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  1. The increasing use of preprints to disseminate evidence on the effect of interventions for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can lead to multiple evidence sources for a single study, which may differ in ...

    Authors: Theodora Oikonomidi, Isabelle Boutron, Olivier Pierre, Guillaume Cabanac and Philippe Ravaud

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:402

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Zika virus (ZIKV) emerged as a global epidemic in 2015–2016 from Latin America with its true geographical extent remaining unclear due to widely presumed underreporting. The identification of locations with po...

    Authors: Haoyang Sun, Borame L. Dickens, Mark Jit, Alex R. Cook and L. Roman Carrasco

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:399

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Dementia is caused by a variety of neurodegenerative diseases and is associated with a decline in memory and other cognitive abilities, while inflicting an enormous socioeconomic burden. The complexity of deme...

    Authors: KongFatt Wong-Lin, Paula L. McClean, Niamh McCombe, Daman Kaur, Jose M. Sanchez-Bornot, Paddy Gillespie, Stephen Todd, David P. Finn, Alok Joshi, Joseph Kane and Bernadette McGuinness

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:398

    Content type: Review

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  4. Cholera epidemics continue to challenge disease control, particularly in fragile and conflict-affected states. Rapid detection and response to small cholera clusters is key for efficient control before an epid...

    Authors: Ruwan Ratnayake, Flavio Finger, W. John Edmunds and Francesco Checchi

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:397

    Content type: Research article

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  5. The proportion of infections among young children that are antimicrobial-resistant is increasing across the globe. Newborns may be colonized with enteric antimicrobial-resistant pathogens early in life, which ...

    Authors: Maya L. Nadimpalli, Claire D. Bourke, Ruairi C. Robertson, Elisabeth Delarocque-Astagneau, Amee R. Manges and Amy J. Pickering

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:392

    Content type: Opinion

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  6. Clinical decision-making of invasive high-intensity care for critically ill stage IV cancer patients in the emergency department (ED) is challenging. A reliable and clinically available prognostic score for ad...

    Authors: Youn-Jung Kim, Jihoon Kang, Min-Ju Kim, Seung Mok Ryoo, Gu Hyun Kang, Tae Gun Shin, Yoo Seok Park, Sung-Hyuk Choi, Woon Yong Kwon, Sung Phil Chung and Won Young Kim

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:390

    Content type: Research article

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  7. HIV is known to increase the likelihood of reactivation of latent tuberculosis to active TB disease; however, its impact on tuberculosis infectiousness and consequent transmission is unclear, particularly in l...

    Authors: Joanne R. Winter, Colette J. Smith, Jennifer A. Davidson, Maeve K. Lalor, Valerie Delpech, Ibrahim Abubakar and Helen R. Stagg

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:385

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is challenging to diagnose. While the 2003 Rotterdam criteria are widely used for adults, the 2018 international PCOS guideline recommended updated Rotterdam criteria with both...

    Authors: Chau Thien Tay, Roger J. Hart, Martha Hickey, Lisa J. Moran, Arul Earnest, Dorota A. Doherty, Helena J. Teede and Anju E. Joham

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:389

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Valid cause of death data are essential for health policy formation. The quality of medical certification of cause of death (MCCOD) by physicians directly affects the utility of cause of death data for public ...

    Authors: U. S. H. Gamage, Pasyodun Koralage Buddhika Mahesh, Jesse Schnall, Lene Mikkelsen, John D. Hart, Hafiz Chowdhury, Hang Li, Deirdre McLaughlin and Alan D. Lopez

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:384

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Pancreatitis is a critical public health problem, and the burden of pancreatitis is increasing. We report the rates and trends of the prevalence, incidence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) for pancreati...

    Authors: Guoqing Ouyang, Guangdong Pan, Qiang Liu, Yongrong Wu, Zhen Liu, Wuchang Lu, Shuai Li, Zheng Zhou and Yu Wen

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:388

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Methylmalonic acid (MMA) is best known for its use as a functional marker of vitamin B12 deficiency. However, MMA concentrations not only depend on adequate vitamin B12 status, but also relate to renal functio...

