29:2242–50.
Willner P. Validity, reliability and utility of the chronic mild stress model of depression: a 10-year review and evaluation. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1997;134:319–29.
Fuchs E. Social stress in tree shrews as an animal model of depression: an example of a behavioral model of a CNS disorder. CNS Spectr. 2005;10:182–90.
Rygula R, Abumaria N, Flugge G, Fuchs E, Ruther E, Havemann-Reinecke U. Anhedonia and motivational deficits in rats: impact of chronic social stress. Behav Brain Res. 2005;162:127–34.
Bergstrom A, Jayatissa MN, Mork A, Wiborg O. Stress sensitivity and resilience in the chronic mild stress rat model of depression; an in situ hybridization study. Brain Res. 2008;1196:41–52.
Bouzinova EV, Norregaard R, Boedtkjer DM, Razgovorova IA, Moeller AM, Kudryavtseva O, Wiborg O, Aalkjaer C, Matchkov VV. Association between endothelial dysfunction and depression-like symptoms in chronic mild stress model of depression. Psychosom Med. 2014;76:268–76.
Isingrini E, Surget A, Belzung C, Freslon JL, Frisbee J, O’Donnell J, Camus V, d’Audiffret A. Altered aortic vascular reactivity in the unpredictable chronic mild stress model of depression in mice: UCMS causes relaxation impairment to ACh. Physiol Behav. 2011;103:540–6.
Isingrini E, Belzung C, d’Audiffret A, Camus V. Early and late-onset effect of chronic stress on vascular function in mice: a possible model of the impact of depression on vascular disease in aging. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2011;19:335–46.
Sun MK, Alkon DL. Cerebral ischemia-induced difference in sensitivity to depression and potential therapeutics in rats. Behav Pharmacol. 2013;24:222–8.
Grizzell JA, Mullins M, Iarkov A, Rohani A, Charry LC, Echeverria V. Cotinine reduces depressive-like behavior and hippocampal vascular endothelial growth factor downregulation after forced swim stress in mice. Behav Neurosci. 2014;128:713–21.
Wharton SB, Simpson JE, Brayne C, Ince PG. Age-associated white matter lesions: the MRC Cognitive Function and Ageing Study. Brain Pathol. 2015;25:35–43.
Schmidt R, Schmidt H, Haybaeck J, Loitfelder M, Weis S, Cavalieri M, Seiler S, Enzinger C, Ropele S, Erkinjuntti T, et al. Heterogeneity in age-related white matter changes. Acta Neuropathol. 2011;122:171–85.
Mettenburg JM, Benzinger TL, Shimony JS, Snyder AZ, Sheline YI. Diminished performance on neuropsychological testing in late life depression is correlated with microstructural white matter abnormalities. Neuroimage. 2012;60:2182–90.
Murphy ML, Frodl T. Meta-analysis of diffusion tensor imaging studies shows altered fractional anisotropy occurring in distinct brain areas in association with depression. Biol Mood Anxiety Disord. 2011;1:3.
Zou K, Huang X, Li T, Gong Q, Li Z, Ou-Yang L, Deng W, Chen Q, Li C, Ding Y, Sun X. Alterations of white matter integrity in adults with major depressive disorder: a magnetic resonance imaging study. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2008;33:525–30.
Choi KS, Holtzheimer PE, Franco AR, Kelley ME, Dunlop BW, Hu XP, Mayberg HS. Reconciling variable findings of white matter integrity in major depressive disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2014;39:1332–9.
Bezerra DM, Pereira FR, Cendes F, Jackowski MP, Nakano EY, Moscoso MA, Ribeiz SR, Avila R, Castro CC, Bottino CM. DTI voxelwise analysis did not differentiate older depressed patients from older subjects without depression. J Psychiatr Res. 2012;46:1643–9.
Abe O, Yamasue H, Kasai K, Yamada H, Aoki S, Inoue H, Takei K, Suga M, Matsuo K, Kato T, et al. Voxel-based analyses of gray/white matter volume and diffusion tensor data in major depression. Psychiatry Res. 2010;181:64–70.
Valkanova V, Ebmeier KP. Vascular risk factors and depression in later life: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Biol Psychiatry. 2013;73:406–13.
Waloszek JM, Byrne ML, Woods MJ, Nicholas CL, Bei B, Murray G, Raniti M, Allen NB, Trinder J. Early physiological markers of cardiovascular risk in community based adolescents with a depressive disorder. J Affect Disord. 2015;175:403–10.
Paulson D, Bowen ME, Lichtenberg PA. Does brain reserve protect older women from vascular depression? J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2014;69:157–67.
Gothe F, Enache D, Wahlund LO, Winblad B, Crisby M, Lokk J, Aarsland D. Cerebrovascular diseases and depression: epidemiology, mechanisms and treatment. Panminerva Med. 2012;54:161–70.
Hybels CF, Pieper CF, Landerman LR, Payne ME, Steffens DC. Vascular lesions and functional limitations among older adults: does depression make a difference? Int Psychogeriatr. 2014;26(9):1501–9.
Smith GS, Kramer E, Ma Y, Kingsley P, Dhawan V, Chaly T, Eidelberg D. The functional neuroanatomy of geriatric depression. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2009;24:798–808.
