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  1. Content type: Research article

    External validations and comparisons of prognostic models or scores are a prerequisite for their use in routine clinical care but are lacking in most medical fields including chronic obstructive pulmonary dise...

    Authors: Beniamino Guerra, Sarah R. Haile, Bernd Lamprecht, Ana S. Ramírez, Pablo Martinez-Camblor, Bernhard Kaiser, Inmaculada Alfageme, Pere Almagro, Ciro Casanova, Cristóbal Esteban-González, Juan J. Soler-Cataluña, Juan P. de-Torres, Marc Miravitlles, Bartolome R. Celli, Jose M. Marin, Gerben ter Riet…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:33

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  2. Content type: Debate

    There is increasing focus on the strength of primary health care systems in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). There are important roles for higher quality district hospital care within these systems. The...

    Authors: Mike English, Paul Mwaniki, Thomas Julius, Mercy Chepkirui, David Gathara, Paul O. Ouma, Peter Cherutich, Emelda A. Okiro and Robert W. Snow

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:32

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  3. Content type: Correspondence

    Adaptive designs can make clinical trials more flexible by utilising results accumulating in the trial to modify the trial’s course in accordance with pre-specified rules. Trials with an adaptive design are of...

    Authors: Philip Pallmann, Alun W. Bedding, Babak Choodari-Oskooei, Munyaradzi Dimairo, Laura Flight, Lisa V. Hampson, Jane Holmes, Adrian P. Mander, Lang’o Odondi, Matthew R. Sydes, Sofía S. Villar, James M. S. Wason, Christopher J. Weir, Graham M. Wheeler, Christina Yap and Thomas Jaki

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:29

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Despite long-lasting HIV replication control, a significant proportion of elite controller (EC) patients may experience CD4 T-cell loss. Discovering perturbations in immunological parameters could help our und...

    Authors: José M. Benito, María C. Ortiz, Agathe León, Luis A. Sarabia, José M. Ligos, María Montoya, Marcial Garcia, Ezequiel Ruiz-Mateos, Rosario Palacios, Alfonso Cabello, Clara Restrepo, Carmen Rodriguez, Jorge del Romero, Manuel Leal, María A. Muñoz-Fernández, José Alcamí…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:30

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  5. Content type: Research article

    The purpose of this study is to validate a new five-tiered prognostic classification system to better discriminate cancer-specific mortality in men diagnosed with primary non-metastatic prostate cancer.

    Authors: V. J. Gnanapragasam, O. Bratt, K. Muir, L. S. Lee, H. H. Huang, P. Stattin and A. Lophatananon

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:31

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Depression is viewed as a major and increasing public health issue, as it causes high distress in the people experiencing it and considerable financial costs to society. Efforts are being made to reduce this b...

    Authors: Anna Fernández, Juan M. Mendive, Sonia Conejo-Cerón, Patricia Moreno-Peral, Michael King, Irwin Nazareth, Carlos Martín-Pérez, Carmen Fernández-Alonso, Antonina Rodríguez-Bayón, Jose Maria Aiarzaguena, Carmen Montón-Franco, Antoni Serrano-Blanco, Inmaculada Ibañez-Casas, Emiliano Rodríguez-Sánchez, Luis Salvador-Carulla, Paola Bully Garay…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:28

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  7. Content type: Research article

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a growing concern in meeting global targets for TB control. In high-income low-TB-incidence countries, a disproportionate number of MDR-TB cases occur in migrant (f...

    Authors: Laura B. Nellums, Kieran Rustage, Sally Hargreaves and Jon S. Friedland

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:27

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  8. Content type: Research article

    The ability to reproduce experiments is a defining principle of science. Reproducibility of clinical research has received relatively little scientific attention. However, it is important as it may inform clin...

    Authors: Daniel J. Niven, T. Jared McCormick, Sharon E. Straus, Brenda R. Hemmelgarn, Lianne Jeffs, Tavish R. M. Barnes and Henry T. Stelfox

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:26

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  9. Content type: Commentary

    Adult-onset, or type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has a complex genetic architecture, from hundreds of genes with low penetrance, common susceptibility variants (e.g., TCF7L2), to a set of more than ten genes that...

    Authors: Leslie G. Biesecker

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:25

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    The original article was published in BMC Medicine 2017 15:213

  10. Content type: Research article

    Dysfunction of the circadian clock and single polymorphisms of some circadian genes have been linked to cancer susceptibility, although data are scarce and findings inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the as...

    Authors: Simone Mocellin, Saveria Tropea, Clara Benna and Carlo Riccardo Rossi

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:20

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  11. Content type: Commentary

    The therapeutic approach for the second-line treatment of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) without actionable mutations has been revolutionized by the recent approval of new effective ...