    Authors: Ineke J. Riphagen, Isidor Minović, Dion Groothof, Adrian Post, Manfred L. Eggersdorfer, Jenny E. Kootstra-Ros, Martin H. de Borst, Gerjan Navis, Frits A. J. Muskiet, Ido P. Kema, M. Rebecca Heiner-Fokkema and Stephan J. L. Bakker

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:380

    Content type: Research article

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  12. With antidepressants (ADs) having minimal therapeutic effects during the initial weeks of treatment, benzodiazepines (BZDs) are concomitantly used to alleviate depressive symptoms of insomnia or anxiety. Howev...

    Authors: Han Eol Jeong, Ha-Lim Jeon, In-Sun Oh, Woo Jung Kim and Ju-Young Shin

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:387

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Long-term care facilities (LTCFs) are vulnerable to outbreaks of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Timely epidemiological surveillance is essential for outbreak response, but is complicated by a high propor...

    Authors: David R. M. Smith, Audrey Duval, Koen B. Pouwels, Didier Guillemot, Jérôme Fernandes, Bich-Tram Huynh, Laura Temime and Lulla Opatowski

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:386

    Content type: Research article

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    The Commentary to this article has been published in BMC Medicine 2021 19:25

  14. Hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) is a severe condition with high mortality due to lack of efficient therapy. Until now, the use of methylprednisolone (MP) in HBV-ACLF is stil...

    Authors: Lin Jia, Ran Xue, Yueke Zhu, Juan Zhao, Juan Li, Wei-Ping He, Xiao-Mei Wang, Zhong-Hui Duan, Mei-Xin Ren, Hai-Xia Liu, Hui-Chun Xing and Qing-Hua Meng

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:383

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Sleep disturbances are prevalent among older adults and are associated with various individual diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate whether sleep disturbances are associated with the speed of mul...

    Authors: Shireen Sindi, Laura Monica Pérez, Davide L. Vetrano, Federico Triolo, Ingemar Kåreholt, Linnea Sjöberg, Alexander Darin-Mattsson, Miia Kivipelto, Marco Inzitari and Amaia Calderón-Larrañaga

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:382

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Clinical studies indicate chemotherapy agents used in childhood cancer treatment regimens may impact future fertility. However, effects of individual agents on prepubertal human testis, necessary to identify l...

    Authors: Melissa D. Tharmalingam, Gabriele Matilionyte, William H. B. Wallace, Jan-Bernd Stukenborg, Kirsi Jahnukainen, Elizabeth Oliver, Anne Goriely, Sheila Lane, Jingtao Guo, Bradley Cairns, Anne Jorgensen, Caroline M. Allen, Federica Lopes, Richard A. Anderson, Norah Spears and Rod T. Mitchell

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:374

    Content type: Research article

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  17. We update a previous systematic review to inform new World Health Organization HIV self-testing (HIVST) recommendations. We compared the effects of HIVST to standard HIV testing services to understand which se...

    Authors: T. Charles Witzel, Ingrid Eshun-Wilson, Muhammad S. Jamil, Nerissa Tilouche, Carmen Figueroa, Cheryl C. Johnson, David Reid, Rachel Baggaley, Nandi Siegfried, Fiona M. Burns, Alison J. Rodger and Peter Weatherburn

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:381

    Content type: Research article

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    The Commentary to this article has been published in BMC Medicine 2020 18:373

  18. Clinical guidelines recommend a stepped-escalation treatment strategy for type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Across multiple treatment strategies varying in efficacy and costs, no clinical or economic studies directly co...

