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  1. As we continue the fourth year of the COVID-19 epidemic, SARS-CoV-2 infections still cause high morbidity and mortality in the United States. During 2020–2022, COVID-19 was one of the leading causes of death i...

    Authors: Fuhan Yang, Thu Nguyen-Anh Tran, Emily Howerton, Maciej F. Boni and Joseph L. Servadio
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2023 21:321
  2. Many countries have introduced reforms with the aim of primary care transformation (PCT). Common objectives include meeting service delivery challenges associated with ageing populations and health inequalitie...

    Authors: D. A. G Henderson, E Donaghy, M Dozier, B Guthrie, H Huang, M Pickersgill, E Stewart, A Thompson, H. H. X Wang and S. W Mercer
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2023 21:319
  3. Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is a worldwide public health concern. While PAE is known to be associated with low birth weight, little is known about timing and quantity of PAE on fetal growth. This study inv...

    Authors: Marin Pielage, Hanan El Marroun, Hein J. Odendaal, Sten P. Willemsen, Manon H. J. Hillegers, Eric A. P. Steegers and Melek Rousian
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2023 21:318
  4. Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity is an established risk factor for childhood obesity. Investigating epigenetic alterations induced by maternal obesity during fetal development could gain mechanistic insight into...

    Authors: Jiahui Si, Anat Yaskolka Meir, Xiumei Hong, Guoying Wang, Wanyu Huang, Colleen Pearson, William G. Adams, Xiaobin Wang and Liming Liang
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2023 21:317
  5. Micronutrients, namely vitamins and minerals, are associated with cancer outcomes; however, their reported effects have been inconsistent across studies. We aimed to identify the causally estimated effects of ...

    Authors: Jong Yeob Kim, Minku Song, Min Seo Kim, Pradeep Natarajan, Ron Do, Woojae Myung and Hong-Hee Won
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2023 21:316
  6. Variated anti-cancer therapies are combined with immune checkpoint blockades (ICBs) for improving ICB therapeutic efficacy. Occurrence of tissue damage is common that triggers multiple inflammatory cytokine ge...

    Authors: Ruochan Zhang, Kun Chen, Caifeng Gong, Zhiyuan Wu, Chungui Xu, Xing-Ning Li, Fei Zhao, Dongmei Wang, Jianqiang Cai, Aiping Zhou and Chunfeng Qu
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2023 21:315
  7. Heterogeneity in reported outcomes can limit the synthesis of research evidence. A core outcome set informs what outcomes are important and should be measured as a minimum in all future studies. We report the ...

    Authors: Siang Ing Lee, Stephanie Hanley, Zoe Vowles, Rachel Plachcinski, Ngawai Moss, Megha Singh, Chris Gale, Adeniyi Francis Fagbamigbe, Amaya Azcoaga-Lorenzo, Anuradhaa Subramanian, Beck Taylor, Catherine Nelson-Piercy, Christine Damase-Michel, Christopher Yau, Colin McCowan, Dermot O’Reilly…
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2023 21:314
  8. All health overuse implies an unnecessary risk of patients suffering adverse events (AEs). However, this hypothesis has not been corroborated by direct estimates for inappropriate hospital admission (IHA). The...

    Authors: Diego San Jose-Saras, Jorge Vicente-Guijarro, Paulo Sousa, Paloma Moreno-Nunez and Jesús María Aranaz-Andres
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2023 21:312
  9. Aging is a dynamic and heterogeneous process that may better be captured by trajectories of aging biomarkers. Biological age has been advocated as a better biomarker of aging than chronological age, and plant-...

    Authors: Sicong Wang, Wenyuan Li, Shu Li, Huakang Tu, Junlin Jia, Wenting Zhao, Andi Xu, Wenxin Xu, Min Kuang Tsai, David Ta-Wei Chu, Chi Pang Wen and Xifeng Wu
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2023 21:310
  10. Measurement of multimorbidity in research is variable, including the choice of the data source used to ascertain conditions. We compared the estimated prevalence of multimorbidity and associations with mortali...

