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  1. Multiple sclerosis, the most common neurologic disorder of young adults, is traditionally considered to be an inflammatory, autoimmune, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Based on this unders...

    Authors: Rebecca I Spain, Michelle H Cameron and Dennis Bourdette
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2009 7:74
  2. With the rise of the second pandemic wave of the novel influenza A (H1N1) virus in the current season in the Northern Hemisphere, pandemic plans are being carefully re-evaluated, particularly for the strategic...

    Authors: Seyed M Moghadas, Christopher S Bowman, Gergely Röst, David N Fisman and Jianhong Wu
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2009 7:73
  3. High dose oral ascorbic acid substantially improved myelination and locomotor function in a Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A mouse model. A phase II study was warranted to investigate whether high dose ascorbic aci...

    Authors: Camiel Verhamme, Rob J de Haan, Marinus Vermeulen, Frank Baas, Marianne de Visser and Ivo N van Schaik
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2009 7:70
  4. Recently published results from a large randomized trial (Canadian Cervical Cancer Screening Trial study group) suggest that human papillomavirus testing followed by Pap smear-based triage for human papillomav...

    Authors: Shalini L Kulasingam, Raghu Rajan, Yvan St Pierre, C Victoria Atwood, Evan R Myers and Eduardo L Franco
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2009 7:69
  5. The Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 1 (STAT1) has traditionally been regarded as a transmitter of interferon signaling and a pro-apoptotic tumour suppressor. Recent data have identified new fu...

    Authors: Sean P Pitroda, Bassam T Wakim, Ravi F Sood, Mara G Beveridge, Michael A Beckett, Dhara M MacDermed, Ralph R Weichselbaum and Nikolai N Khodarev
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2009 7:68
  6. Tuberculosis contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected children in sub-Saharan Africa. Isoniazid prophylaxis can reduce tuberculosis incidence in this population. However, for the...

    Authors: Stanzi M le Roux, Mark F Cotton, Jonathan E Golub, David M le Roux, Lesley Workman and Heather J Zar
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2009 7:67
  7. Alzheimer's disease is the most common progressive neurodegenerative disease. In recent years, numerous progresses in the discovery of novel Alzheimer's disease molecular biomarkers in brain as well as in biol...

    Authors: Alessandra Pani, Antonella Mandas, Giacomo Diaz, Claudia Abete, Pier Luigi Cocco, Fabrizio Angius, Annalisa Brundu, Nico Muçaka, Maria Elena Pais, Antonio Saba, Luigi Barberini, Cristina Zaru, Manuela Palmas, Paolo F Putzu, Alessandra Mocali, Francesco Paoletti…
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2009 7:66
  8. The decreasing range of joint motion caused by insufficient muscle length is a common problem in children with cerebral palsy (CP), often worsening with age. In 1994 a CP register and health care programme for...

    Authors: Eva Nordmark, Gunnar Hägglund, Henrik Lauge-Pedersen, Philippe Wagner and Lena Westbom
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2009 7:65
  9. Autism comprises a spectrum of behavioral and cognitive disturbances of childhood development and is known to be highly heritable. Although numerous approaches have been used to identify genes implicated in th...

    Authors: Simon G Gregory, Jessica J Connelly, Aaron J Towers, Jessica Johnson, Dhani Biscocho, Christina A Markunas, Carla Lintas, Ruth K Abramson, Harry H Wright, Peter Ellis, Cordelia F Langford, Gordon Worley, G Robert Delong, Susan K Murphy, Michael L Cuccaro, Antonello Persico…
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2009 7:62
  10. Suicidal thoughts and behaviours during antidepressant treatment, especially during the first weeks of treatment, have prompted warnings by regulatory bodies. The aim of the present study is to investigate the...

    Authors: Nader Perroud, Rudolf Uher, Andrej Marusic, Marcella Rietschel, Ole Mors, Neven Henigsberg, Joanna Hauser, Wolfgang Maier, Daniel Souery, Anna Placentino, Aleksandra Szczepankiewicz, Lisbeth Jorgensen, Jana Strohmaier, Astrid Zobel, Caterina Giovannini, Amanda Elkin…
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2009 7:60
  11. An understanding of how public health research output from India is changing in relation to the disease burden and public health priorities is required in order to inform relevant research development. We ther...

    Authors: Lalit Dandona, Magdalena Z Raban, Rama K Guggilla, Aarushi Bhatnagar and Rakhi Dandona
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2009 7:59
  12. The diagnosis of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in research studies requires the exclusion of subjects with medical and psychiatric conditions that could confound the analysis and interpretation of results. Th...

