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  1. During starvation, fasting, or a diet containing little digestible carbohydrates, the circulating insulin levels are decreased. This promotes lipolysis, and the breakdown of fat becomes the major source of ene...

    Authors: Hubert Kolb, Kerstin Kempf, Martin Röhling, Martina Lenzen-Schulte, Nanette C. Schloot and Stephan Martin
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:313
  2. Prenatal adverse environments can cause fetal intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and higher susceptibility to multiple diseases after birth, related to multi-organ development programming changes mediated ...

    Authors: Caiyun Ge, Dan Xu, Pengxia Yu, Man Fang, Juanjuan Guo, Dan Xu, Yuan Qiao, Sijia Chen, Yuanzhen Zhang and Hui Wang
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:311

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Medicine 2022 20:126

  3. From 2 January to 14 February 2021, a local outbreak of COVID-19 occurred in Shijiazhuang, the capital city of Hebei Province, with a population of 10 million. We analyzed the characteristics of the local outb...

    Authors: Wenlong Zhu, Mengxi Zhang, Jinhua Pan, Ye Yao and Weibing Wang
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:308
  4. There have been ongoing efforts to understand when and how data from observational studies can be applied to clinical and regulatory decision making. The objective of this review was to assess the comparabilit...

    Authors: Yoon Duk Hong, Jeroen P. Jansen, John Guerino, Marc L. Berger, William Crown, Wim G. Goettsch, C. Daniel Mullins, Richard J. Willke and Lucinda S. Orsini
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:307
  5. Dexmedetomidine is a sedative agent that may have the potential to reduce the risk of post-intensive care syndrome (PICS). This study aimed to establish whether prophylactic nocturnal dexmedetomidine safely re...

    Authors: Chun-hui Dong, Chao-nan Gao, Xiao-hua An, Na Li, Le Yang, De-cai Li and Qi Tan
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:306
  6. Although randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have suggested a non-significant increased risk of stroke among proton pump inhibitor (PPI) users, the association has not been confirmed. We evaluated the associat...

    Authors: Man Yang, Qiangsheng He, Fang Gao, Krish Nirantharakumar, Tonny Veenith, Xiwen Qin, Amy T. Page, Martin C. S. Wong, Junjie Huang, Zi Chong Kuo, Bin Xia, Changhua Zhang, Yulong He, Wenbo Meng, Jinqiu Yuan and Yihang Pan
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:316
  7. Previous cohort studies have investigated the relationship between self-reported physical activity (PA) and dementia. Evidence from objective device-measured PA data is lacking. This study aimed to explore the...

    Authors: Fanny Petermann-Rocha, Donald M. Lyall, Stuart R. Gray, Jason M. R. Gill, Naveed Sattar, Paul Welsh, Terence J. Quinn, William Stewart, Jill P. Pell, Frederick K. Ho and Carlos Celis-Morales
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:305
  8. Lithium is prescribed during pregnancy, but there is limited information about pregnancy and neonatal outcomes following in utero exposure. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the associations between lithiu...

    Authors: Roxanne Hastie, Stephen Tong, Richard Hiscock, Anthea Lindquist, Linda Lindström, Anna-Karin Wikström and Inger Sundström-Poromaa
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:291
  9. How best to prioritise COVID-19 vaccination within and between countries has been a public health and an ethical challenge for decision-makers globally. We reviewed epidemiological and economic modelling evide...

    Authors: Nuru Saadi, Y-Ling Chi, Srobana Ghosh, Rosalind M. Eggo, Ciara V. McCarthy, Matthew Quaife, Jeanette Dawa, Mark Jit and Anna Vassall
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:318
  10. In order to understand the intricate patterns of interplay connected to the formation and maintenance of depressive symptomatology, repeated measures investigations focusing on within-person relationships betw...

