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  1. Since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) related mortality has markedly declined. As HAART is becoming increasingly available, the infe...

    Authors: Sonia Menon, Lenka Benova and Hillary Mabeya

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:341

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  2. ABO blood group is associated with differences in lifespan, cardiovascular disease, and some cancers, for reasons which are incompletely understood. To gain sex-specific additional insight about potential mech...

    Authors: Shun Li and C. M. Schooling

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:334

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Observational studies have investigated the association of risk factors with breast cancer prognosis. However, the results have been conflicting and it has been challenging to establish causality due to potent...

    Authors: Maria Escala-Garcia, Anna Morra, Sander Canisius, Jenny Chang-Claude, Siddhartha Kar, Wei Zheng, Stig E. Bojesen, Doug Easton, Paul D. P. Pharoah and Marjanka K. Schmidt

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:327

    Content type: Research article

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  4. It has been presumed that Chlamydia trachomatis is transmitted between men only through anal or oral sex, but no mathematical models have tested this presumption.

    Authors: Xianglong Xu, Eric P. F. Chow, Jason J. Ong, Christian J. P. A. Hoebe, Zhuoru Zou, Jane S. Hocking, Christopher K. Fairley and Lei Zhang

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:326

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Limited evidence exists on the role of glucose-lowering drugs in patients with COVID-19. Our main objective was to examine the association between in-hospital death and each routine at-home glucose-lowering dr...

    Authors: Luis M. Pérez-Belmonte, José David Torres-Peña, María D. López-Carmona, M. Mar. Ayala-Gutiérrez, Francisco Fuentes-Jiménez, Lucía Jorge Huerta, Jaime Alonso Muñoz, Manuel Rubio-Rivas, Manel Madrazo, Marcos Guzmán Garcia, Beatriz Vicente Montes, Joaquim Fernández Sola, Javier Ena, Ruth Gonzalez Ferrer, Carmen Mella Pérez, Carlos Jorge Ripper…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:359

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Severe anemia is common and frequently fatal for hospitalized patients in limited-resource settings. Lack of access to low-cost, accurate, and rapid diagnosis of anemia impedes the delivery of life-saving care...

    Authors: Marina S. Perez-Plazola, Erika A. Tyburski, Luke R. Smart, Thad A. Howard, Amanda Pfeiffer, Russell E. Ware, Wilbur A. Lam and Patrick T. McGann

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:337

    Content type: Technical advance

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  7. Interpersonal violence is a leading cause of death and disability globally, has immediate and long-term impacts on individuals’ health and wellbeing, and impacts global health care expenditures and national ec...

    Authors: Nadia Butler, Zara Quigg and Mark A. Bellis

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:325

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Links between parental socioeconomic position during childhood and subsequent risks of developing mental disorders have rarely been examined across the diagnostic spectrum. We conducted a comprehensive analysi...

    Authors: Christian Hakulinen, Pearl L. H. Mok, Henriette Thisted Horsdal, Carsten B. Pedersen, Preben B. Mortensen, Esben Agerbo and Roger T. Webb

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:323

    Content type: Research article

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  9. The placebo response in patients with diabetes mellitus is very common. A systematic evaluation needs to be updated with the current evidence about the placebo response in diabetes mellitus and the associated ...

    Authors: Chu Lin, Xiaoling Cai, Wenjia Yang, Fang Lv, Lin Nie and Linong Ji

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:322

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 2.2 calls for an end to all forms of malnutrition, with 2025 targets of a 40% reduction in stunting (relative to 2012), for wasting to occur in less than 5% of children, and ...

    Authors: Nick Scott, Dominic Delport, Samuel Hainsworth, Ruth Pearson, Christopher Morgan, Shan Huang, Jonathan K. Akuoku, Ellen Piwoz, Meera Shekar, Carol Levin, Mike Toole and Caroline SE Homer

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:356

    Content type: Research article

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  11. As The Gambia aims to achieve malaria elimination by 2030, serological assays are a useful surveillance tool to monitor trends in malaria incidence and evaluate community-based interventions.

