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  1. The forthcoming post-Millennium Development Goals era will bring about new challenges in global health. Low- and middle-income countries will have to contend with a dual burden of infectious and non-communicab...

    Authors: Alan D Lopez, Thomas N Williams, Adeera Levin, Marcello Tonelli, Jasvinder A Singh, Peter GJ Burney, Jürgen Rehm, Nora D Volkow, George Koob and Cleusa P Ferri
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2014 12:200
  2. Alcohol consumption is a major global risk factor for mortality and morbidity. Much discussion has revolved around the diverse findings on the complex relationship between alcohol consumption and the leading c...

    Authors: Michael Roerecke and Jürgen Rehm
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2014 12:182
  3. The myocardial effects of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5i) have recently received consideration in several preclinical studies. The risk/benefit ratio in humans remains unclear.

    Authors: Elisa Giannetta, Tiziana Feola, Daniele Gianfrilli, Riccardo Pofi, Valentina Dall’Armi, Roberto Badagliacca, Federica Barbagallo, Andrea Lenzi and Andrea M Isidori
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2014 12:185
  4. Gene-environment interactions have the potential to shed light on biological processes leading to disease, identify individuals for whom risk factors are most relevant, and improve the accuracy of epidemiologi...

    Authors: Olivia Fletcher and Frank Dudbridge
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2014 12:195
  5. Visual impairment is common in older people and the presence of additional health conditions can compromise health and rehabilitation outcomes. A small number of studies have suggested that comorbities are com...

    Authors: Helen Court, Gary McLean, Bruce Guthrie, Stewart W Mercer and Daniel J Smith
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2014 12:181
  6. Polymorphism in antigens is a common mechanism for immune evasion used by many important pathogens, and presents major challenges in vaccine development. In malaria, many key immune targets and vaccine candida...

    Authors: Ulrich Terheggen, Damien R Drew, Anthony N Hodder, Nadia J Cross, Cleopatra K Mugyenyi, Alyssa E Barry, Robin F Anders, Sheetij Dutta, Faith HA Osier, Salenna R Elliott, Nicolas Senn, Danielle I Stanisic, Kevin Marsh, Peter M Siba, Ivo Mueller, Jack S Richards…
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2014 12:183
  7. Guidelines and experts describe 5% to 10% reductions in body weight as `clinically important’; however, it is not clear if 5% to 10% weight reductions correspond to clinically important improvements in health-...

    Authors: Lindsey M Warkentin, Sumit R Majumdar, Jeffrey A Johnson, Calypse B Agborsangaya, Christian F Rueda-Clausen, Arya M Sharma, Scott W Klarenbach, Shahzeer Karmali, Daniel W Birch and Raj S Padwal
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2014 12:175
  8. Overweight and obesity during pregnancy represents a considerable health burden. While research has focused on interventions to limit gestational weight gain, there is little information describing their impac...

    Authors: Jodie M Dodd, Andrew J McPhee, Deborah Turnbull, Lisa N Yelland, Andrea R Deussen, Rosalie M Grivell, Caroline A Crowther, Gary Wittert, Julie A Owens and Jeffrey S Robinson
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2014 12:163
  9. Overweight and obesity is a significant health concern during pregnancy. Our aim was to investigate the effect of providing antenatal dietary and lifestyle advice to women who are overweight or obese on compon...

    Authors: Jodie M Dodd, Courtney Cramp, Zhixian Sui, Lisa N Yelland, Andrea R Deussen, Rosalie M Grivell, Lisa J Moran, Caroline A Crowther, Deborah Turnbull, Andrew J McPhee, Gary Wittert, Julie A Owens and Jeffrey S Robinson
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2014 12:161
  10. Excess body weight, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and certain dietary factors are individually related to colorectal cancer (CRC) risk; however, little is known about their joint effects. The...

    Authors: Krasimira Aleksandrova, Tobias Pischon, Mazda Jenab, H Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Veronika Fedirko, Teresa Norat, Dora Romaguera, Sven Knüppel, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Laure Dossus, Laureen Dartois, Rudolf Kaaks, Kuanrong Li, Anne Tjønneland, Kim Overvad, José Ramón Quirós…
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2014 12:168
  11. Inherited epidermolysis bullosa (EB) comprises a group of rare disorders that have multi-system effects and patients present with a number of both acute and chronic pain care needs. Effects on quality of life ...

