Piepoli MF, Corrà U, Abreu A, Cupples M, Davos C, Doherty P, et al. Challenges in secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases: a review of the current practice. Int J Cardiol. 2015;180:114–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2014.11.107.
Smith SC, Benjamin EJ, Bonow RO, Braun LT, Creager MA, Franklin BA, et al. AHA/ACCF secondary prevention and risk reduction therapy for patients with coronary and other atherosclerotic vascular disease: 2011 update: a guideline from the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology Foundation endorsed by the World Heart Federation and the Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011;58(23):2432–46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2011.10.824.
World Health Organization. Prevention of cardiovascular disease: pocket guidelines for assessment and management of cardiovascular risk. 2007. https://www.who.int/cardiovascular_diseases/guidelines/PocketGL.ENGLISH.AFR-D-E.rev1.pdf. Accessed 1 Mar 2021.
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Acute coronary syndromes. NICE guideline [NG185]. 2020. https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng185/resources/acute-coronary-syndromes-pdf-66142023361477. Accessed 20 May 2021.
Kernan WN, Ovbiagele B, Black HR, Bravata DM, Chimowitz MI, Ezekowitz MD, et al. Guidelines for the prevention of stroke in patients with stroke and transient ischemic attack: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2014;45(7):2160–236. https://doi.org/10.1161/STR.0000000000000024.
Bell S, Daskalopoulou M, Rapsomaniki E, George J, Britton A, Bobak M, et al. Association between clinically recorded alcohol consumption and initial presentation of 12 cardiovascular diseases: population based cohort study using linked health records. BMJ. 2017;356:j909.
Bergmann MM, Rehm J, Klipstein-Grobusch K, Boeing H, Schütze M, Drogan D, et al. The association of pattern of lifetime alcohol use and cause of death in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Int J Epidemiol. 2013;42(6):1772–90. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyt154.
Iestra JA, Kromhout D, van der Schouw YT, Grobbee DE, Boshuizen HC, van Staveren WA. Effect size estimates of lifestyle and dietary changes on all-cause mortality in coronary artery disease patients: a systematic review. Circulation. 2005;112(6):924–34. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.104.503995.
Mukamal KJ, Clowry CM, Murray MM, Hendriks HFJ, Rimm EB, Sink KM, et al. Moderate alcohol consumption and chronic disease: the case for a long-term trial. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2016;40(11):2283–91. https://doi.org/10.1111/acer.13231.
Costanzo S, Di Castelnuovo A, Donati MB, Iacoviello L, de Gaetano G. Alcohol consumption and mortality in patients with cardiovascular disease: a meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;55(13):1339–47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2010.01.006.
De Smedt D, Clays E, Annemans L, Doyle F, Kotseva K, Pajak A, et al. Health related quality of life in coronary patients and its association with their cardiovascular risk profile: results from the EUROASPIRE III survey. Int J Cardiol. 2013;168(2):898–903. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2012.10.053.
Levantesi G, Marfisi R, Mozaffarian D, Franzosi MG, Maggioni A, Nicolosi GL, et al. Wine consumption and risk of cardiovascular events after myocardial infarction: results from the GISSI-Prevenzione trial. Int J Cardiol. 2013;163(3):282–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2011.06.053.
Pai JK, Mukamal KJ, Rimm EB. Long-term alcohol consumption in relation to all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among survivors of myocardial infarction: the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Eur Heart J. 2012;33(13):1598–605. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehs047.
Rosenbloom JI, Mukamal KJ, Frost LE, Mittleman MA. Alcohol consumption patterns, beverage type, and long-term mortality among women survivors of acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol. 2012;109(2):147–52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2011.08.021.
Mindell J, Biddulph JP, Hirani V, Stamatakis E, Craig R, Nunn S, et al. Cohort profile: the health survey for England. Int J epidemiol. 2012;41(6):1585–93. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyr199.
Gray L, Batty GD, Craig P, Stewart C, Whyte B, Finlayson A, et al. Cohort profile: the Scottish health surveys cohort: linkage of study participants to routinely collected records for mortality, hospital discharge, cancer and offspring birth characteristics in three nationwide studies. Int J epidemiol. 2010;39(2):345–50. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyp155.
Sudlow C, Gallacher J, Allen N, Beral V, Burton P, Danesh J, et al. UK biobank: an open access resource for identifying the causes of a wide range of complex diseases of middle and old age. Plos Med. 2015;12(3):e1001779. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001779.
Schnier C, Bush K, Nolan J, Sudlow C, UK Biobank Outcome Adjudication Group. Definitions of acute myocardial infarction and main myocardial infarction pathological types UK Biobank phase 1 outcomes adjudication. 2017. http://biobank.ctsu.ox.ac.uk/crystal/crystal/docs/alg_outcome_mi.pdf. Accessed 10 Oct 2019.
