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  1. Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an acquired immune-mediated disorder of the neuromuscular junction that causes fluctuating skeletal muscle weakness and fatigue. Pediatric MG and adult MG have many different characte...

    Authors: Peng Liu, Yiqi Jiang, Shanshan Gu, Yinping Xue, Hongxia Yang, Yongzhao Li, Yaxuan Wang, Congya Yan, Pei Jia, Xiaoting Lin and Guoyan Qi

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:159

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Adherence to a healthy lifestyle could reduce the cancer mortality in the western population. We conducted a city-wide prospective study in China investigating the association of a healthy lifestyle score with...

    Authors: Ce Sun, Ke Li, Huan Xu, Xiangjun Wang, Pengzhe Qin, Suixiang Wang, Boheng Liang and Lin Xu

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:158

    Content type: Research article

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  3. The validity of observational studies and their meta-analyses is contested. Here, we aimed to appraise thousands of meta-analyses of observational studies using a pre-specified set of quantitative criteria tha...

    Authors: Perrine Janiaud, Arnav Agarwal, Ioanna Tzoulaki, Evropi Theodoratou, Konstantinos K. Tsilidis, Evangelos Evangelou and John P. A. Ioannidis

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:157

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Lung function is constantly changing over the life course. Although the relation of cross-sectional lung function measure and adverse outcomes has been reported, data on longitudinal change and subsequent card...

    Authors: Yun-Jiu Cheng, Zhen-Guang Chen, Zhu-Yu Li, Wei-Yi Mei, Wen-Tao Bi and Dong-Ling Luo

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:153

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Disparities in health by adult income are well documented, but we know less about the childhood origins of health inequalities, and it remains unclear how the shape of the gradient varies across health conditi...

    Authors: Miriam Evensen, Søren Toksvig Klitkou, Mette C. Tollånes, Simon Øverland, Torkild Hovde Lyngstad, Stein Emil Vollset and Jonas Minet Kinge

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:152

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Rotavirus infection has been proposed as a risk factor for coeliac disease (CD) and type 1 diabetes (T1D). The UK introduced infant rotavirus vaccination in 2013. We have previously shown that rotavirus vaccin...

    Authors: Thomas Inns, Kate M. Fleming, Miren Iturriza-Gomara and Daniel Hungerford

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:147

    Content type: Research article

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  7. We assessed the duration and baseline determinants of antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 spike antigens and the occurrence of reinfections in a prospective cohort of 173 Spanish primary health care worker patien...

    Authors: Carlota Dobaño, Anna Ramírez-Morros, Selena Alonso, Josep Vidal-Alaball, Gemma Ruiz-Olalla, Marta Vidal, Rocío Rubio, Emma Cascant, Daniel Parras, Natalia Rodrigo Melero, Pau Serra, Carlo Carolis, Pere Santamaria, Anna Forcada, Jacobo Mendioroz, Ruth Aguilar…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:155

    Content type: Correspondence

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    The Commentary to this article has been published in BMC Medicine 2021 19:200

  8. Since 2002, paramedics have been working in primary care within the United Kingdom (UK), a transition also mirrored within Australia, Canada and the USA. Recent recommendations to improve UK NHS workforce capa...

    Authors: Georgette Eaton, Geoff Wong, Stephanie Tierney, Nia Roberts, Veronika Williams and Kamal R. Mahtani

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:145

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Pneumonia, diarrhoea and malaria are responsible for over one third of all deaths in children under the age of 5 years in low and middle sociodemographic index countries; many of these deaths are also associat...

    Authors: Peter Winskill, Alexandra B. Hogan, Julie Thwing, Lazaro Mwandigha, Patrick G. T. Walker and Ben Lambert

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:144

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Clinically vulnerable individuals have been advised to shield themselves during the COVID-19 epidemic. The objectives of this study were to investigate (1) the rate ratio of severe COVID-19 associated with eli...