    Authors: Kenneth R Goldschneider, Julie Good, Emily Harrop, Christina Liossi, Anne Lynch-Jordan, Anna E Martinez, Lynne G Maxwell and Danette Stanko-Lopp
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2014 12:178
  12. There is a need for development of more effective interventions to achieve healthy eating, enhance healthy ageing, and to reduce the risk of age-related diseases. The aim of this study was to identify the beha...

    Authors: Jose Lara, Elizabeth H Evans, Nicola O’Brien, Paula J Moynihan, Thomas D Meyer, Ashley J Adamson, Linda Errington, Falko F Sniehotta, Martin White and John C Mathers
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2014 12:177
  13. Voluntary medical male circumcision has been conclusively demonstrated to reduce the lifetime risk of male acquisition of HIV. The strategy has been adopted as a component of a comprehensive strategy towards a...

    Authors: Vincent Mutabazi, Jamie I Forrest, Nathan Ford and Edward J Mills
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2014 12:184
  14. Older patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) face the decision of whether to undergo dialysis. Currently available data on this issue are limited because they were generated by small, short-term s...

    Authors: Chia-Jen Shih, Yung-Tai Chen, Shuo-Ming Ou, Wu-Chang Yang, Shu-Chen Kuo and Der-Cherng Tarng
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2014 12:169
  15. The prevalence of multimorbidity (the presence of two or more long-term conditions) is rising internationally. Multimorbidity affects patients by increasing their burden of symptoms, but is also likely to incr...

    Authors: Katie I Gallacher, G David Batty, Gary McLean, Stewart W Mercer, Bruce Guthrie, Carl R May, Peter Langhorne and Frances S Mair
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2014 12:151
  16. Waist circumference (WC) is used to indirectly measure abdominal adipose tissue and the associated risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Because of its easy implementation a...

    Authors: Ana María Contardo Ayala, Giel Nijpels and Jeroen Lakerveld
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2014 12:170
  17. The aim of the current study was to estimate sex- and age-specific incidence rates of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) using population-based registry data. CFS/ME is a debilitating ...

    Authors: Inger Johanne Bakken, Kari Tveito, Nina Gunnes, Sara Ghaderi, Camilla Stoltenberg, Lill Trogstad, Siri Eldevik H åberg and Per Magnus
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2014 12:167
  18. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual fifth edition (DSM-5) provides new criteria for delirium diagnosis. We examined delirium diagnosis using these new criteria compared with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manua...

    Authors: David J Meagher, Alessandro Morandi, Sharon K Inouye, Wes Ely, Dimitrios Adamis, Alasdair J Maclullich, James L Rudolph, Karin Neufeld, Maeve Leonard, Giuseppe Bellelli, Daniel Davis, Andrew Teodorczuk, Stefan Kreisel, Christine Thomas, Wolfgang Hasemann, Suzanne Timmons…
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2014 12:164
  19. The rising numbers of people with atrial fibrillation (AF) carry a heavy toll on our graying population. Epidemiological data suggest that AF exists in 1 in 10 individuals aged older than 80 years. The risk of...

    Authors: Perttu J Lindsberg, Lauri Toivonen and Hans-Christoph Diener
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2014 12:180
  20. Intimate partner violence is common among women having abortions, with between 6% and 22% reporting recent violence from an intimate partner. Concern about violence is a reason some pregnant women decide to te...

    Authors: Sarah CM Roberts, M Antonia Biggs, Karuna S Chibber, Heather Gould, Corinne H Rocca and Diana Greene Foster
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2014 12:144
  21. Glycemic variation as an independent predictor of ischemic stroke in type 2 diabetic patients remains unclear. This study examined visit-to-visit variations in fasting plasma glucose (FPG), as represented by t...