Schnier C, Bush K, Nolan J, Sudlow C, UK Biobank Outcome Adjudication Group. Definitions of stroke for UK Biobank phase 1 outcomes adjudication. 2017. https://biobank.ndph.ox.ac.uk/showcase/showcase/docs/alg_outcome_stroke.pdf. Accessed 10 Oct 2019.
Schnier C, Sudlow C, UK Biobank Follow-up and Outcomes Adjudication Group. 2017. Algorithmically-defined health outcomes. 2017. https://biobank.ndph.ox.ac.uk/showcase/showcase/docs/alg_outcome_main.pdf. Accessed 10 Oct 2019.
Timpka S, Fraser A, Schyman T, Stuart JJ, Åsvold BO, Mogren I, et al. The value of pregnancy complication history for 10-year cardiovascular disease risk prediction in middle-aged women. Eur J Epidemiol. 2018;33(10):1003–10. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10654-018-0429-1.
Dawes P, Cruickshanks KJ, Moore DR, Edmondson-Jones M, McCormack A, Fortnum H, et al. Cigarette smoking, passive smoking, alcohol consumption, and hearing loss. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2014;15(4):663–74. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10162-014-0461-0.
Egeberg A, Gislason GH, Hansen PR. Risk of major adverse cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality in patients with hidradenitis suppurativa. JAMA Dermatol. 2016;152(4):429–34. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamadermatol.2015.6264.
Bansal N, Fischbacher CM, Bhopal RS, Brown H, Steiner MF, Capewell S, et al. Myocardial infarction incidence and survival by ethnic group: Scottish Health and Ethnicity Linkage retrospective cohort study. BMJ Open. 2013;3(9):e003415. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2013-003415.
Office for National Statistics. Standard occupational classification 2010. 2010. https://www.ons.gov.uk/methodology/classificationsandstandards/standardoccupationalclassificationsoc/soc2010. Accessed 10 Oct 2019.
Guggenheim JA, Williams C, Eye UKB, Vision C. Role of educational exposure in the association between myopia and birth order. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2015;133(12):1408–14. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2015.3556.
Aragam KG, Chaffin M, Levinson RT, McDermott G, Choi SH, Shoemaker MB, et al. Phenotypic refinement of heart failure in a national biobank facilitates genetic discovery. Circulation. 2019;139(4):489–501. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.035774.
Papadakis M, Sharma S, Cox S, Sheppard MN, Panoulas VF, Behr ER. The magnitude of sudden cardiac death in the young: a death certificate-based review in England and Wales. Europace. 2009;11(10):1353–8. https://doi.org/10.1093/europace/eup229.
Smolina K, Wright FL, Rayner M, Goldacre MJ. Long-term survival and recurrence after acute myocardial infarction in England, 2004 to 2010. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2012;5(4):532–40. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.111.964700.
House of Commons Science and Technology Committee. Alcohol guidelines, Eleventh Report of Session 2010–12. 2012 https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201012/cmselect/cmsctech/1536/1536.pdf. Accessed 20 May 2021.
Brown L, National Centre for Social Research. Health Survey for England 2015: adult alcohol consumption. 2016. http://cliftondavies.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/Health-Survey-England-adult-alcohol-consumption.pdf. Accessed 20 May 2021.
Department of Health. UK Chief Medical Officers’ Low Risk Drinking Guidelines. 2016. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/545937/UK_CMOs__report.pdf. Accessed 1 Mar 2021.
Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG, The PRISMA Group. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. BMJ. 2009;339:b2535.
Stroup DF, Berlin JA, Morton SC, Olkin I, Williamson GD, Rennie D, et al. Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology: a proposal for reporting. Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) group. JAMA. 2000;283(15):2008–12. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.283.15.2008.
Costanzo S, Di Castelnuovo A, Donati MB, Iacoviello L, de Gaetano G. Cardiovascular and overall mortality risk in relation to alcohol consumption in patients with cardiovascular disease. Circulation. 2010;121(17):1951–9. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.865840.
Aguilar D, Skali H, Moyé LA, Lewis EF, Gaziano JM, Rutherford JD, et al. Alcohol consumption and prognosis in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction after a myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004;43(11):2015–21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2004.01.042.
Jackson VA, Sesso HD, Buring JE, Gaziano JM. Alcohol consumption and mortality in men with preexisting cerebrovascular disease. Arch Intern Med. 2003;163(10):1189–93. https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.163.10.1189.
Muntwyler J, Hennekens CH, Buring JE, Gaziano JM. Mortality and light to moderate alcohol consumption after myocardial infarction. Lancet. 1998;352(9144):1882–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(98)06351-X.
Kalinowski A, Humphreys K. Governmental standard drink definitions and low-risk alcohol consumption guidelines in 37 countries. Addiction. 2016;111(7):1293–8. https://doi.org/10.1111/add.13341.