    Authors: Lindsey Wu, Julia Mwesigwa, Muna Affara, Mamadou Bah, Simon Correa, Tom Hall, Susheel K. Singh, James G. Beeson, Kevin K. A. Tetteh, Immo Kleinschmidt, Umberto D’Alessandro and Chris Drakeley

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:331

    Content type: Research article

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  12. There is now evolving data exploring the relationship between depression and various individual lifestyle factors such as diet, physical activity, sleep, alcohol intake, and tobacco smoking. While this data is...

    Authors: Jerome Sarris, Russell Thomson, Fiona Hargraves, Melissa Eaton, Michael de Manincor, Nicola Veronese, Marco Solmi, Brendon Stubbs, Alison R. Yung and Joseph Firth

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:354

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Keratins (Ks) represent tissue-specific proteins. K18 is produced in hepatocytes while K19, the most widely used ductular reaction (DR) marker, is found in cholangiocytes and hepatic progenitor cells. K18-base...

    Authors: Karim Hamesch, Nurdan Guldiken, Mahmoud Aly, Norbert Hüser, Daniel Hartmann, Pierre Rufat, Marianne Ziol, Katharina Remih, Georg Lurje, Bernhard Scheiner, Christian Trautwein, Mattias Mandorfer, Thomas Reiberger, Sebastian Mueller, Tony Bruns, Pierre Nahon…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:336

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infects almost all children by the age of 2 years, with the risk of hospitalisation highest in the first 6 months of life. Development and licensure of a vaccine to prevent se...

    Authors: Patricia T. Campbell, Nicholas Geard and Alexandra B. Hogan

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:319

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Genome-wide and clinical studies have linked the 677C→T polymorphism in the gene encoding methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) with hypertension, whilst limited evidence shows that intervention with rib...

    Authors: Mary Ward, Catherine F. Hughes, J. J. Strain, Rosie Reilly, Conal Cunningham, Anne M. Molloy, Geraldine Horigan, Miriam Casey, Kevin McCarroll, Maurice O’Kane, Michael J. Gibney, Albert Flynn, Janette Walton, Breige A. McNulty, Adrian McCann, Laura Kirwan…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:318

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Depression and anxiety are common mental disorders that increase physical health risks and are leading causes of global disability. Several forms of physical fitness could be modifiable risk factors for common...

    Authors: Aaron A. Kandola, David P. J. Osborn, Brendon Stubbs, Karmel W. Choi and Joseph F. Hayes

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:303

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  17. Frailty has been associated with worse prognosis following COVID-19 infection. While several studies have reported the association between frailty and COVID-19 mortality or length of hospital stay, there have ...

    Authors: Fanny Petermann-Rocha, Peter Hanlon, Stuart R. Gray, Paul Welsh, Jason M. R. Gill, Hamish Foster, S. Vittal Katikireddi, Donald Lyall, Daniel F. Mackay, Catherine A. O’Donnell, Naveed Sattar, Barbara I. Nicholl, Jill P. Pell, Bhautesh D. Jani, Frederick K. Ho, Frances S. Mair…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:355

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  18. The need for better methods for evaluation in health research has been widely recognised. The ‘complexity turn’ has drawn attention to the limitations of relying on causal inference from randomised controlled ...

    Authors: Sara Paparini, Judith Green, Chrysanthi Papoutsi, Jamie Murdoch, Mark Petticrew, Trish Greenhalgh, Benjamin Hanckel and Sara Shaw

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:301

    Content type: Opinion

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  19. Clinical scores to determine early (6-month) antiretroviral therapy (ART) mortality risk have not been developed for sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), home to 70% of people living with HIV. In the absence of validated...