    Authors: Cheng-Chieh Lin, Chun-Pai Yang, Chia-Ing Li, Chiu-Shong Liu, Ching-Chu Chen, Wen-Yuan Lin, Kai-Lin Hwang, Sing-Yu Yang and Tsai-Chung Li
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2014 12:165
  22. Considerable controversy exists regarding the association between dietary calcium intake and risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease and all causes. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis of prospective...

    Authors: Xia Wang, Hongxia Chen, Yingying Ouyang, Jun Liu, Gang Zhao, Wei Bao and Maosheng Yan
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2014 12:158
  23. Policy decisions about opt-in and opt-out consent for organ donation are based on limited evidence. To fill this gap we investigated the difference between deceased and living organ donation rates in opt-in an...

    Authors: Lee Shepherd, Ronan E O’Carroll and Eamonn Ferguson
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2014 12:131
  24. Pre-eclampsia is a common pregnancy related condition, which contributes significantly both to maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. The precise pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia is uncertain, and the...

    Authors: Jodie M Dodd, Cecelia O’Brien and Rosalie M Grivell
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2014 12:176
  25. Dietary factors have been suggested to play a role in the prevention of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP), including gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia, but inconsistent findings have been repo...

    Authors: Danielle AJM Schoenaker, Sabita S Soedamah-Muthu and Gita D Mishra
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2014 12:157
  26. Considerable controversy exists regarding the relation between maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy and risk of low birth weight (birth weight <2,500 g). We aim to assess this association using a systemat...

    Authors: Ling-Wei Chen, Yi Wu, Nithya Neelakantan, Mary Foong-Fong Chong, An Pan and Rob M van Dam
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2014 12:174
  27. Liver cirrhosis is a major yet largely preventable and underappreciated cause of global health loss. Variations in cirrhosis mortality at the country level reflect differences in prevalence of risk factors suc...

    Authors: Ali A Mokdad, Alan D Lopez, Saied Shahraz, Rafael Lozano, Ali H Mokdad, Jeff Stanaway, Christopher JL Murray and Mohsen Naghavi
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2014 12:145
  28. Most of newly discovered cancer biomarkers fail in the clinic because they lack sensitivity and/or specificity. The current explosion in knowledge of the mutational spectrum of many cancer types, as a result o...

    Authors: Eleftherios P Diamandis
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2014 12:156
  29. Several non-invasive prediction scores for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have been developed, but their performance has not been compared and validated in the same population, and whether these pre...

    Authors: Ching-Lung Cheung, Karen SL Lam, Ian CK Wong and Bernard MY Cheung
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2014 12:154
  30. Identifying Plasmodium vivax antigen-specific antibodies associated with P. vivax infection and protective immunity is key to the development of serosurveillance tools and vaccines for malaria. Antibody targets o...

    Authors: Julia C Cutts, Rosanna Powell, Paul A Agius, James G Beeson, Julie A Simpson and Freya J I Fowkes
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2014 12:150
  31. Dengue is emerging as one of the most abundant vector-borne disease globally. Although the majority of infections are asymptomatic or result in only a brief systemic viral illness, a small proportion of patien...

    Authors: Sophie Yacoub and Bridget Wills
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2014 12:147
  32. Do-Not-Resuscitate (DNR) patients tend to receive less medical care after the order is written. To provide a clearer approach, the Ohio Department of Health adopted the Do-Not-Resuscitate law in 1998, indicati...

    Authors: Yen-Yuan Chen, Nahida H Gordon, Alfred F Connors, Allan Garland, Shan-Chwen Chang and Stuart J Youngner
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2014 12:146
  33. A link between measles virus and Crohn’s disease (CD) has been postulated. We assessed through bioinformatic and immunological approaches whether measles is implicated in CD induction, through molecular mimicry.

    Authors: Dimitrios Polymeros, Zacharias P Tsiamoulos, Andreas L Koutsoumpas, Daniel S Smyk, Maria G Mytilinaiou, Konstantinos Triantafyllou, Dimitrios P Bogdanos and Spiros D Ladas
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2014 12:139
  34. Obesity and metabolic syndrome are healthcare problems that continue to rise in frequency worldwide. Both phenotypes are a strong predictor for development of liver steatosis in the context of non-alcoholic fa...

    Authors: Bark Betzel and Joost PH Drenth
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2014 12:152