World Health Organization. International guide for monitoring alcohol consumption and related harm. 2000. https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/66529/WHO_MSD_MSB_00.4.pdf?sequence=1. Accessed 1 Mar 2021.
Masunaga N, Kimura A, Miyataka M, Nishioka N, Hirano Y, Hayashi T, et al. Effects of alcohol consumption on cardiovascular events in male patients with healed myocardial infarction. Circ J. 2006;70(10):1263–8. https://doi.org/10.1253/circj.70.1263.
Berlin JA, Longnecker MP, Greenland S. Meta-analysis of epidemiologic dose-response data. Epidemiology. 1993;4(3):218–28. https://doi.org/10.1097/00001648-199305000-00005.
de Lorgeril M, Salen P, Martin J-L, Boucher F, Paillard F, de Leiris J. Wine drinking and risks of cardiovascular complications after recent acute myocardial infarction. Circulation. 2002;106:1465–9.
Janszky I, Ljung R, Ahnve S, Hallqvist J, Bennet AM, Mukamal KJ. Alcohol and long-term prognosis after a first acute myocardial infarction: the SHEEP study. Eur Heart J. 2008;29(1):45–53. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehm509.
Mukamal KJ, Maclure M, Muller JE, Sherwood JB, Mittleman MA. Prior alcohol consumption and mortality following acute myocardial infarction. JAMA. 2001;285(15):1965–70. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.285.15.1965.
Shaper AG, Wannamethee SG. Alcohol intake and mortality in middle aged men with diagnosed coronary heart disease. Heart. 2000;83(4):394–9. https://doi.org/10.1136/heart.83.4.394.
Hamling J, Lee P, Weitkunat R, Ambühl M. Facilitating meta-analyses by deriving relative effect and precision estimates for alternative comparisons from a set of estimates presented by exposure level or disease category. Stat Med. 2008;27(7):954–70. https://doi.org/10.1002/sim.3013.
Knott C, Bell S, Britton A. Alcohol consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of more than 1.9 million individuals from 38 observational studies. Diab Care. 2015;38(9):1804–12. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc15-0710.
Wells GA, Shea B, O'Connell D, Peterson J, Welch V, Losos M, Tugwell P. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for assessing the quality of nonrandomised studies in meta-analyses. http://www.ohri.ca/programs/clinical_epidemiology/oxford.asp. Accessed 1 Mar 2021.
Royston P, Sauerbrei W. Fractional Polynomials for One Variable. In: Multivariable model-building: a pragmatic approach to regression anaylsis based on fractional polynomials for modelling continuous variables. Chichester: Wiley; 2008. p. 71–98. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470770771.ch4.
Bagnardi V, Zambon A, Quatto P, Corrao G. Flexible meta-regression functions for modeling aggregate dose-response data, with an application to alcohol and mortality. Am J Epidemiol. 2004;159(11):1077–86. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwh142.
Orsini N, Bellocco R, Greenland S. Generalized least squares for trend estimation of summarized dose-response data. Stata J. 2006;6(1):40–57. https://doi.org/10.1177/1536867X0600600103.
White IR. Multivariate random-effects meta-regression: updates to mvmeta. Stata J. 2011;11(2):255–70. https://doi.org/10.1177/1536867X1101100206.
Higgins JP, Thompson SG, Deeks JJ, Altman DG. Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. BMJ. 2003;327(7414):557–60. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.327.7414.557.
Egger M, Smith GD, Schneider M, Minder C. Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. BMJ. 1997;315(7109):629–34. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.315.7109.629.
Valmadrid CT, Klein R, Moss SE, Klein BEK, Cruickshanks KJ. Alcohol intake and the risk of coronary heart disease mortality in persons with older-onset diabetes mellitus. JAMA. 1999;282(3):239–46. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.282.3.239.
Hansen JL, Tolstrup JS, Jensen MK, Grønbæk M, Tjønneland A, Schmidt EB, et al. Alcohol intake and risk of acute coronary syndrome and mortality in men and women with and without hypertension. Eur J Epidemiol. 2011;26(6):439–47. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10654-011-9564-7.
Koppes L, Dekker J, Hendriks H, Bouter L, Heine R. Meta-analysis of the relationship between alcohol consumption and coronary heart disease and mortality in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetologia. 2006;49(4):648–52. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-005-0127-x.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Department of Agriculture. 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. 8th Edition. December 2015. https://health.gov/sites/default/files/2019-09/2015-2020_Dietary_Guidelines.pdf. Accessed 1 Mar 2021.
Ng Fat L, Cable N, Shelton N. Worsening of health and a cessation or reduction in alcohol consumption to special occasion drinking across three decades of the life course. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2015;39(1):166–74. https://doi.org/10.1111/acer.12596.