    Authors: Paul M. McKeigue, David A. McAllister, David Caldwell, Ciara Gribben, Jen Bishop, Stuart McGurnaghan, Matthew Armstrong, Joke Delvaux, Sam Colville, Sharon Hutchinson, Chris Robertson, Nazir Lone, Jim McMenamin, David Goldberg and Helen M. Colhoun

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:149

    Content type: Research article

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  11. International dietary guidelines aim to reduce risks of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and fatal CVD often associated with poor dietary habits. However, most studies have examined associati...

    Authors: Maryam Kebbe, Min Gao, Aurora Perez-Cornago, Susan A. Jebb and Carmen Piernas

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:134

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Current evidence from randomized controlled trials on statins for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in older people, especially those aged > 75 years, is still lacking. We conducted a systemat...

    Authors: Kamal Awad, Maged Mohammed, Mahmoud Mohamed Zaki, Abdelrahman I. Abushouk, Gregory Y. H. Lip, Michael J. Blaha, Carl J. Lavie, Peter P. Toth, J. Wouter Jukema, Naveed Sattar and Maciej Banach

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:139

    Content type: Research article

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  13. As in many countries, quantifying COVID-19 spread in Indonesia remains challenging due to testing limitations. In Java, non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) were implemented throughout 2020. However, as a v...

    Authors: Bimandra A. Djaafara, Charles Whittaker, Oliver J. Watson, Robert Verity, Nicholas F. Brazeau, Widyastuti, Dwi Oktavia, Verry Adrian, Ngabila Salama, Sangeeta Bhatia, Pierre Nouvellet, Ellie Sherrard-Smith, Thomas S. Churcher, Henry Surendra, Rosa N. Lina, Lenny L. Ekawati…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:146

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Trials of interventions to prevent or treat delirium in adults in an acute hospital setting report heterogeneous outcomes. Our objective was to develop international consensus among key stakeholders for a core...

    Authors: Louise Rose, Lisa Burry, Meera Agar, Bronagh Blackwood, Noll L. Campbell, Mike Clarke, John W. Devlin, Jacques Lee, John C. Marshall, Dale M. Needham, Najma Siddiqi and Valerie Page

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:143

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Sedentary behaviour is potentially a modifiable risk factor for depression and anxiety disorders, but findings have been inconsistent. To assess the associations of sedentary behaviour with depression and anxi...

    Authors: A. A. Kandola, B. del Pozo Cruz, D. P. J. Osborn, B. Stubbs, K. W. Choi and J. F. Hayes

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:133

    Content type: Research article

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  16. The risk of stroke in individuals with very low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations remains high. We sought to prioritize predictive risk factors for stroke in Chinese participants with ...

    Authors: Zhijun Wu, Zhe Huang, Alice H. Lichtenstein, Yesong Liu, Shuohua Chen, Yao Jin, Muzi Na, Le Bao, Shouling Wu and Xiang Gao

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:142

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Zero-events studies frequently occur in systematic reviews of adverse events, which consist of an important source of evidence. We aimed to examine how evidence of zero-events studies was utilized in the meta-...

    Authors: Chang Xu, Xiaoqin Zhou, Liliane Zorzela, Ke Ju, Luis Furuya-Kanamori, Lifeng Lin, Cuncun Lu, Omran A. H. Musa and Sunita Vohra

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:141

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) therapy is a type of adoptive cellular therapy by harvesting infiltrated lymphocytes from tumors, culturing and amplifying them in vitro and then infusing back to treat pati...

    Authors: Shuhang Wang, Jingwei Sun, Kun Chen, Peiwen Ma, Qi Lei, Shujun Xing, Zhongzheng Cao, Shujun Sun, Zicheng Yu, Yarong Liu and Ning Li

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:140

    Content type: Review

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  19. Artemisinin and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) partner drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum have spread across the Greater Mekong Subregion compromising antimalarial treatment. The current 3-day ...

    Authors: Makoto Saito, Verena I. Carrara, Mary Ellen Gilder, Aung Myat Min, Nay Win Tun, Mupawjay Pimanpanarak, Jacher Viladpai-nguen, Moo Kho Paw, Warat Haohankhunnatham, Kamonchanok Konghahong, Aung Pyae Phyo, Cindy Chu, Claudia Turner, Sue J. Lee, Jureeporn Duanguppama, Mallika Imwong…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:132

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is a serious cause of mortality and disability. AIS is a serious cause of mortality and disability. Early diagnosis of atherosclerosis, which is the major cause of AIS, allows thera...