    Authors: Alessandro Morabito

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:24

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    The original article was published in BMC Medicine 2017 15:193

  12. Content type: Research article

    Primary care provides the foundation for most modern health-care systems, and in the interests of equity, it should be resourced according to local need. We aimed to describe spatially the burden of chronic co...

    Authors: Evangelos Kontopantelis, Mamas A. Mamas, Harm van Marwijk, Andrew M. Ryan, Peter Bower, Bruce Guthrie and Tim Doran

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:19

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  13. Content type: Research article

    Comparisons of clinical trial findings in systematic reviews can be hindered by the heterogeneity of the outcomes reported. Moreover, the outcomes that matter most to patients might be underreported. A core ou...

    Authors: Jean-Baptiste Beuscart, Wilma Knol, Shane Cullinan, Claudio Schneider, Olivia Dalleur, Benoit Boland, Stefanie Thevelin, Paul A. F. Jansen, Denis O’Mahony, Nicolas Rodondi and Anne Spinewine

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:21

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Human fetal adrenal glands are highly active and, with the placenta, regulate circulating progesterone, estrogen and corticosteroids in the fetus. At birth the adrenals are essential for neonate salt retention...

    Authors: Zoe C. Johnston, Michelle Bellingham, Panagiotis Filis, Ugo Soffientini, Denise Hough, Siladitya Bhattacharya, Marc Simard, Geoffrey L. Hammond, Peter King, Peter J. O’Shaughnessy and Paul A. Fowler

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:23

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  15. Content type: Research article

    The seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) was introduced in England in September 2006, changing to the 13-valent vaccine in April 2010. PCV impact on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) has been ex...

    Authors: Dominic Thorrington, Nick Andrews, Julia Stowe, Elizabeth Miller and Albert Jan van Hoek

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:13

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Women who experience menopause are at higher cardiometabolic risk and often display adverse changes in metabolic biomarkers compared with pre-menopausal women. It remains elusive whether the changes in cardiom...

    Authors: Qin Wang, Diana L. Santos Ferreira, Scott M. Nelson, Naveed Sattar, Mika Ala-Korpela and Debbie A. Lawlor

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:17

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Our aims were to evaluate critically the evidence from systematic reviews as well as narrative reviews of the effects of melatonin (MLT) on health and to identify the potential mechanisms of action involved.

    Authors: Pawel P. Posadzki, Ram Bajpai, Bhone Myint Kyaw, Nicola J. Roberts, Amnon Brzezinski, George I. Christopoulos, Ushashree Divakar, Shweta Bajpai, Michael Soljak, Gerard Dunleavy, Krister Jarbrink, Ei Ei Khaing Nang, Chee Kiong Soh and Josip Car

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:18

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  18. Content type: Research article

    The year 2016 has marked the highest number of displaced people worldwide on record. A large number of these refugees are women, yet little is known about their specific situation and the hurdles they have to ...

    Authors: Jenny Jesuthasan, Ekin Sönmez, Ingar Abels, Christine Kurmeyer, Jana Gutermann, Renate Kimbel, Antje Krüger, Guenter Niklewski, Kneginja Richter, Ulrich Stangier, Anja Wollny, Ulrike Zier, Sabine Oertelt-Prigione and Meryam Shouler-Ocak

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:15

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  19. Content type: Research article

    The built environment influences behaviour, like physical activity, diet and sleep, which affects the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study systematically reviewed and meta-analysed evidence on t...

    Authors: N. R. den Braver, J. Lakerveld, F. Rutters, L. J. Schoonmade, J. Brug and J. W. J. Beulens

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:12

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  20. Content type: Research article

    National guidance on preventing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the UK recommends low-intensity lifestyle interventions for individuals with intermediate categories of hyperglycaemia defined in terms of imp...

    Authors: Samantha Roberts, Dawn Craig, Amanda Adler, Klim McPherson and Trisha Greenhalgh

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:16

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Rotavirus causes severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide. The UK introduced the monovalent rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix®) in July 2013. Vaccination is free of charge to parents, with two d...

    Authors: Daniel Hungerford, Roberto Vivancos, Jonathan M. Read, Miren Iturriza-Gόmara, Neil French and Nigel A. Cunliffe

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:10

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  22. Content type: Debate

    Disability as a health outcome deserves more attention than it has so far received. With people living longer and the epidemiological transition from infectious to noncommunicable diseases as the major cause o...