Holton AE, Gallagher PJ, Ryan C, Fahey T, Cousins G. Consensus validation of the POSAMINO (POtentially Serious Alcohol-Medication INteractions in Older adults) criteria. BMJ Open. 2017;7(11):e017453. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017453.
Moore AA, Whiteman EJ, Ward KT. Risks of combined alcohol/medication use in older adults. Am J Geriatr Pharmacother. 2007;5(1):64–74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjopharm.2007.03.006.
Kabagambe EK, Kiage JN, Judd SE, Slaughter JC, Lipworth L, Sampson U, et al. Alcohol consumption, statin use and risk of all-cause mortality in the reasons for geographic and racial differences in stroke (REGARDS) cohort. Circulation. 2015;131(suppl_1):AP044.
Roth JA, Bradley K, Thummel KE, Veenstra DL, Boudreau D. Alcohol misuse, genetics, and major bleeding among warfarin therapy patients in a community setting. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2015;24(6):619–27. https://doi.org/10.1002/pds.3769.
Huang C, Zhan J, Liu YJ, Li DJ, Wang SQ, He QQ. Association between alcohol consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in patients with hypertension: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Mayo Clin Proc. 2014;89(9):1201–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2014.05.014.
Xi B, Veeranki SP, Zhao M, Ma C, Yan Y, Mi J. Relationship of alcohol consumption to all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer-related mortality in U.S. adults. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017;70(8):913–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2017.06.054.
Ronksley PE, Brien SE, Turner BJ, Mukamal KJ, Ghali WA. Association of alcohol consumption with selected cardiovascular disease outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2011;342(feb22 1):d671. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.d671.
Naimi TS, Stadtmueller LA, Chikritzhs T, Stockwell T, Zhao J, Britton A, et al. Alcohol, age, and mortality: estimating selection bias due to premature death. J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2019;80(1):63–8. https://doi.org/10.15288/jsad.2019.80.63.
Naimi TS, Stockwell T, Zhao J, Xuan Z, Dangardt F, Saitz R, et al. Selection biases in observational studies affect associations between ‘moderate’ alcohol consumption and mortality. Addiction. 2017;112(2):207–14. https://doi.org/10.1111/add.13451.
Gaziano JM, Gaziano TA, Glynn RJ, Sesso HD, Ajani UA, Stampfer MJ, et al. Light-to-moderate alcohol consumption and mortality in the Physicians’ Health Study enrollment cohort. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000;35(1):96–105. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0735-1097(99)00531-8.
Boniface S, Scholes S, Shelton N, Connor J. Assessment of non-response bias in estimates of alcohol consumption: applying the continuum of resistance model in a general population survey in England. Plos One. 2017;12(1):e0170892. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0170892.
Knott CS, Coombs N, Stamatakis E, Biddulph JP. All cause mortality and the case for age specific alcohol consumption guidelines: pooled analyses of up to 10 population based cohorts. BMJ. 2015;350(feb10 2):h384. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.h384.
Bardach AE, Alcaraz AO, Ciapponi A, Garay OU, Riviere AP, Palacios A, et al. Alcohol consumption's attributable disease burden and cost-effectiveness of targeted public health interventions: a systematic review of mathematical models. BMC Public Health. 2019;19(1):1378. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-7771-4.
Millwood IY, Walters RG, Mei XW, Guo Y, Yang L, Bian Z, et al. Conventional and genetic evidence on alcohol and vascular disease aetiology: a prospective study of 500 000 men and women in China. Lancet. 2019;393(10183):1831–42. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31772-0.
Smyth A, Teo KK, Rangarajan S, O'Donnell M, Zhang X, Rana P, et al. Alcohol consumption and cardiovascular disease, cancer, injury, admission to hospital, and mortality: a prospective cohort study. Lancet. 2015;386(10007):1945–54. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00235-4.
Wood AM, Kaptoge S, Butterworth AS, Willeit P, Warnakula S, Bolton T, et al. Risk thresholds for alcohol consumption: combined analysis of individual-participant data for 599 912 current drinkers in 83 prospective studies. Lancet. 2018;391(10129):1513–23. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)30134-X.
Roerecke M, Rehm J. Alcohol consumption, drinking patterns, and ischemic heart disease: a narrative review of meta-analyses and a systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of heavy drinking occasions on risk for moderate drinkers. BMC Med. 2014;12(1):182. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12916-014-0182-6.
Holmes J, Angus C, Meier PS, Buykx P, Brennan A. How should we set consumption thresholds for low risk drinking guidelines? Achieving objectivity and transparency using evidence, expert judgement and pragmatism. Addiction. 2019;114(4):590–600. https://doi.org/10.1111/add.14381.
LoConte NK, Brewster AM, Kaur JS, Merrill JK, Alberg AJ. Alcohol and cancer: a statement of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. J Clin Oncol. 2018;36(1):83–93. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2017.76.1155.