    Authors: Andrew F. Auld, Katherine Fielding, Tefera Agizew, Alice Maida, Anikie Mathoma, Rosanna Boyd, Anand Date, Sherri L. Pals, George Bicego, Yuliang Liu, Ray W. Shiraishi, Peter Ehrenkranz, Christopher Serumola, Unami Mathebula, Heather Alexander, Salome Charalambous…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:311

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Chronic kidney disease has emerged as a strong cardiovascular risk factor, and in many current guidelines, it is already considered as a coronary heart disease (CHD) equivalent. Routinely, creatinine has been ...

    Authors: Dietrich Rothenbacher, Martin Rehm, Licia Iacoviello, Simona Costanzo, Hugh Tunstall-Pedoe, Jill J. F. Belch, Stefan Söderberg, Johan Hultdin, Veikko Salomaa, Pekka Jousilahti, Allan Linneberg, Susana Sans, Teresa Padró, Barbara Thorand, Christa Meisinger, Frank Kee…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:300

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Mitigating or reducing the risk of medication harm is a global policy priority. But evidence reflecting preventable medication harm in medical care and the factors that derive this harm remain unknown. Therefo...

    Authors: Alexander Hodkinson, Natasha Tyler, Darren M. Ashcroft, Richard N. Keers, Kanza Khan, Denham Phipps, Aseel Abuzour, Peter Bower, Anthony Avery, Stephen Campbell and Maria Panagioti

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:313

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Wearable biometric monitoring devices (BMDs) have the potential to transform the conduct of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) by shifting the collection of outcome data from single measurements at predefined...

    Authors: Carolina Graña Possamai, Philippe Ravaud, Lina Ghosn and Viet-Thi Tran

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:310

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Wide implementation of mammography screening has resulted in increased numbers of women diagnosed with breast carcinoma in situ. We aimed to determine the risk of invasive breast cancer in relatives of patient...

    Authors: Trasias Mukama, Mahdi Fallah, Hermann Brenner, Xing Xu, Kristina Sundquist, Jan Sundquist and Elham Kharazmi

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:295

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Evidence concerning the long-term impact of Covid-19 in pregnancy on mother’s psychological disorder and infant’s developmental delay is unknown.

    Authors: Yuanyuan Wang, Lian Chen, Tianchen Wu, Huifeng Shi, Qin Li, Hai Jiang, Danni Zheng, Xiaoli Wang, Yuan Wei, Yangyu Zhao and Jie Qiao

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:347

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  25. Tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) are pivotal to detecting current coronavirus d...

    Authors: Sue Mallett, A. Joy Allen, Sara Graziadio, Stuart A. Taylor, Naomi S. Sakai, Kile Green, Jana Suklan, Chris Hyde, Bethany Shinkins, Zhivko Zhelev, Jaime Peters, Philip J. Turner, Nia W. Roberts, Lavinia Ferrante di Ruffano, Robert Wolff, Penny Whiting…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:346

    Content type: Research article

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  26. The STREAM trial demonstrated that a 9–11-month “short” regimen had non-inferior efficacy and comparable safety to a 20+ month “long” regimen for the treatment of rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis. Imbalance i...

    Authors: P. P. J. Phillips, A. Van Deun, S. Ahmed, R. L. Goodall, S. K. Meredith, F. Conradie, C-Y Chiang, I. D. Rusen and A. J. Nunn

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:314

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  27. Upon treatment with biopharmaceuticals, the immune system may produce anti-drug antibodies (ADA) that inhibit the therapy. Up to 40% of multiple sclerosis patients treated with interferon β (IFNβ) develop ADA,...

    Authors: Till F. M. Andlauer, Jenny Link, Dorothea Martin, Malin Ryner, Christina Hermanrud, Verena Grummel, Michael Auer, Harald Hegen, Lilian Aly, Christiane Gasperi, Benjamin Knier, Bertram Müller-Myhsok, Poul Erik Hyldgaard Jensen, Finn Sellebjerg, Ingrid Kockum, Tomas Olsson…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:298

    Content type: Research article

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  28. At the end of life, formal care costs are high. Informal care (IC) costs, and their effects on outcomes, are not known. This study aimed to determine the IC costs for older adults in the last 3 months of life,...