    Authors: Clare MacRae, Daniel Morales, Stewart W. Mercer, Nazir Lone, Andrew Lawson, Emily Jefferson, David McAllister, Marjan van den Akker, Alan Marshall, Sohan Seth, Anna Rawlings, Jane Lyons, Ronan A. Lyons, Amy Mizen, Eleojo Abubakar, Chris Dibben…
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2023 21:309
  11. Diet is increasingly recognized as an important risk factor for mental health. However, evidence regarding the association between diet pattern and depressive and anxiety symptoms is limited. We aimed to inves...

    Authors: Han Chen, Zhi Cao, Yabing Hou, Hongxi Yang, Xiaohe Wang and Chenjie Xu
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2023 21:307
  12. There is increasing interest in the use of liquid biopsies, but data on longitudinal analyses of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) remain relatively limited. Here, we report a longitudinal ctDNA analysis of MONALE...

    Authors: Joanne Chiu, Fei Su, Mukta Joshi, Norikazu Masuda, Takashi Ishikawa, Tomoyuki Aruga, Juan Pablo Zarate, Naveen Babbar, O. Alejandro Balbin and Yoon-Sim Yap
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2023 21:306
  13. Patients with multimorbidity are frequent users of healthcare, but fragmented care may lead to suboptimal treatment. Yet, this has never been examined across healthcare sectors on a national scale. We aimed to...

    Authors: Anders Prior, Claus Høstrup Vestergaard, Peter Vedsted, Susan M. Smith, Line Flytkjær Virgilsen, Linda Aagaard Rasmussen and Morten Fenger-Grøn
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2023 21:305
  14. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a major sight-threatening microvascular complication in individuals with diabetes. Systemic inflammation combined with oxidative stress is thought to capture most of the complexiti...

    Authors: Aravind Lathika Rajendrakumar, Simona M. Hapca, Anand Thakarakkattil Narayanan Nair, Yu Huang, Mehul Kumar Chourasia, Ryan Shun-Yuen Kwan, Charvi Nangia, Moneeza K. Siddiqui, Prathiba Vijayaraghavan, Shona Z. Matthew, Graham P. Leese, Viswanathan Mohan, Ewan R. Pearson, Alexander S. F. Doney and Colin N. A. Palmer
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2023 21:304
  15. Children and young people’s (CYP) mental health is worsening, and an increasing number are seeking psychiatric and mental health care. Whilst many CYPs with low-to-medium levels of psychiatric distress can be ...

    Authors: Eleanor Keiller, Saba Masood, Ben Hoi-ching Wong, Cerian Avent, Kofi Bediako, Rebecca Margaret Bird, Isabel Boege, Marta Casanovas, Veronika Beatrice Dobler, Maya James, Jane Kiernan, Maria Martinez-Herves, Thinh Vinh Thanh Ngo, Ana Pascual-Sanchez, Izabela Pilecka, Paul L Plener…
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2023 21:303
  16. The results of human observational studies on the correlation between gut microbiota perturbations and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have been contradictory. This study aimed to perform the first systematic...

    Authors: Pan Li, Ping Shuai, Sj Shen, Huimin Zheng, Ping Sun, Renfang Zhang, Shanwei Lan, Zixin Lan, Thisun Jayawardana, Yumei Yang, Jianhui Zhao, Yuping Liu, Xia Chen, Emad M. El-Omar and Zhengwei Wan
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2023 21:302
  17. We recently published an article in BMC Medicine looking at the potential health and economic impact of paediatric vaccination using next-generation influenza vaccines in Kenya: a modelling study. In their commen...

    Authors: Naomi R. Waterlow, Simon R. Procter, Rosalind M. Eggo and Mark Jit
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2023 21:301

    The original article was published in BMC Medicine 2023 21:273

    The Research article to this article has been published in BMC Medicine 2023 21:106

  18. Patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive advanced breast cancer and primary resistance to trastuzumab have a poor clinical outcome and lack good evidence to inform clinical decisi...