    Authors: James F Jones, Jin-Mann S Lin, Elizabeth M Maloney, Roumiana S Boneva, Urs M Nater, Elizabeth R Unger and William C Reeves
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2009 7:57
  13. There is increasing concern among many in the medical arena about the extent to which the effects of treatment, either good or bad, apply to specific subgroups of individuals. Women comprise one of the most fr...

    Authors: Jesse A Berlin and Susan S Ellenberg
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2009 7:56
  14. In June 2009, BMC Medicine received its first official impact factor of 3.28 from Thomson Reuters. In recognition of this landmark event, the BMC Medicine editorial team present and discuss the vision and aims of...

    Authors: Robin L Cassady-Cain, Joanne M Appleford, Jigisha Patel, Mick Aulakh and Melissa L Norton
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2009 7:55
  15. Bangladesh, India and Nepal are working towards the elimination of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) by 2015. In 2005 the World Health Organization/Training in Tropical Diseases launched an implementation research p...

    Authors: Anand B Joshi, Murari L Das, Shireen Akhter, Rajib Chowdhury, Dinesh Mondal, Vijay Kumar, Pradeep Das, Axel Kroeger, Marleen Boelaert and Max Petzold
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2009 7:54
  16. A growing body of evidence suggests that psychological stress contributes to coronary artery disease. However, associations between stress and stroke are less clear. In this study, we investigated the possible...

    Authors: Katarina Jood, Petra Redfors, Annika Rosengren, Christian Blomstrand and Christina Jern
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2009 7:53
  17. The 1996 Australian National Firearms Agreement introduced strict access limitations. However, reports on the effectiveness of the new legislation are conflicting. This study, accessing all cases of suicide 19...

    Authors: Helen Klieve, Jerneja Sveticic and Diego De Leo
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2009 7:52
  18. Currently, treatments for ischemic stroke focus on restoring or improving perfusion to the ischemic area using thrombolytics. The increased hospitalization costs related to thrombolysis are offset by a decreas...

    Authors: Julien Bogousslavsky and Maurizio Paciaroni
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2009 7:51
  19. The UK, USA and the World Health Organization have identified improved patient safety in healthcare as a priority. Medication error has been identified as one of the most frequent forms of medical error and is...

    Authors: Sara Garfield, Nick Barber, Paul Walley, Alan Willson and Lina Eliasson
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2009 7:50
  20. Schools are the most frequent target for intervention programs aimed at preventing child obesity; however, the overall effectiveness of these programs has been limited. It has therefore been recommended that i...

    Authors: Douglas A Gentile, Greg Welk, Joey C Eisenmann, Rachel A Reimer, David A Walsh, Daniel W Russell, Randi Callahan, Monica Walsh, Sarah Strickland and Katie Fritz
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2009 7:49
  21. African children have some of the highest rates of bacterial meningitis in the world. Bacterial meningitis in Africa is associated with high case fatality and frequent neuropsychological sequelae. The objectiv...

    Authors: Meenakshi Ramakrishnan, Aaron J Ulland, Laura C Steinhardt, Jennifer C Moïsi, Fred Were and Orin S Levine
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2009 7:47
  22. On 11 June the World Health Organization officially raised the phase of pandemic alert (with regard to the new H1N1 influenza strain) to level 6. As of 19 July, 137,232 cases of the H1N1 influenza strain have ...

    Authors: Duygu Balcan, Hao Hu, Bruno Goncalves, Paolo Bajardi, Chiara Poletto, Jose J Ramasco, Daniela Paolotti, Nicola Perra, Michele Tizzoni, Wouter Van den Broeck, Vittoria Colizza and Alessandro Vespignani
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2009 7:45
  23. The treatment of patients with haematological malignancies by means of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is often accompanied by life threatening infections. With emerging antimicrobial resistanc...

    Authors: Walter JFM van der Velden, Thijs MP van Iersel, Nicole MA Blijlevens and J Peter Donnelly
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2009 7:44
  24. A novel variant of influenza A (H1N1) is causing a pandemic and, although the illness is usually mild, there are concerns that its virulence could change through reassortment with other influenza viruses. This...

    Authors: Maciej F Boni, Bui Huu Manh, Pham Quang Thai, Jeremy Farrar, Tran Tinh Hien, Nguyen Tran Hien, Nguyen Van Kinh and Peter Horby
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2009 7:43
  25. The approval of sorafenib and active development of many other molecularly targeted agents in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have presented a challenge to understand the mechanism of action of sorafenib and id...

    Authors: Andrew X Zhu
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2009 7:42
  26. Sorafenib is the first agent that has demonstrated an improved overall survival benefit in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), setting a new standard for first-line treatment. However, no one has yet been...