    Authors: Irene J. Higginson, Deokhee Yi, Bridget M. Johnston, Karen Ryan, Regina McQuillan, Lucy Selman, Stephen Z. Pantilat, Barbara A. Daveson, R. Sean Morrison and Charles Normand

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:344

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  29. Epidemics of infectious disease occur frequently in low-income and humanitarian settings and pose a serious threat to populations. However, relatively little is known about responses to these epidemics. Robust...

    Authors: Abdihamid Warsame, Jillian Murray, Amy Gimma and Francesco Checchi

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:315

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  30. Pre-eclampsia is a leading cause of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Early identification of women at risk during pregnancy is required to plan management. Although there are many published pred...

    Authors: Kym I. E. Snell, John Allotey, Melanie Smuk, Richard Hooper, Claire Chan, Asif Ahmed, Lucy C. Chappell, Peter Von Dadelszen, Marcus Green, Louise Kenny, Asma Khalil, Khalid S. Khan, Ben W. Mol, Jenny Myers, Lucilla Poston, Basky Thilaganathan…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:302

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  31. Research comparing sex differences in the effects of antipsychotic medications on acute ischemic heart disease (IHD) is limited and the findings ambiguous. This study aimed to investigate these associations wi...

    Authors: Francisco T. T. Lai, Bruce Guthrie, Stewart W. Mercer, Daniel J. Smith, Benjamin H. K. Yip, Gary K. K. Chung, Kam-Pui Lee, Roger Y. Chung, Patsy Y. K. Chau, Eliza L. Y. Wong, Eng-Kiong Yeoh and Samuel Y. S. Wong

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:289

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    The Commentary to this article has been published in BMC Medicine 2020 18:339

  32. Malaria is associated with Burkitt lymphoma among children in Sub-Saharan Africa. No longitudinal studies have assessed the long-term risk of other lymphoma or cancer overall. Here, we investigated the risk of...

    Authors: Katja Wyss, Fredrik Granath, Andreas Wångdahl, Therese Djärv, Michael Fored, Pontus Naucler and Anna Färnert

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:296

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  33. An overview of the diagnostic performance of natriuretic peptides (NPs) for the detection of diastolic dysfunction (DD) and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), in a non-acute setting, is cu...

    Authors: Sharon Remmelzwaal, Adriana J. van Ballegooijen, Linda J. Schoonmade, Elisa Dal Canto, M. Louis Handoko, Michiel T. H. M. Henkens, Vanessa van Empel, Stephane R. B. Heymans and Joline W. J. Beulens

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:290

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  34. Healthcare is amongst the most complex of human systems. Coordinating activities and integrating newer with older ways of treating patients while delivering high-quality, safe care, is challenging. Three landm...

    Authors: Jeffrey Braithwaite, Charles Vincent, Ezequiel Garcia-Elorrio, Yuichi Imanaka, Wendy Nicklin, Sodzi Sodzi-Tettey and David W. Bates

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:340

    Content type: Correspondence

    Published on:

  35. Advances in antiretroviral therapies have greatly improved the survival of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (PLWH); yet, PLWH have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease than th...

    Authors: Haoxiang Cheng, Anshuman Sewda, Carla Marquez-Luna, Sierra R. White, Bridget M. Whitney, Jessica Williams-Nguyen, Robin M. Nance, Won Jun Lee, Mari M. Kitahata, Michael S. Saag, Amanda Willig, Joseph J. Eron, W. Christopher Mathews, Peter W. Hunt, Richard D. Moore, Allison Webel…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:288

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  36. Many studies detect associations between parent behaviour and child symptoms of anxiety and depression. Despite knowledge that anxiety and depression are influenced by a complex interplay of genetic and enviro...