    Authors: Omid V. Ebrahimi, Julian Burger, Asle Hoffart and Sverre Urnes Johnson
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:317
  11. We developed an integrated model called Microsimulation for Income and Child Health (MICH) that provides a tool for analysing the prospective effects of fiscal policies on childhood health in European countrie...

    Authors: Davide Rasella, Lorenzo Richiardi, Nicolai Brachowicz, H. Xavier Jara, Mark Hanson, Delia Boccia, Matteo G. Richiardi and Costanza Pizzi
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:310
  12. Intensive malaria control may have additional benefits beyond reducing the incidence of symptomatic malaria. We compared antibiotic treatment of children before and after the implementation of highly effective...

    Authors: Paul J. Krezanoski, Michelle E. Roh, John Rek, Joaniter I. Nankabirwa, Emmanuel Arinaitwe, Sarah G. Staedke, Susan Nayiga, Michelle S. Hsiang, David Smith, Moses Kamya and Grant Dorsey
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:294
  13. Nutritional factors are essential for the functioning of the immune system and could therefore play a role in COVID-19 but evidence is needed. Our objective was to study the associations between diet and the r...

    Authors: Mélanie Deschasaux-Tanguy, Bernard Srour, Laurent Bourhis, Nathalie Arnault, Nathalie Druesne-Pecollo, Younes Esseddik, Fabien Szabo de Edelenyi, Julien Allègre, Benjamin Allès, Valentina A. Andreeva, Julia Baudry, Leopold K. Fezeu, Pilar Galan, Chantal Julia, Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot, Sandrine Péneau…
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:290
  14. We aim to determine whether adult retrospective report of child abuse is associated with greater risk of prospectively assessed harmful environments in childhood. We assessed possible recall basis by adult dep...

    Authors: Snehal M. Pinto Pereira, Nina T. Rogers and Christine Power
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:286
  15. Defining the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in children remains challenging. Furthermore, a dichotomous MetS diagnosis can limit the power to study associations. We sought to characterize the serum metabolite signa...

    Authors: Sandi M. Azab, Russell J. de Souza, Amel Lamri, Meera Shanmuganathan, Zachary Kroezen, Karleen M. Schulze, Dipika Desai, Natalie C. Williams, Katherine M. Morrison, Stephanie A. Atkinson, Koon K. Teo, Philip Britz-McKibbin and Sonia S. Anand
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:292
  16. Depicting the heterogeneity and functional characteristics of the tumor microenvironment (TME) is necessary to achieve precision medicine for bladder cancer (BLCA). Although classical molecular subtypes effect...

    Authors: Jiao Hu, Belaydi Othmane, Anze Yu, Huihuang Li, Zhiyong Cai, Xu Chen, Wenbiao Ren, Jinbo Chen and Xiongbing Zu
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:289

    The Commentary to this article has been published in BMC Medicine 2021 19:295

  17. Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) at genital and extragenital sites is needed for most key populations, but molecular diagnostic tests for CT/NG are costly. We aimed to deter...

    Authors: Lily Aboud, Yangqi Xu, Eric P. F. Chow, Teodora Wi, Rachel Baggaley, Maeve B. Mello, Christopher K. Fairley and Jason J. Ong
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:285
  18. Chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell therapy has limited effects in the treatment of solid tumors. Sulforaphane (SFN) is known to play an important role in inhibiting tumor growth, but its effect on CAR-T ...

    Authors: Chunyi Shen, Zhen Zhang, Yonggui Tian, Feng Li, Lingxiao Zhou, Wenyi Jiang, Li Yang, Bin Zhang, Liping Wang and Yi Zhang
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:283
  19. Dietary biomarkers may complement dietary intake assessment made by dietary questionnaires. We developed an a-posteriori dietary biomarkers score based on Mediterranean diet food groups and evaluated its assoc...