    Authors: Zhe Zhang, Xiaoyun Zhou, Hujia Shen, Dexing Wang and Yanhong Wang
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2009 7:41
  27. Diabetic nephropathy, a major complication of diabetes, is characterized by progressive renal injury and increased cardiovascular mortality. An increased urinary albumin excretion due dysfunction of the glomer...

    Authors: Rafid Tofik, Ole Torffvit, Bengt Rippe and Omran Bakoush
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2009 7:39
  28. Over recent years there has been a substantial body of evidence demonstrating strong associations between transfusion and adverse outcomes, including myocardial, neurological and renal injury, in a range of cl...

    Authors: Gavin J Murphy
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2009 7:38
  29. Transfusion practices in hospitalised patients are being re-evaluated, in part due to studies indicating adverse effects in patients receiving large quantities of stored blood. Concomitant with this re-examina...

    Authors: Mary AM Rogers, Neil Blumberg, Sanjay Saint, Kenneth M Langa and Brahmajee K Nallamothu
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2009 7:37
  30. Pneumonia is among the main causes of illness and death in children <5 years of age. There is a need to better describe the epidemiology of viral community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in developing countries.

    Authors: Maria Mathisen, Tor A Strand, Biswa N Sharma, Ram K Chandyo, Palle Valentiner-Branth, Sudha Basnet, Ramesh K Adhikari, Dag Hvidsten, Prakash S Shrestha and Halvor Sommerfelt
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2009 7:35
  31. Septic shock is a heterogeneous syndrome within which probably exist several biological subclasses. Discovery and identification of septic shock subclasses could provide the foundation for the design of more s...

    Authors: Hector R Wong, Natalie Cvijanovich, Richard Lin, Geoffrey L Allen, Neal J Thomas, Douglas F Willson, Robert J Freishtat, Nick Anas, Keith Meyer, Paul A Checchia, Marie Monaco, Kelli Odom and Thomas P Shanley
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2009 7:34
  32. Despite the worldwide increasing burden of diabetes, there has been no corresponding scale-up of treatment in developing countries and limited evidence of program effectiveness. In 2002, in collaboration with ...

    Authors: Marie-Eve Raguenaud, Petros Isaakidis, Tony Reid, Say Chy, Lim Keuky, Gemma Arellano and Wim Van Damme
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2009 7:33
  33. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the use of clinical pathways for hip and knee joint replacements when compared with standard medical care. The impact of clinical pathways was evaluated assessing the ...

    Authors: A Barbieri, K Vanhaecht, P Van Herck, W Sermeus, F Faggiano, S Marchisio and M Panella
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2009 7:32
  34. Unprecedented declines in invasive breast cancer rates occurred in the United States between 2001 and 2004, particularly for estrogen receptor-positive tumors among non-Hispanic white women over 50 years. To u...

    Authors: Amelia K Hausauer, Theresa HM Keegan, Ellen T Chang, Sally L Glaser, Holly Howe and Christina A Clarke
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2009 7:31
  35. Increasing hospital-acquired infections have generated much attention over the last decade. There is evidence that hygienic cleaning has a role in the control of hospital-acquired infections. This study aimed ...

    Authors: Stephanie J Dancer, Liza F White, Jim Lamb, E Kirsty Girvan and Chris Robertson
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2009 7:28
  36. Mobile health clinics provide an alternative portal into the healthcare system for the medically disenfranchised, that is, people who are underinsured, uninsured or who are otherwise outside of mainstream heal...

    Authors: Nancy E Oriol, Paul J Cote, Anthony P Vavasis, Jennifer Bennet, Darien DeLorenzo, Philip Blanc and Isaac Kohane
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2009 7:27
  37. Varicella is a common viral disease affecting almost the entire birth cohort. Although usually self-limiting, some cases of varicella can be serious, with 2 to 6% of cases attending a general practice resultin...

    Authors: Paolo Bonanni, Judith Breuer, Anne Gershon, Michael Gershon, Waleria Hryniewicz, Vana Papaevangelou, Bernard Rentier, Hans Rümke, Catherine Sadzot-Delvaux, Jacques Senterre, Catherine Weil-Olivier and Peter Wutzler
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2009 7:26
  38. Hemodialysis patients are at risk for deficiency of essential trace elements and excess of toxic trace elements, both of which can affect health. We conducted a systematic review to summarize existing literatu...

    Authors: Marcello Tonelli, Natasha Wiebe, Brenda Hemmelgarn, Scott Klarenbach, Catherine Field, Braden Manns, Ravi Thadhani and John Gill
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2009 7:25