    Authors: Rosa Cheesman, Espen Moen Eilertsen, Yasmin I. Ahmadzadeh, Line C. Gjerde, Laurie J. Hannigan, Alexandra Havdahl, Alexander I. Young, Thalia C. Eley, Pål R. Njølstad, Per Magnus, Ole A. Andreassen, Eivind Ystrom and Tom A. McAdams

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:284

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  37. Novel biological and precision therapies and their associated predictive biomarker tests offer opportunities for increased tumor response, reduced adverse effects, and improved survival. This systematic review...

    Authors: Ruth P. Norris, Rosie Dew, Linda Sharp, Alastair Greystoke, Stephen Rice, Kristina Johnell and Adam Todd

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:282

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  38. Asymptomatic or subclinical SARS-CoV-2 infections are often unreported, which means that confirmed case counts may not accurately reflect underlying epidemic dynamics. Understanding the level of ascertainment ...

    Authors: Timothy W. Russell, Nick Golding, Joel Hellewell, Sam Abbott, Lawrence Wright, Carl A. B. Pearson, Kevin van Zandvoort, Christopher I. Jarvis, Hamish Gibbs, Yang Liu, Rosalind M. Eggo, W. John Edmunds and Adam J. Kucharski

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:332

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Frailty is common in clinical practice, but trials rarely report on participant frailty. Consequently, clinicians and guideline-developers assume frailty is largely absent from trials and have questioned the r...

    Authors: Peter Hanlon, Elaine Butterly, Jim Lewsey, Stefan Siebert, Frances S. Mair and David A. McAllister

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:309

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Adjuvant chemotherapy induces weight gain, glucose intolerance, and hypertension in about a third of women. The mechanisms underlying these events have not been defined. This study assessed the association bet...

    Authors: Atara Uzan-Yulzari, Maya Morr, Hala Tareef-Nabwani, Oren Ziv, Dafna Magid-Neriya, Ran Armoni, Efrat Muller, Anca Leibovici, Elhanan Borenstein, Yoram Louzoun, Ayelet Shai and Omry Koren

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:281

    Content type: Research article

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  41. There is currently no existing evidence on the effects of personalised risk information on uptake of colonoscopy following first line screening for colorectal cancer. This study aimed to measure the impact of ...

    Authors: Jayne Digby, Ronan E. O’Carroll, Julie A. Chambers and Robert J. C. Steele

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:285

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  42. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak is evolving rapidly worldwide. However, little is known about the association between pregnant women with COVID-19 and the risk of adverse birth outcomes.

    Authors: Rong Yang, Hui Mei, Tongzhang Zheng, Qiang Fu, Yiming Zhang, Stephen Buka, Xinan Yao, Zezhong Tang, Xichi Zhang, Lin Qiu, Yaqi Zhang, Jieqiong Zhou, Jiangxia Cao, Youjie Wang and Aifen Zhou

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:330

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  43. Potential routes whereby systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction may drive the development of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis, even in an environment of low cholestero...

    Authors: Gerwyn Morris, Basant K. Puri, Lisa Olive, Andre Carvalho, Michael Berk, Ken Walder, Lise Tuset Gustad and Michael Maes

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:305

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  44. To calculate hospital surge capacity, achieved via hospital provision interventions implemented for the emergency treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and other patients through March to May 2020; ...

    Authors: Ruth McCabe, Nora Schmit, Paula Christen, Josh C. D’Aeth, Alessandra Løchen, Dheeya Rizmie, Shevanthi Nayagam, Marisa Miraldo, Paul Aylin, Alex Bottle, Pablo N. Perez-Guzman, Azra C. Ghani, Neil M. Ferguson, Peter J. White and Katharina Hauck

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:329

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  45. Classification of primary central nervous system tumors according to the World Health Organization guidelines follows the integration of histologic interpretation with molecular information and aims at providi...

    Authors: H. D. Nguyen, A. Allaire, P. Diamandis, M. Bisaillon, M. S. Scott and M. Richer

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:280

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

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