    Authors: Alarcos Cieza, Carla Sabariego, Jerome Bickenbach and Somnath Chatterji

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:14

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Preterm prelabour rupture of the fetal membranes (PPROM) precedes 30% of preterm births and is a risk factor for early onset neonatal sepsis. As PPROM is strongly associated with ascending vaginal infection, p...

    Authors: Richard G. Brown, Julian R. Marchesi, Yun S. Lee, Ann Smith, Benjamin Lehne, Lindsay M. Kindinger, Vasso Terzidou, Elaine Holmes, Jeremy K. Nicholson, Phillip R. Bennett and David A. MacIntyre

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:9

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  24. Content type: Commentary

    In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended point-of-use fortification of complementary foods with iron-containing micronutrient powders to improve iron status and reduce anaemia in children at ri...

    Authors: Hans Verhoef, Emily Teshome and Andrew M. Prentice

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:7

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    The original article was published in BMC Medicine 2017 15:99

    The original article was published in BMC Medicine 2017 15:89

  25. Content type: Research article

    In 2012, the World Health Organization recommended blocking the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum with single low-dose primaquine (SLDPQ, target dose 0.25 mg base/kg body weight), without testing for glucose-...

    Authors: W. Robert Taylor, Htee Khu Naw, Kathryn Maitland, Thomas N. Williams, Melissa Kapulu, Umberto D’Alessandro, James A. Berkley, Philip Bejon, Joseph Okebe, Jane Achan, Alfred Ngwa Amambua, Muna Affara, Davis Nwakanma, Jean-Pierre van Geertruyden, Muhindo Mavoko, Pascal Lutumba…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:11

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Antidepressant exposure during pregnancy has been associated with an increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in several observational studies. We pe...

    Authors: Daniel R. Morales, Jim Slattery, Stephen Evans and Xavier Kurz

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:6

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Elective surgeries can be associated with significant harm to older adults. The present study aimed to identify the prognostic factors associated with the development of postoperative complications among older...

    Authors: Jennifer Watt, Andrea C. Tricco, Catherine Talbot-Hamon, Ba’ Pham, Patricia Rios, Agnes Grudniewicz, Camilla Wong, Douglas Sinclair and Sharon E. Straus

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:2

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  28. Content type: Research article

    The use of cardiovascular medication for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is potentially inappropriate when potential risks outweigh the potential benefits. It is unknown whether deprescr...

    Authors: Clare H. Luymes, Rosalinde K. E. Poortvliet, Nan van Geloven, Margot W. M. de Waal, Yvonne M. Drewes, Jeanet W. Blom, Nynke Smidt, Willem J. J. Assendelft, Wilbert B. van den Hout, Wouter de Ruijter and Mattijs E. Numans

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:5

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Glucocorticoids are associated with increased fracture risk and are the mainstay of treatment in polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) and giant cell arteritis (GCA). However, fracture risk in these conditions has not ...

    Authors: Zoe Paskins, Rebecca Whittle, Alyshah Abdul Sultan, Sara Muller, Milica Blagojevic-Bucknall, Toby Helliwell, Samantha Hider, Edward Roddy and Christian Mallen

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:4

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Epidemiological studies suggest that reduced exposure to varicella might lead to an increased risk for herpes zoster (HZ). Reduction of exposure to varicella is a consequence of varicella vaccination but also ...

    Authors: Johannes Horn, Oliver Damm, Wolfgang Greiner, Hartmut Hengel, Mirjam E. Kretzschmar, Anette Siedler, Bernhard Ultsch, Felix Weidemann, Ole Wichmann, André Karch and Rafael T. Mikolajczyk

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:3

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  31. Content type: Opinion

    Changes in climate, in conjunction with other drivers of mobility, shape human migration. While there is an increasing focus on the adaptive potential of migration, the health impacts of climate-related migrat...

    Authors: Patricia Schwerdtle, Kathryn Bowen and Celia McMichael

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2018 16:1

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  32. Content type: Opinion

    Interventions in infectious diseases can have both direct effects on individuals who receive the intervention as well as indirect effects in the population. In addition, intervention combinations can have comp...

    Authors: M. Elizabeth Halloran, Kari Auranen, Sarah Baird, Nicole E. Basta, Steven E. Bellan, Ron Brookmeyer, Ben S. Cooper, Victor DeGruttola, James P. Hughes, Justin Lessler, Eric T. Lofgren, Ira M. Longini, Jukka-Pekka Onnela, Berk Özler, George R. Seage, Thomas A. Smith…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2017 15:223

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  33. Content type: Commentary

    To achieve complete polio eradication, the live oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) currently used must be phased out after the end of wild poliovirus transmission. However, poorly understood threats may arise when ...