    Authors: Shuyan Gu, Lizheng Shi, Hui Shao, Xiaoyong Wang, Xiaoqian Hu, Yuxuan Gu and Hengjin Dong

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:378

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Little is known about the inter-relationship among fruit and vegetable intake, gut microbiota and metabolites, and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in human prospective cohort study. The aim of the present study was to i...

    Authors: Zengliang Jiang, Ting-yu Sun, Yan He, Wanglong Gou, Luo-shi-yuan Zuo, Yuanqing Fu, Zelei Miao, Menglei Shuai, Fengzhe Xu, Congmei Xiao, Yuhui Liang, Jiali Wang, Yisong Xu, Li-peng Jing, Wenhua Ling, Hongwei Zhou…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:371

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) virus poses a global public health threat given severe and fatal zoonotic infections since 1997 and ongoing A(H5N1) virus circulation among poultry in several countrie...

    Authors: Xinhua Chen, Wei Wang, Yan Wang, Shengjie Lai, Juan Yang, Benjamin J. Cowling, Peter W. Horby, Timothy M. Uyeki and Hongjie Yu

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:377

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Observational studies have shown that milk consumption is inversely associated with colorectal, bladder, and breast cancer risk, but positively associated with prostate cancer. However, whether the association...

    Authors: Susanna C. Larsson, Amy M. Mason, Siddhartha Kar, Mathew Vithayathil, Paul Carter, John A. Baron, Karl Michaëlsson and Stephen Burgess

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:370

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Heterogeneity of prostate cancer (PCa) contributes to inaccurate cancer screening and diagnosis, unnecessary biopsies, and overtreatment. We intended to develop non-invasive urine tests for accurate PCa diagno...

    Authors: Heather Johnson, Jinan Guo, Xuhui Zhang, Heqiu Zhang, Athanasios Simoulis, Alan H. B. Wu, Taolin Xia, Fei Li, Wanlong Tan, Allan Johnson, Nishtman Dizeyi, Per-Anders Abrahamsson, Lukas Kenner, Xiaoyan Feng, Chang Zou, Kefeng Xiao…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:376

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Improved survival means that cancer is increasingly becoming a chronic disease. Understanding and improving functional outcomes are critical to optimising survivorship. We quantified physical and mental health...

    Authors: Grace Joshy, Joanne Thandrayen, Bogda Koczwara, Phyllis Butow, Rebekah Laidsaar-Powell, Nicole Rankin, Karen Canfell, John Stubbs, Paul Grogan, Louise Bailey, Amelia Yazidjoglou and Emily Banks

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:372

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Malaria is still a major global health burden, with more than 3.2 billion people in 91 countries remaining at risk of the disease. Accurately distinguishing malaria from other diseases, especially uncomplicate...

    Authors: Collins M. Morang’a, Lucas Amenga–Etego, Saikou Y. Bah, Vincent Appiah, Dominic S. Y. Amuzu, Nicholas Amoako, James Abugri, Abraham R. Oduro, Aubrey J. Cunnington, Gordon A. Awandare and Thomas D. Otto

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:375

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  25. In dengue-endemic countries, targeting limited control interventions to populations at risk of severe disease could enable increased efficiency. Individuals who have had their first (primary) dengue infection ...

    Authors: Joseph R. Biggs, Ava Kristy Sy, Oliver J. Brady, Adam J. Kucharski, Sebastian Funk, Mary Anne Joy Reyes, Mary Ann Quinones, William Jones-Warner, Yun-Hung Tu, Ferchito L. Avelino, Nemia L. Sucaldito, Huynh Kim Mai, Le Thuy Lien, Hung Do Thai, Hien Anh Thi Nguyen, Dang Duc Anh…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:364

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  26. Cortisol, a steroid hormone frequently used as a biomarker of stress, is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). To clarify whether cortisol causes these outcomes, we ...

    Authors: Man Ki Kwok, Ichiro Kawachi, David Rehkopf and Catherine Mary Schooling

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:363

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Early provision of palliative care, at least 3–4 months before death, can improve patient quality of life and reduce burdensome treatments and financial costs. However, there is wide variation in the duration ...