    Authors: Nicole Hidalgo-Liberona, Tomás Meroño, Raul Zamora-Ros, Montserrat Rabassa, Richard Semba, Toshiko Tanaka, Stefania Bandinelli, Luigi Ferrucci, Cristina Andres-Lacueva and Antonio Cherubini
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:280
  20. Atrial fibrillation (AF) and brain volume loss are prevalent in older individuals. We aimed to assess the causal effect of atrial fibrillation on brain volume phenotypes by Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis.

    Authors: Sehoon Park, Soojin Lee, Yaerim Kim, Semin Cho, Kwangsoo Kim, Yong Chul Kim, Seung Seok Han, Hajeong Lee, Jung Pyo Lee, Soryoung Lee, Eue-Keun Choi, Kwon Wook Joo, Chun Soo Lim, Yon Su Kim and Dong Ki Kim
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:274
  21. Surveillance tools to estimate viral transmission dynamics in young populations are essential to guide recommendations for school opening and management during viral epidemics. Ideally, sensitive techniques ar...

    Authors: Carlota Dobaño, Selena Alonso, Mariona Fernández de Sevilla, Marta Vidal, Alfons Jiménez, Gemma Pons Tomas, Chenjerai Jairoce, María Melé Casas, Rocío Rubio, María Hernández García, Gemma Ruiz-Olalla, Mònica Girona-Alarcón, Diana Barrios, Rebeca Santano, Robert A. Mitchell, Laura Puyol…
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:309
  22. Selective outcome reporting and publication bias threaten the validity of systematic reviews and meta-analyses and can affect clinical decision-making. A rigorous method to evaluate the impact of this bias on ...

    Authors: Virginia Chiocchia, Adriani Nikolakopoulou, Julian P. T. Higgins, Matthew J. Page, Theodoros Papakonstantinou, Andrea Cipriani, Toshi A. Furukawa, George C. M. Siontis, Matthias Egger and Georgia Salanti
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:304
  23. To assess the completeness of reporting, research transparency practices, and risk of selection and immortal bias in observational studies using routinely collected data for comparative effectiveness research.

    Authors: Van Thu Nguyen, Mishelle Engleton, Mauricia Davison, Philippe Ravaud, Raphael Porcher and Isabelle Boutron
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:279
  24. There is a clear need for novel approaches to malaria vaccine development. We aimed to develop a genetically attenuated blood-stage vaccine and test its safety, infectivity, and immunogenicity in healthy volun...

    Authors: Rebecca Webster, Silvana Sekuloski, Anand Odedra, Stephen Woolley, Helen Jennings, Fiona Amante, Katharine R. Trenholme, Julie Healer, Alan F. Cowman, Emily M. Eriksson, Priyanka Sathe, Jocelyn Penington, Adam J. Blanch, Matthew W. A. Dixon, Leann Tilley, Michael F. Duffy…
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:293
  25. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is lethal and possesses limited therapeutic options. Platinum-based chemotherapy—with or without immune checkpoint inhibitors (anti-PDs)—is the current first-line therapy for SCLC...

    Authors: Zhihui Zhang, Chaoqi Zhang, Yuejun Luo, Peng Wu, Guochao Zhang, Qingpeng Zeng, Lide Wang, Zhaoyang Yang, Liyan Xue, Bo Zheng, Hua Zeng, Fengwei Tan, Qi Xue, Shugeng Gao, Nan Sun and Jie He
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:284

    The Commentary to this article has been published in BMC Medicine 2021 19:295

  26. By August 2021, the COVID-19 pandemic has been less severe in sub-Saharan Africa than elsewhere. In Malawi, there have been three subsequent epidemic waves. We therefore aimed to describe the dynamics of SARS-...

    Authors: Jonathan Mandolo, Jacquline Msefula, Marc Y. R. Henrion, Comfort Brown, Brewster Moyo, Aubrey Samon, Thandeka Moyo-Gwete, Zanele Makhado, Frances Ayres, Thopisang Motlou, Nonkululeko Mzindle, Newton Kalata, Adamson S. Muula, Gaurav Kwatra, Natasha Nsamala, Andrew Likaka…
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:303
  27. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) typically co-exists with multimorbidity (presence of 2 or more long-term conditions: LTCs). The associations between CKD, multimorbidity and hospitalisation rates are not known. Th...