    Authors: James S. Koopman

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2017 15:221

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    The original article was published in BMC Medicine 2017 15:180

    The original article was published in BMC Medicine 2017 15:175

  34. Content type: Research article

    The UK, like many high-income countries, is experiencing a worsening shortfall of general practitioners (GPs) alongside an increasing demand for their services. At the same time, factors influencing junior doc...

    Authors: Thomas C. E. Gale, Paul J. Lambe and Martin J. Roberts

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2017 15:220

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Circulating concentrations of lipid biomarkers are associated with risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The evidence for a relationship with cancer risk, however, is not entirely consistent. This study aims ...

    Authors: Verena Andrea Katzke, Disorn Sookthai, Theron Johnson, Tilman Kühn and Rudolf Kaaks

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2017 15:218

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  36. Content type: Research article

    HCV treatment uptake has drastically increased in HIV-HCV coinfected patients in France since direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment approval, resulting in HCV cure in 63% of all HIV-HCV patients by the end o...

    Authors: Victor Virlogeux, Fabien Zoulim, Pascal Pugliese, Isabelle Poizot-Martin, Marc-Antoine Valantin, Lise Cuzin, Jacques Reynes, Eric Billaud, Thomas Huleux, Firouze Bani-Sadr, David Rey, Anne Frésard, Christine Jacomet, Claudine Duvivier, Antoine Cheret, Laurent Hustache-Mathieu…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2017 15:217

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  37. Content type: Research article

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is often handled as an episodic and isolated disorder, resulting in an optimistic view about its prognosis. Herein, we test the idea that the prognosis of MDD changes if we vary...

    Authors: Judith Verduijn, Josine E. Verhoeven, Yuri Milaneschi, Robert A. Schoevers, Albert M. van Hemert, Aartjan T. F. Beekman and Brenda W. J. H. Penninx

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2017 15:215

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  38. Content type: Guideline

    Populations exposed to humanitarian emergencies are particularly vulnerable to mental health problems, including new onset, relapse and deterioration of psychotic disorders. Inadequate care for this group may ...

    Authors: Giovanni Ostuzzi, Corrado Barbui, Charlotte Hanlon, Sudipto Chatterjee, Julian Eaton, Lynne Jones, Derrick Silove and Peter Ventevogel

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2017 15:197

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  39. Content type: Commentary

    This Commentary describes the situation and healthcare needs of Afghans returning to their country of origin. With more than 600,000 Afghans returned from Pakistan and approximately 450,000 Afghans returned fr...

    Authors: Ariel Higgins-Steele, David Lai, Paata Chikvaidze, Khaksar Yousufi, Zelaikha Anwari, Richard Peeperkorn and Karen Edmond

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2017 15:196

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  40. Content type: Research article

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection leads to liver fibrosis, which is a major risk factor in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and an independent risk factor of recurrence after HCC tumor resection. The HBV...

    Authors: Seungyeul Yoo, Wenhui Wang, Qin Wang, M Isabel Fiel, Eunjee Lee, Spiros P. Hiotis and Jun Zhu

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2017 15:214

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  41. Content type: Research article

    Diagnosis of monogenic as well as atypical forms of diabetes mellitus has important clinical implications for their specific diagnosis, prognosis, and targeted treatment. Single gene mutations that affect beta...

    Authors: Vikas Bansal, Johann Gassenhuber, Tierney Phillips, Glenn Oliveira, Rebecca Harbaugh, Nikki Villarasa, Eric J. Topol, Thomas Seufferlein and Bernhard O. Boehm

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2017 15:213

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    The Commentary to this article has been published in BMC Medicine 2018 16:25

  42. Content type: Technical advance

    Epigenomes are tissue specific and thus the choice of surrogate tissue can play a critical role in interpreting neonatal epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) and in their extrapolation to target tissue. T...

    Authors: Xinyi Lin, Ai Ling Teh, Li Chen, Ives Yubin Lim, Pei Fang Tan, Julia L. MacIsaac, Alexander M. Morin, Fabian Yap, Kok Hian Tan, Seang Mei Saw, Yung Seng Lee, Joanna D. Holbrook, Keith M. Godfrey, Michael J. Meaney, Michael S. Kobor, Yap Seng Chong…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2017 15:211

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  43. Content type: Research article

    Inflammation occurs as an immediate protective response of the immune system to a harmful stimulus, whether locally confined or systemic. In contrast, a persisting, i.e., chronic, inflammatory state, even at a...

    Authors: Maik Pietzner, Anne Kaul, Ann-Kristin Henning, Gabi Kastenmüller, Anna Artati, Markus M. Lerch, Jerzy Adamski, Matthias Nauck and Nele Friedrich

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2017 15:210

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