    Authors: Takaki Hiwasa, Hao Wang, Ken-ichiro Goto, Seiichiro Mine, Toshio Machida, Eiichi Kobayashi, Yoichi Yoshida, Akihiko Adachi, Tomoo Matsutani, Mizuki Sata, Kazumasa Yamagishi, Hiroyasu Iso, Norie Sawada, Shoichiro Tsugane, Mitoshi Kunimatsu, Ikuo Kamitsukasa…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:131

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Pertussis vaccines containing three or five pertussis antigens are recommended in pregnancy in many countries, but no studies have compared the effect on infants’ antigen-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) concen...

    Authors: Christine Elizabeth Jones, Anna Calvert, Jo Southern, Mary Matheson, Nick Andrews, Asma Khalil, Hannah Cuthbertson, Bassam Hallis, Anna England, Paul T. Heath and Elizabeth Miller

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:138

    Content type: Research article

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  22. The introduction of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 infection, in the UK in early 2020, resulted in the introduction of several control policies to reduce disease spread. As part of these restrictio...

    Authors: Emma Southall, Alex Holmes, Edward M. Hill, Benjamin D. Atkins, Trystan Leng, Robin N. Thompson, Louise Dyson, Matt J. Keeling and Michael J. Tildesley

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:137

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Diagnosing bacterial meningitis is essential to optimise the type and duration of antimicrobial therapy to limit mortality and sequelae. In sub-Saharan Africa, many public hospitals lack laboratory capacity, r...

    Authors: Christina W. Obiero, Neema Mturi, Salim Mwarumba, Moses Ngari, Charles R. Newton, Michaël Boele van Hensbroek and James A. Berkley

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:122

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Physical activity is associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease but limited evidence exists for the sustained promotion of increased physical activity within diabetes preventi...

    Authors: Kamlesh Khunti, Simon Griffin, Alan Brennan, Helen Dallosso, Melanie J. Davies, Helen C. Eborall, Charlotte L. Edwardson, Laura J. Gray, Wendy Hardeman, Laura Heathcote, Joe Henson, Daniel Pollard, Stephen J. Sharp, Stephen Sutton, Jacqui Troughton and Tom Yates

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:130

    Content type: Research article

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  25. The impact of maternal obesity extends beyond birth, being independently associated with an increased risk of child obesity. Current evidence demonstrates that women provided with a dietary intervention during...

    Authors: Jennie Louise, Amanda J. Poprzeczny, Andrea R. Deussen, Christina Vinter, Mette Tanvig, Dorte Moller Jensen, Annick Bogaerts, Roland Devlieger, Fionnuala M. McAuliffe, Kristina M. Renault, Emma Carlsen, Nina Geiker, Lucilla Poston, Annette Briley, Shakila Thangaratinam and Jodie M. Dodd

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:128

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Reducing poverty and improving access to health care are two of the most effective actions to decrease maternal mortality, and conditional cash transfer (CCT) programmes act on both. The aim of this study was ...

    Authors: Davide Rasella, Flávia Jôse Oliveira Alves, Poliana Rebouças, Gabriela Santos de Jesus, Maurício L. Barreto, Tereza Campello and Enny S. Paixao

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:127

    Content type: Research article

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  27. In the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), current malaria surveillance strategies rely on a network of village health volunteers (VHVs) reporting the results of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), known to miss many a...

    Authors: Katherine O’Flaherty, Win Han Oo, Sophie G. Zaloumis, Julia C. Cutts, Kyaw Zayar Aung, Myat Mon Thein, Damien R. Drew, Zahra Razook, Alyssa E. Barry, Naanki Parischa, Nyi Nyi Zaw, Htin Kyaw Thu, Aung Thi, Wai Yan Min Htay, Aung Paing Soe, Julie A. Simpson…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:121

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a metabolic disease that occurs in pregnant women and increases the risk for the development of diabetes. The relationship between GDM and meconium microbiota and metabol...