    Authors: Jun Cao, Yuee Teng, Huiping Li, Lili Zhang, Quchang Ouyang, Weimin Xie, Yueyin Pan, Zhenchuan Song, Xiaoling Ling, Xiaohong Wu, Jingwei Xu, Li Li, Liping Ren, Hong Wang, Dongxian Zhou, Jing Luo…
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2023 21:300
  19. Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a rare and complex genetic disorder, associated with tumor growth in various organ systems, epilepsy, and a range of neuropsychiatric manifestations including intellectual d...

    Authors: Annelieke R. Müller, Michiel A. J. Luijten, Lotte Haverman, Wendela L. de Ranitz-Greven, Peter Janssens, André B. Rietman, Leontine W. ten Hoopen, Laura C. G. de Graaff, Marie-Claire de Wit, Anna C. Jansen, Tanjala Gipson, Jamie K. Capal, Petrus J. de Vries and Agnies M. van Eeghen
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2023 21:298

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Medicine 2023 21:401

  20. The relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and adverse adulthood experiences (AAEs) and their association with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) have not been extensively studied. Consid...

    Authors: Wanxin Wang, Yifeng Liu, Yuwei Yang, Weiqing Jiang, Yanyan Ni, Xue Han, Ciyong Lu and Lan Guo
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2023 21:297
  21. Caffeine exposure modifies the turnover of monoamine neurotransmitters, which play a role in several neuropsychiatric disorders. We conducted a Mendelian randomization study to investigate whether higher plasm...

    Authors: Benjamin Woolf, Héléne T. Cronjé, Loukas Zagkos, Stephen Burgess, Dipender Gill and Susanna C. Larsson
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2023 21:296
  22. Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a highly aggressive malignant tumor, and its diagnosis is still a challenge. This study aimed to identify a novel bile marker for CCA diagnosis based on proteomics and establish a d...

    Authors: Long Gao, Yanyan Lin, Ping Yue, Shuyan Li, Yong Zhang, Ningning Mi, Mingzhen Bai, Wenkang Fu, Zhili Xia, Ningzu Jiang, Jie Cao, Man Yang, Yanni Ma, Fanxiang Zhang, Chao Zhang, Joseph W. Leung…
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2023 21:294

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Medicine 2023 21:368

  23. Exercise training is beneficial in enhancing physical function and quality of life in cancer patients. Its comprehensive implementation remains challenging, and underlying cardiopulmonary adaptations are poorl...

    Authors: Roberto Falz, Christian Bischoff, René Thieme, Uwe Tegtbur, Peter Hillemanns, Jens-Uwe Stolzenburg, Bahriye Aktas, Ulrich Bork, Jürgen Weitz, Johannes Lässing, Christian Leps, Johannes Voß, Florian Lordick, Antina Schulze, Ines Gockel and Martin Busse
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2023 21:293
  24. Folic acid (FA) supplementation is associated with a lower risk of the neural tube and heart defects and is recommended for women of childbearing age. Although there are detailed recommendations, differences i...

    Authors: Jing Dong, Lin-Liang Yin, Xue-Dong Deng, Chun-Ya Ji, Qi Pan, Zhong Yang, Ting Peng and Jiang-Nan Wu
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2023 21:292
  25. Comorbidity is the rule rather than the exception for childhood and adolescent onset mental disorders, but we cannot predict its occurrence and do not know the neural mechanisms underlying comorbidity. We inve...

    Authors: Nanyu Kuang, Zhaowen Liu, Gechang Yu, Xinran Wu, Benjamin Becker, Huaxin Fan, Songjun Peng, Kai Zhang, Jiajia Zhao, Jujiao Kang, Guiying Dong, Xingming Zhao, Barbara J. Sahakian, Trevor W. Robbins, Wei Cheng, Jianfeng Feng…
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2023 21:291
  26. The current guidelines for survivorship in adolescents and young adults (AYA) cancer are based on studies conducted in the United States and European AYA survivors. However, previous studies have shown that th...