    Authors: Roberta I. Jordan, Matthew J. Allsop, Yousuf ElMokhallalati, Catriona E. Jackson, Helen L. Edwards, Emma J. Chapman, Luc Deliens and Michael I. Bennett

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:368

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Patients with coeliac disease (CD) commonly report a variety of adverse symptoms to gluten, but descriptions of the symptomatic response in the literature may have been confounded by the presence of food compo...

    Authors: Jason A. Tye-Din, A. James M. Daveson, Kaela E. Goldstein, Holly L. Hand, Kristin M. Neff, Gautam Goel, Leslie J. Williams, Kenneth E. Truitt and Robert P. Anderson

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:362

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Given that an individual’s age and gender are strongly predictive of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes, do such factors imply anything about preferable therapeutic options?

    Authors: Ute Seeland, Flaminia Coluzzi, Maurizio Simmaco, Cameron Mura, Philip E. Bourne, Max Heiland, Robert Preissner and Saskia Preissner

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:369

    Content type: Research article

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  30. The number of patients living with co-existing diseases is growing. This study aimed to assess the extent of multimorbidity, medication use, and drug- and gene-based interactions in patients following a non-ST...

    Authors: R. M. Turner, E. M. de Koning, V. Fontana, A. Thompson and M. Pirmohamed

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:367

    Content type: Research article

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  31. The triglyceride glucose (TyG) index is an inexpensive clinical surrogate marker for insulin resistance. However, the relationship between TyG index and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains unc...

    Authors: Sangmo Hong, Kyungdo Han and Cheol-Young Park

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:361

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) account for the majority of all limb amputations and hospitalizations due to diabetes complications. With 30 million cases of diabetes in the USA and 500,000 new diagnoses each year...

    Authors: Chunan Liu, Alise J. Ponsero, David G. Armstrong, Benjamin A. Lipsky and Bonnie L. Hurwitz

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:358

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  33. Sleep disturbance is common in dementia and often treated with Z-drugs (zopiclone, zaleplon, and zolpidem). While some observational studies suggest that Z-drugs are associated with adverse events such as fall...

    Authors: Kathryn Richardson, Yoon K. Loke, Chris Fox, Ian Maidment, Robert Howard, Nicholas Steel, Antony Arthur, Penelope J. Boyd, Clare Aldus, Clive Ballard and George M. Savva

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:351

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Prediction of pregnancy-related disorders is usually done based on established and easily measured risk factors. Recent advances in metabolomics may provide earlier and more accurate prediction of women at ris...

    Authors: Nancy McBride, Paul Yousefi, Sara L. White, Lucilla Poston, Diane Farrar, Naveed Sattar, Scott M. Nelson, John Wright, Dan Mason, Matthew Suderman, Caroline Relton and Deborah A. Lawlor

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:366

    Content type: Research article

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  35. There is limited prospective evidence on possible differences in fracture risks between vegetarians, vegans, and non-vegetarians. We aimed to study this in a prospective cohort with a large proportion of non-m...

    Authors: Tammy Y. N. Tong, Paul N. Appleby, Miranda E. G. Armstrong, Georgina K. Fensom, Anika Knuppel, Keren Papier, Aurora Perez-Cornago, Ruth C. Travis and Timothy J. Key

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:353

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  36. The complexity of psychopathology is evident from its multifactorial etiology and diversity of symptom profiles and hampers effective treatment. In psychotherapy, therapists approach this complexity by using c...

    Authors: Lino von Klipstein, Harriëtte Riese, Date C. van der Veen, Michelle N. Servaas and Robert A. Schoevers

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:345

    Content type: Opinion

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    The Commentary to this article has been published in BMC Medicine 2020 18:365

  37. Although neutrophils have been linked to the progression of cancer, uncertainty exists around their association with cancer outcomes, depending on the site, outcome and treatments considered. We aimed to evalu...

