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  1. The multiple drug resistance protein (MDR1/P-glycoprotein) is overexpressed in glia and blood-brain barrier (BBB) endothelium in drug refractory human epileptic tissue. Since various antiepileptic drugs (AEDs)...

    Authors: Nicola Marchi, Kerri L Hallene, Kelly M Kight, Luca Cucullo, Gabriel Moddel, William Bingaman, Gabriele Dini, Annamaria Vezzani and Damir Janigro
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:37
  2. Schistosoma mansoni and malaria infections are often endemic in the same communities in sub-Saharan Africa, and both have pathological effects on the liver and the spleen. Hepatosplenomegaly associated with S. m...

    Authors: Mark Booth, Birgitte J Vennervald, Anthony E Butterworth, Henry C Kariuki, Clifford Amaganga, Gachuhi Kimani, Joseph K Mwatha, Amos Otedo, John H Ouma and David W Dunne
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:36
  3. Carcinoma of the esophagus is an aggressive malignancy with an increasing incidence. Its virulence, in terms of symptoms and mortality, justifies a continued search for optimal therapy. The large and growing n...

    Authors: Richard A Malthaner, Rebecca KS Wong, R Bryan Rumble and Lisa Zuraw
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:35
  4. The major psychoactive cannabinoid compound of marijuana, delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), has been shown to modulate immune responses and lymphocyte function. After primary infection the viral DNA genome o...

    Authors: Maria M Medveczky, Tracy A Sherwood, Thomas W Klein, Herman Friedman and Peter G Medveczky
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:34
  5. We conducted this analysis to determine i) which journals publish high-quality, clinically relevant studies in internal medicine, general/family practice, general practice nursing, and mental health; and ii) t...

    Authors: Kathleen Ann McKibbon, Nancy L Wilczynski and Robert Brian Haynes
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:33
  6. Among human Salmonella Enteritidis infections, phage type 4 has been the dominant phage type in most countries in Western Europe during the last years. This is reflected in Salmonella infections among Swedish tra...

    Authors: Karin Nygård, Birgitta de Jong, Philippe J Guerin, Yvonne Andersson, Agneta Olsson and Johan Giesecke
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:32
  7. The coronary artery calcium (CAC) score is an independent predictor of coronary heart disease. We sought to combine information from the CAC score with information from conventional cardiac risk factors to pro...

    Authors: Mark J Pletcher, Jeffrey A Tice, Michael Pignone, Charles McCulloch, Tracy Q Callister and Warren S Browner
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:31
  8. Pendred syndrome, a common autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by congenital deafness and goiter, is caused by mutations of SLC26A4, which codes for pendrin. We investigated the relationship between pen...

    Authors: Philine Wangemann, Erin M Itza, Beatrice Albrecht, Tao Wu, Sairam V Jabba, Rajanikanth J Maganti, Jun Ho Lee, Lorraine A Everett, Susan M Wall, Ines E Royaux, Eric D Green and Daniel C Marcus
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:30
  9. The study investigated the extent to which approaches to work, workplace climate, stress, burnout and satisfaction with medicine as a career in doctors aged about thirty are predicted by measures of learning s...

    Authors: IC McManus, A Keeling and E Paice
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:29
  10. While the basic ethical issues regarding consent may be universal to all countries, the consent procedures required by international review boards which include detailed scientific and legal information, may n...

    Authors: J Sastry, H Pisal, S Sutar, N Kapadia-Kundu, A Joshi, N Suryavanshi, KE Bharucha, A Shrotri, MA Phadke, RC Bollinger and AV Shankar
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:28
  11. Within the UK there is considerable variation in the perinatal mortality rate. The objective of this study was to assess the factors associated with stillbirths and early neonatal deaths (ENND) and the suitabi...

    Authors: Nigel C Smeeton, Roberto J Rona, Pamela Dobson, Ruth Cochrane and Charles Wolfe
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:27
  12. Suboptimal breastfeeding is associated with higher mortality among infants and young children in the developing world. We describe patterns in 'exclusive breastfeeding' and 'any breastfeeding' rates and quanti...

    Authors: Jeremy A Lauer, Ana Pilar Betrán, Cesar G Victora, Mercedes de Onís and Aluísio JD Barros
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:26
  13. Residents of the Republic of Serbia faced civil war and a NATO-led bombing campaign in 1999. We sought to assess the burden of metal health dysfunction among emergency department (ED) patients presenting for c...

    Authors: Brett D Nelson, William G Fernandez, Sandro Galea, Sarah Sisco, Kerry Dierberg, Gordana Subaric Gorgieva, Arijit K Nandi, Jennifer Ahern, Mihajlo Mitrović, Michael VanRooyen and David Vlahov
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:22
  14. A wide variety of surgical techniques are used to perform vasectomy. The purpose of this systematic review was to assess if any surgical techniques to isolate or occlude the vas are associated with better outc...

    Authors: Michel Labrecque, Caroline Dufresne, Mark A Barone and Karine St-Hilaire
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:21
  15. Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is a global public health problem, yet data on IPV against Native American women are extremely limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study of Native American wom...

    Authors: Lorraine Halinka Malcoe, Bonnie M Duran and Juliann M Montgomery
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:20
  16. ACE2 is a novel homologue of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). ACE2 is highly expressed in human heart and animal data suggest that ACE2 is an essential regulator of cardiac function in vivo. Since overactivit...

    Authors: Andrew B Goulter, Martin J Goddard, Jennifer C Allen and Kenneth L Clark
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:19
  17. To empirically evaluate bias in estimation of accuracy associated with delay in verification of diagnosis among studies evaluating tests for predicting endometrial hyperplasia.