    Authors: Ting Chen, Yufeng Qin, Minjian Chen, Yuqing Zhang, Xu Wang, Tianyu Dong, Guanglin Chen, Xian Sun, Ting Lu, Richard Allen White III, Peng Ye, Hein M. Tun and Yankai Xia

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:120

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Premenstrual disorders, including premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder, are suggested to be correlated with suicidal behavior and accidents in cross-sectional and retrospective studies. Ho...

    Authors: Qian Yang, Arvid Sjölander, Yuchen Li, Alexander Viktorin, Elizabeth R. Bertone-Johnson, Weimin Ye, Fang Fang, Unnur A. Valdimarsdóttir and Donghao Lu

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:119

    Content type: Research article

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    The Commentary to this article has been published in BMC Medicine 2021 19:135

  30. Post-term gestation beyond 41+6 completed weeks of gestation is known to be associated with a sharp increase in the risk of stillbirth and perinatal mortality. However, the risk of common adverse outcomes related...

    Authors: Anthea C. Lindquist, Roxanne M. Hastie, Richard J. Hiscock, Natasha L. Pritchard, Susan P. Walker and Stephen Tong

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:126

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are highly prevalent in resource-limited countries. We assessed the effect of a combination intervention aiming to enhance handwashing with soap on STH reinfection fo...

    Authors: Kenneth Makata, Jeroen Ensink, Philip Ayieko, Christian Hansen, Simon Sichalwe, Julius Mngara, Onike Mcharo, Humphrey Mazigo, Jeremiah Seni, Robert Dreibelbis, Sarah Rockowitz, Elialilia Okello, Heiner Grosskurth, Safari Kinung’hi and Saidi Kapiga

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:125

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Long-term effects of COVID-19, also called Long COVID, affect more than 10% of patients. The most severe cases (i.e. those requiring hospitalization) present a higher frequency of sequelae, but detailed inform...

    Authors: Álvaro Romero-Duarte, Mario Rivera-Izquierdo, Inmaculada Guerrero-Fernández de Alba, Marina Pérez-Contreras, Nicolás Francisco Fernández-Martínez, Rafael Ruiz-Montero, Álvaro Serrano-Ortiz, Rocío Ortiz González-Serna, Inmaculada Salcedo-Leal, Eladio Jiménez-Mejías and Antonio Cárdenas-Cruz

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:129

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Children living in sub-Saharan Africa have a high burden of rickets and infectious diseases, conditions that are linked to vitamin D deficiency. However, data on the vitamin D status of young African children ...

    Authors: Reagan M. Mogire, Alireza Morovat, John Muthii Muriuki, Alexander J. Mentzer, Emily L. Webb, Wandia Kimita, Francis M. Ndungu, Alex W. Macharia, Clare L. Cutland, Sodiomon B. Sirima, Amidou Diarra, Alfred B. Tiono, Swaib A. Lule, Shabir A. Madhi, Manjinder S. Sandhu, Andrew M. Prentice…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:115

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Sex differences in major cardiovascular risk factors for incident (fatal or non-fatal) all-cause dementia were assessed in the UK Biobank. The effects of these risk factors on all-cause dementia were explored ...

    Authors: Jessica Gong, Katie Harris, Sanne A. E. Peters and Mark Woodward

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:110

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Non-sputum methods are urgently needed to improve tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment monitoring in children. This study evaluated the ability of a serum assay quantifying a species-specific peptide of the Mycob...

    Authors: Liyan Mao, Sylvia M. LaCourse, Soyeon Kim, Chang Liu, Bo Ning, Duran Bao, Jia Fan, Christopher J. Lyon, Ziyong Sun, Sharon Nachman, Charles D. Mitchell and Tony Y. Hu

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:113

    Content type: Technical advance

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  36. The COVID-19 pandemic and ensuing national lockdowns have dramatically changed the healthcare landscape. The pandemic’s impact on people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains poorly underst...