    Authors: Meghan A. Cupp, Margarita Cariolou, Ioanna Tzoulaki, Dagfinn Aune, Evangelos Evangelou and Antonio J. Berlanga-Taylor

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:360

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Sleep-wakefulness cycles are an essential diagnostic criterion for disorders of consciousness (DOC), differentiating prolonged DOC from coma. Specific sleep features, like the presence of sleep spindles, are a...

    Authors: Isabella Mertel, Yuri G. Pavlov, Christine Barner, Friedemann Müller, Susanne Diekelmann and Boris Kotchoubey

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:350

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Adaptive designs for clinical trials permit alterations to a study in response to accumulating data in order to make trials more flexible, ethical, and efficient. These benefits are achieved while preserving t...

    Authors: Thomas Burnett, Pavel Mozgunov, Philip Pallmann, Sofia S. Villar, Graham M. Wheeler and Thomas Jaki

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:352

    Content type: Correspondence

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  40. Metastatic breast cancer is a major cause of cancer-related deaths in woman. Brain metastasis is a common and devastating site of relapse for several breast cancer molecular subtypes, including oestrogen recep...

    Authors: Sara Charmsaz, Ben Doherty, Sinéad Cocchiglia, Damir Varešlija, Attilio Marino, Nicola Cosgrove, Ricardo Marques, Nolan Priedigkeit, Siobhan Purcell, Fiona Bane, Jarlath Bolger, Christopher Byrne, Philip J. O’Halloran, Francesca Brett, Katherine Sheehan, Kieran Brennan…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:349

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  41. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a progressive, degenerative muscular disorder and cognitive dysfunction caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. It is characterized by excess inflammatory responses in ...

    Authors: Yasunari Matsuzaka, Jun Tanihata, Yoshiko Ooshima, Daisuke Yamada, Masayuki Sekiguchi, Shouta Miyatake, Yoshitsugu Aoki, Mika Terumitsu, Ryu Yashiro, Hirofumi Komaki, Akihiko Ishiyama, Yasushi Oya, Yukiko U. Inoue, Takayoshi Inoue, Shin’ichi Takeda and Kazuo Hashido

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:343

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Cannabis use is increasing in women of reproductive age, but whether cannabis use disorders increase the long-term risk of cardiovascular disease in this population is not known. Cannabis may cause tachycardia...

    Authors: Nathalie Auger, Gilles Paradis, Nancy Low, Aimina Ayoub, Siyi He and Brian J. Potter

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:328

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) alters platelet reactivity, and as a consequence, patients living with HIV may be at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The current evidence on platelet activation ...

    Authors: Bongani B. Nkambule, Vuyolwethu Mxinwa, Zibusiso Mkandla, Tinashe Mutize, Kabelo Mokgalaboni, Tawanda M. Nyambuya and Phiwayinkosi V. Dludla

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:357

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  44. With a suite of promising new RSV prophylactics on the horizon, including long-acting monoclonal antibodies and new vaccines, it is likely that one or more of these will replace the current monoclonal Palivizu...

    Authors: David Hodgson, Richard Pebody, Jasmina Panovska-Griffiths, Marc Baguelin and Katherine E. Atkins

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:348

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  45. High blood pressure (BP) is a key modifiable determinant of cardiovascular disease and a likely determinant of other adverse health outcomes. While socioeconomic inequalities in BP are well documented, it rema...

    Authors: David Bann, Meg Fluharty, Rebecca Hardy and Shaun Scholes

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:338

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  46. Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) following total hip replacement (THR) surgery is a serious complication that negatively impacts patients’ lives and is financially burdensome for healthcare providers. As the n...

    Authors: Kirsty Garfield, Sian Noble, Erik Lenguerrand, Michael R. Whitehouse, Adrian Sayers, Mike R. Reed and Ashley W. Blom

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:335

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

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