Kruglov LS, Meshandin IA. The optimization of therapy of old age patients with co-morbidity of depression and vascular psychoorganic disorders. Psychiatry Psychopharmacother. 2012;14:50–6.
Khalaf A, Edelman K, Tudorascu D, Andreescu C, Reynolds CF, Aizenstein H. White matter hyperintensity accumulation during treatment of late-life depression. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2015;40(13):3027–35.
Butters MA, Whyte EM, Nebes RD, Begley AE, Dew MA, Mulsant BH, Zmuda MD, Bhalla R, Meltzer CC, Pollock BG, et al. The nature and determinants of neuropsychological functioning in late-life depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2004;61:587–95.
Tedeschini E, Levkovitz Y, Iovieno N, Ameral VE, Nelson JC, Papakostas GI. Efficacy of antidepressants for late-life depression: a meta-analysis and meta-regression of placebo-controlled randomized trials. J Clin Psychiatry. 2011;72:1660–8.
Little JT, Reynolds 3rd CF, Dew MA, Frank E, Begley AE, Miller MD, Cornes C, Mazumdar S, Perel JM, Kupfer DJ. How common is resistance to treatment in recurrent, nonpsychotic geriatric depression? Am J Psychiatry. 1998;155:1035–8.
Bingham KS, Whyte EM, Meyers BS, Mulsant BH, Rothschild AJ, Banerjee S, Flint AJ. Relationship between cerebrovascular risk, cognition, and treatment outcome in late-life psychotic depression. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2015;23:1270–5.
Kruglov LS, Meshandin IA. The relationships of cerebrovascular disease and depression in old age. Psychogeriatria Polska. 2013;10:91–102.
Iosifescu DV, Clementi-Craven N, Fraguas R, Papakostas GI, Petersen T, Alpert JE, Nierenberg AA, Fava M. Cardiovascular risk factors may moderate pharmacological treatment effects in major depressive disorder. Psychosom Med. 2005;67:703–6.
Fiedorowicz JG. Depression and cardiovascular disease: an update on how course of illness may influence risk. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2014;16:492.
Thomas A, O’Brien JT. Management of late-life depression: a major leap forward. Lancet. 2015;386(10011):2374–5.
van Melle JP, de Jonge P. Beta-blocker use and the development of depression. Am J Cardiol. 2009;103:1331–2.
Luijendijk HJ, Koolman X. The incentive to publish negative studies: how beta-blockers and depression got stuck in the publication cycle. J Clin Epidemiol. 2012;65:488–92.
Baskys A. Pharmacogenomic information for common psychotropic drugs. In: Procyshyn RM, Bezchlibnyk-Butler KZ, Jeffries JJ, Procyshyn RM, Bezchlibnyk-Butler KZ, Jeffries JJ, editors. Clinical Handbook of Psychotropic Drugs. 21st ed. Boston: Hogrefe; 2015.
Kooistra M, van der Graaf Y, Grool AM, Zuithoff NP, Jan Biessels G, Geerlings MI. The natural course of elevated levels of depressive symptoms in patients with vascular disease over eight years of follow-up. The SMART-Medea study. J Affect Disord. 2016;202:95–101.
Harper DG, Joe EB, Jensen JE, Ravichandran C, Forester BP. Brain levels of high-energy phosphate metabolites and executive function in geriatric depression. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2016. doi:10.1002/gps.4439.
Pennisi M, Lanza G, Cantone M, Ricceri R, Spampinato C, Pennisi G, Di Lazzaro V, Bella R. Correlation between motor cortex excitability changes and cognitive impairment in vascular depression: pathophysiological insights from a longitudinal TMS study. Neural Plast. 2016;2016:8154969.
Brunoni AR, Bensenor IM, Alves TC. Therapeutic interventions for vascular depression: a systematic review. Rev Bras Psiquiatr. 2011;33:400–9.
Peisah C, Snowdon J, Kril J, Rodriguez M. Clinicopathological findings of suicide in the elderly: three cases. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 2007;37:648–58.
Boldrini M, Hen R, Underwood MD, Rosoklija GB, Dwork AJ, Mann JJ, Arango V. Hippocampal angiogenesis and progenitor cell proliferation are increased with antidepressant use in major depression. Biol Psychiatry. 2012;72:562–71.
Boldrini M, Santiago AN, Hen R, Dwork AJ, Rosoklija GB, Tamir H, Arango V, John MJ. Hippocampal granule neuron number and dentate gyrus volume in antidepressant-treated and untreated major depression. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2013;38:1068–77.
Tham MW, Woon PS, Sum MY, Lee TS, Sim K. White matter abnormalities in major depression: evidence from post-mortem, neuroimaging and genetic studies. J Affect Disord. 2011;132:26–36.
Taylor WD, Benjamin S, McQuoid DR, Payne ME, Krishnan RR, MacFall JR, Ashley-Koch A. AGTR1 gene variation: association with depression and frontotemporal morphology. Psychiatry Res. 2012;202:104–9.
Krishnan KR, McDonald WM. Arteriosclerotic depression. Med Hypotheses. 1995;44:111–5.