    Authors: Sooyeon Kim, Juhee Cho, Dong Wook Shin, Su-Min Jeong and Danbee Kang
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2023 21:289
  27. India had an estimated 2.9 million tuberculosis cases and 506 thousand deaths in 2021. Novel vaccines effective in adolescents and adults could reduce this burden. M72/AS01E and BCG-revaccination have recently co...

    Authors: Rebecca A. Clark, Chathika K. Weerasuriya, Allison Portnoy, Christinah Mukandavire, Matthew Quaife, Roel Bakker, Danny Scarponi, Rebecca C. Harris, Kirankumar Rade, Sanjay Kumar Mattoo, Dheeraj Tumu, Nicolas A. Menzies and Richard G. White
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2023 21:288
  28. Disrupted intestinal epithelial barrier is one of the major causes of Crohn’s disease (CD). Novel molecular targets for intestinal epithelial barrier are essential to treatment of CD. Transmembrane and immunog...

    Authors: Longyuan Zhou, Liguo Zhu, Xiaomin Wu, Shixian Hu, Shenghong Zhang, Min Ning, Jun Yu and Minhu Chen
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2023 21:287
  29. Microglia are known to regulate stress and anxiety in both humans and animal models. Psychosocial stress is the most common risk factor for the development of schizophrenia. However, how microglia/brain macrop...

    Authors: Ling Yan, Yanli Li, Fengmei Fan, Mengzhuang Gou, Fangling Xuan, Wei Feng, Keerthana Chithanathan, Wei Li, Junchao Huang, Hongna Li, Wenjin Chen, Baopeng Tian, Zhiren Wang, Shuping Tan, Alexander Zharkovsky, L. Elliot Hong…
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2023 21:286
  30. Psoriasis and atopic eczema are common inflammatory skin diseases. Existing research has identified increased risks of common mental disorders (anxiety, depression) in people with eczema and psoriasis; however...

    Authors: Alasdair D. Henderson, Elizabeth Adesanya, Amy Mulick, Julian Matthewman, Nhung Vu, Firoza Davies, Catherine H. Smith, Joseph Hayes, Kathryn E. Mansfield and Sinéad M. Langan
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2023 21:285
  31. Tinnitus affects 10 to 15% of the population, but its underlying causes are not yet fully understood. Hearing loss has been established as the most important risk factor. Ageing is also known to accompany incr...

    Authors: Lisa Reisinger, Fabian Schmidt, Kaja Benz, Lorenzo Vignali, Sebastian Roesch, Martin Kronbichler and Nathan Weisz
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2023 21:283
  32. Self-harm is an important predictor of a suicide death. Culturally appropriate strategies for the prevention of self-harm and suicide are needed but the evidence is very limited from low- and middle-income cou...

    Authors: Nusrat Husain, Tayyeba Kiran, Imran Bashir Chaudhry, Christopher Williams, Richard Emsley, Usman Arshad, Moin Ahmed Ansari, Paul Bassett, Penny Bee, Moti Ram Bhatia, Carolyn Chew-Graham, Muhammad Omair Husain, Muhammad Irfan, Ayesha Khaliq, Fareed A. Minhas, Farooq Naeem…
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2023 21:282
  33. The EAT-Lancet Commission proposed a global reference diet with both human health benefits and environmental sustainability in 2019. However, evidence regarding the association of such a diet with the risk of ...

    Authors: Shunming Zhang, Anna Stubbendorff, Ulrika Ericson, Per Wändell, Kaijun Niu, Lu Qi, Yan Borné and Emily Sonestedt
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2023 21:280
  34. HCV self-testing (HCVST) may be an effective strategy to address low rates of HCV test uptake among men who have sex with men (MSM). We evaluated the effectiveness and cost of providing HCVST to increase HCV t...