    Authors: T Justin Clark, Gerben ter Riet, Aravinthan Coomarasamy and Khalid S Khan
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:18
  18. The purpose of the present study was to continue the investigation of the membrane transport mechanisms of 20-(S)-camptothecin (CPT) in order to understand the possible role of membrane transporters on its ora...

    Authors: Anita K Lalloo, Feng R Luo, Ailan Guo, Pankaj V Paranjpe, Sung-Hack Lee, Viral Vyas, Eric Rubin and Patrick J Sinko
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:16
  19. An intravenous urogram (IVU) has traditionally been considered mandatory before treating renal and ureteric stones by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). This study was designed to see whether there ...

    Authors: M Hammad Ather, Nuzhat Faruqui, Sobia Akhtar and M Nasir Sulaiman
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:15
  20. Recent studies in children have demonstrated that frequent occurrence of parasomnias is related to increased sleep disruption, mental disorders, physical harm, sleep disordered breathing, and parental duress. ...

    Authors: James L Goodwin, Kris L Kaemingk, Ralph F Fregosi, Gerald M Rosen, Wayne J Morgan, Terry Smith and Stuart F Quan
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:14
  21. Understanding variations in the incidence of schizophrenia is a crucial step in unravelling the aetiology of this group of disorders. The aims of this review are to systematically identify studies related to t...

    Authors: John McGrath, Sukanta Saha, Joy Welham, Ossama El Saadi, Clare MacCauley and David Chant
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:13
  22. Painless, rapid, controlled, minimally invasive molecular transport across human skin for drug delivery and analyte acquisition is of widespread interest. Creation of microconduits through the stratum corneum ...

    Authors: Terry O Herndon, Salvador Gonzalez, TR Gowrishankar, R Rox Anderson and James C Weaver
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:12
  23. Despite treatment recommendations from various organizations, oral rehydration therapy (ORT) continues to be underused, particularly by physicians in high-income countries. We conducted a systematic review of ...

    Authors: Steven Bellemare, Lisa Hartling, Natasha Wiebe, Kelly Russell, William R Craig, Don McConnell and Terry P Klassen
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:11
  24. We have previously described an alternative invasion-independent pathway of cancer metastasis in a murine mammary tumor model. This pathway is initiated by intravasation of tumor nests enveloped by endothelial...

    Authors: Takashi Sugino, Tomiko Yamaguchi, Go Ogura, Atsuko Saito, Takeaki Hashimoto, Nobuo Hoshi, Sayaka Yoshida, Steve Goodison and Toshimitsu Suzuki
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:9
  25. The ABC transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is recognized as a site for drug-drug interactions and provides a mechanistic explanation for clinically relevant pharmacokinetic interactions with digoxin. The questi...

    Authors: Gunilla Englund, Pär Hallberg, Per Artursson, Karl Michaëlsson and Håkan Melhus
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:8
  26. Henoch Schönlein Purpura (HSP) is the most common systemic vasculitis of childhood. There is considerable controversy over whether children with HSP should be treated with corticosteroids. The goal of this stu...

    Authors: Adam M Huber, Jim King, Peter McLaine, Terry Klassen and Mary Pothos
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:7
  27. Randomized controlled trials comparing different vasectomy occlusion techniques are lacking. Thus, this multicenter randomized trial was conducted to compare the probability of the success of ligation and exci...

    Authors: David Sokal, Belinda Irsula, Melissa Hays, Mario Chen-Mok and Mark A Barone
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:6
  28. Mutations in either of two genes comprising the STSL locus, ATP-binding cassette (ABC)-transporters ABCG5 (encoding sterolin-1) and ABCG8 (encoding sterolin-2), result in sitosterolemia, a rare autosomal recessiv...

    Authors: Eric L Klett, Kangmo Lu, Astrid Kosters, Edwin Vink, Mi-Hye Lee, Michael Altenburg, Sarah Shefer, Ashok K Batta, Hongwei Yu, Jianliang Chen, Richard Klein, Norbert Looije, Ronald Oude-Elferink, Albert K Groen, Nobuyo Maeda, Gerald Salen…
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:5
  29. Statins (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors) have neuroprotective effects in experimental stroke models and are commonly prescribed in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to de...

    Authors: Sung Sug Yoon, James Dambrosia, Julio Chalela, Mustapha Ezzeddine, Steven Warach, Joseph Haymore, Lisa Davis and Alison E Baird
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:4
  30. The C677T variant in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene is associated with increased levels of circulating homocysteine and is a mild risk factor for vascular disease. Migraine, with and with...

    Authors: Rod A Lea, Micky Ovcaric, James Sundholm, John MacMillan and Lyn R Griffiths
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:3
  31. Abnormalities in limbic structures have been implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD). Although MDD is as common in adolescence as in adulthood, few studies have examined youth near illness onset in order...

    Authors: Frank P MacMaster and Vivek Kusumakar
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:2
  32. The British STRATIFY tool was previously developed to predict falls in hospital. Although the tool has several strengths, certain limitations exist which may not allow generalizability to a Canadian setting. T...

    Authors: Alexandra Papaioannou, William Parkinson, Richard Cook, Nicole Ferko, Esther Coker and Jonathan D Adachi
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2004 2:1
  33. This systematic review with meta-analysis was designed to evaluate the literature and to develop recommendations regarding the use of preoperative radiotherapy in the management of patients with resectable rec...

    Authors: Alvaro Figueredo, Lisa Zuraw, Rebecca KS Wong, Olusegun Agboola, R Bryan Rumble and Ved Tandan
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2003 1:1