    Authors: Mohammad A. Alsallakh, Shanya Sivakumaran, Sharon Kennedy, Eleftheria Vasileiou, Ronan A. Lyons, Chris Robertson, Aziz Sheikh and Gwyneth A. Davies

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:124

    Content type: Research article

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  37. For 20 years, the Global Outbreak Response and Alert Network (GOARN) has been a leader in the coordination of international outbreak response. On the premise that no single institution can provide all capaciti...

    Authors: Renee Christensen, Dale Fisher, Sharon Salmon, Patrick Drury and Paul Effler

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:123

    Content type: Correspondence

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  38. Improved access to effective antiretroviral therapy has meant that people living with HIV (PLHIV) are surviving to older ages. However, PLHIV may be ageing differently to HIV-negative individuals, with dissimi...

    Authors: Katherine Davis, Pablo Perez-Guzman, Annika Hoyer, Ralph Brinks, Edward Gregg, Keri N. Althoff, Amy C. Justice, Peter Reiss, Simon Gregson and Mikaela Smit

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:105

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Medicine 2021 19:228

    The Commentary to this article has been published in BMC Medicine 2021 19:112

  39. In the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, the hypothesis that angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) increased the risk and/or severity of the disease was w...

    Authors: Francisco J. de Abajo, Antonio Rodríguez-Miguel, Sara Rodríguez-Martín, Victoria Lerma and Alberto García-Lledó

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:118

    Content type: Research article

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    The Commentary to this article has been published in BMC Medicine 2021 19:136

  40. Hypertension is the largest single contributor to the global burden of disease, affecting an estimated 1.39 billion people worldwide. Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) can aid in the effective management of ...

    Authors: Richu Philip, Thomas Beaney, Nick Appelbaum, Carmen Rodriguez Gonzalvez, Charlotte Koldeweij, Amelia Kataria Golestaneh, Neil Poulter and Jonathan M. Clarke

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:117

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Sleep apnoea, a common sleep-disordered breathing condition, is characterised by upper airway collapse during sleep resulting in transient hypoxia, hypoperfusion of the optic nerve, and spike in intracranial p...

    Authors: Xikun Han, Samantha Sze-Yee Lee, Nathan Ingold, Nigel McArdle, Anthony P. Khawaja, Stuart MacGregor and David A. Mackey

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:104

    Content type: Research article

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  42. COVID-19 outbreaks have occurred in homeless shelters across the US, highlighting an urgent need to identify the most effective infection control strategy to prevent future outbreaks.

    Authors: Lloyd A. C. Chapman, Margot Kushel, Sarah N. Cox, Ashley Scarborough, Caroline Cawley, Trang Q. Nguyen, Isabel Rodriguez-Barraquer, Bryan Greenhouse, Elizabeth Imbert and Nathan C. Lo

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:116

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Cigarette smoking is a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but whether smokeless tobacco such as snuff is associated with the risk of CVD is still unclear. We investigated the association ...

    Authors: Olga E. Titova, John A. Baron, Karl Michaëlsson and Susanna C. Larsson

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:111

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Depression is commonly perceived as a single underlying disease with a number of potential treatment options. However, patients with major depression differ dramatically in their symptom presentation and comor...

    Authors: C. O’Driscoll, J. E. J. Buckman, E. I. Fried, R. Saunders, Z. D. Cohen, G. Ambler, R. J. DeRubeis, S. Gilbody, S. D. Hollon, T. Kendrick, D. Kessler, G. Lewis, E. Watkins, N. Wiles and S. Pilling

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:109

    Content type: Research article

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  45. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Haoxiang Cheng, Anshuman Sewda, Carla Marquez-Luna, Sierra R. White, Bridget M. Whitney, Jessica Williams-Nguyen, Robin M. Nance, Won Jun Lee, Mari M. Kitahata, Michael S. Saag, Amanda Willig, Joseph J. Eron, W. Christopher Mathews, Peter W. Hunt, Richard D. Moore, Allison Webel…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:114

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in BMC Medicine 2020 18:288

  46. Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is a common neurological disease present in the ageing population that is associated with an increased risk of dementia and stroke. Damage to white matter tracts compromise...

    Authors: Maximilian Schulz, Caroline Malherbe, Bastian Cheng, Götz Thomalla and Eckhard Schlemm

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:103

    Content type: Research article

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