    Authors: Cheng Wang, Peizhen Zhao, Ann Marie Weideman, Wenqian Xu, Jason J. Ong, Muhammad S. Jamil, Bin Yang and Joseph D. Tucker
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2023 21:279
  35. Meat-free diets may be associated with a higher risk of hip fracture, but prospective evidence is limited. We aimed to investigate the risk of hip fracture in occasional meat-eaters, pescatarians, and vegetari...

    Authors: James Webster, Darren C. Greenwood and Janet E. Cade
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2023 21:278
  36. China has one of the highest numbers of liver disease cases in the world, including 6.4 million cirrhosis associated with alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) cases. However, there is still a lack of urgent awa...

    Authors: Meiyu Wu, Shuxia Qin, Chongqing Tan, Sini Li, Ouyang Xie and Xiaomin Wan
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2023 21:277
  37. Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH) is an orphan metabolic disease characterized by extremely elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), xanthomas, aortic stenosis, and premature atheros...

    Authors: Zhiyong Du, Fan Li, Long Jiang, Linyi Li, Yunhui Du, Huahui Yu, Yan Luo, Yu Wang, Haili Sun, Chaowei Hu, Jianping Li, Ya Yang, Xiaolu Jiao, Luya Wang and Yanwen Qin
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2023 21:275
  38. Persistent infection by oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) is necessary although not sufficient for development of cervical cancer. Behavioural, environmental, or comorbid exposures may promote or protect ag...

    Authors: Sarah J. Bowden, Triada Doulgeraki, Emmanouil Bouras, Georgios Markozannes, Antonios Athanasiou, Harriet Grout-Smith, Konstantinos S. Kechagias, Laura Burney Ellis, Verena Zuber, Marc Chadeau-Hyam, James M. Flanagan, Konstantinos K. Tsilidis, Ilkka Kalliala and Maria Kyrgiou
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2023 21:274
  39. In the dynamic landscape of respiratory virus vaccines, it is crucial to assess the value of novel mRNA and combination influenza/COVID-19 vaccines in low- and middle-income countries. Modeling studies, such a...

    Authors: K. E. Lafond, R. Gharpure, V. G. Dugan and E. Azziz-Baumgartner
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2023 21:273

    The Correspondence to this article has been published in BMC Medicine 2023 21:301

    The original article was published in BMC Medicine 2023 21:106

  40. Coffee is the most widely consumed psychostimulant worldwide. Emerging evidence indicates that coffee consumption habit significantly reduces the risk of developing Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the effec...

    Authors: Chao Wang, Cheng Zhou, Tao Guo, Yeerfan Jiaerken, Siyu Yang, Xiaopei Xu, Ling Hu, Peiyu Huang, Xiaojun Xu and Minming Zhang
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2023 21:272
  41. Stroke is a major cause of mortality and long-term disability worldwide. Whether the associations between brain imaging-derived phenotypes (IDPs) and stroke are causal is uncertain.

    Authors: Ke Yu, Xiao-Feng Chen, Jing Guo, Sen Wang, Xiao-Ting Huang, Yan Guo, Shan-Shan Dong and Tie-Lin Yang
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2023 21:271
  42. Tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), including T and B cells, have been demonstrated to be associated with tumour progression. However, the different subpopulations of TILs and their roles in breast cancer ...

    Authors: Zi-An Xia, Can Lu, Can Pan, Jia Li, Jun Li, Yitao Mao, Lunquan Sun and Jiang He
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2023 21:268
  43. Comorbidities are expected to impact the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). However, comorbidity profiles are usually reduced to a few comorbid disorders. Systems m...

    Authors: Jan D. Lanzer, Alberto Valdeolivas, Mark Pepin, Hauke Hund, Johannes Backs, Norbert Frey, Hans-Christoph Friederich, Jobst-Hendrik Schultz, Julio Saez-Rodriguez and Rebecca T. Levinson
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2023 21:267