    Authors: Michael K. Sullivan, Bhautesh Dinesh Jani, Alex McConnachie, Peter Hanlon, Philip McLoone, Barbara I. Nicholl, Juan-Jesus Carrero, Dorothea Nitsch, David McAllister, Frances S. Mair and Patrick B. Mark
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:278
  28. Collagen fibers play an important role in tumor initiation, progression, and invasion. Our previous research has already shown that large-scale tumor-associated collagen signatures (TACS) are powerful prognost...

    Authors: Gangqin Xi, Lida Qiu, Shuoyu Xu, Wenhui Guo, Fangmeng Fu, Deyong Kang, Liqin Zheng, Jiajia He, Qingyuan Zhang, Lianhuang Li, Chuan Wang and Jianxin Chen
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:273
  29. Model-based estimates of measles burden and the impact of measles-containing vaccine (MCV) are crucial for global health priority setting. Recently, evidence from systematic reviews and database analyses have ...

    Authors: Han Fu, Kaja Abbas, Petra Klepac, Kevin van Zandvoort, Hira Tanvir, Allison Portnoy and Mark Jit
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:281
  30. There is no consensus regarding the clinical target volume (CTV) margins in radiotherapy for glioma. In this study, we aimed to perform a complete macropathologic analysis examining microscopic tumor extension...

    Authors: Shulun Nie, Yufang Zhu, Jia Yang, Tao Xin, Song Xue, Jujie Sun, Dianbin Mu, Zhaoqiu Chen, Pengpeng Sun, Jinming Yu and Man Hu
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:269
  31. With the increasing number of people infected with and recovered from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the extent of major health consequences of COVID-19 is unclear, including risks of severe secondary in...

    Authors: Can Hou, Yihan Hu, Huazhen Yang, Wenwen Chen, Yu Zeng, Zhiye Ying, Yao Hu, Yajing Sun, Yuanyuan Qu, Magnús Gottfreðsson, Unnur A. Valdimarsdóttir and Huan Song
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:301
  32. Multi-omics studies have shown a high and lack of common driver mutations in most thymomas (TH) and thymic carcinomas (TC) that hamper the development of novel treatment approaches. However, deregulation of ap...

    Authors: Denise Müller, Paolo Mazzeo, Raphael Koch, Mark-Sebastian Bösherz, Stefan Welter, Alexander von Hammerstein-Equord, Marc Hinterthaner, Lucia Cordes, Djeda Belharazem, Alexander Marx, Philipp Ströbel and Stefan Küffer
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:300
  33. Combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) cannot eradicate HIV-1 from the body due to the establishment of persisting viral reservoirs which are not affected by therapy and reinitiate new rounds of HIV-1 rep...

    Authors: Zhenhua Zhang, Wim Trypsteen, Marc Blaauw, Xiaojing Chu, Sofie Rutsaert, Linos Vandekerckhove, Wouter van der Heijden, Jéssica Cristina dos Santos, Cheng-Jian Xu, Morris A. Swertz, Andre van der Ven and Yang Li
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:282
  34. Late stillbirth continues to affect 3–4/1000 pregnancies in high-resource settings, with even higher rates in low-resource settings. Reduced foetal movements are frequently reported by women prior to foetal de...

    Authors: John M. D. Thompson, Jessica Wilson, Billie F. Bradford, Minglan Li, Robin S. Cronin, Adrienne Gordon, Camille H. Raynes-Greenow, Tomasina Stacey, Vicki M. Cullling, Lisa M. Askie, Louise M. O’Brien, Edwin A. Mitchell, Lesley M. E. McCowan and Alexander E. P. Heazell
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:267
  35. The most common biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are amyloid β (Aβ) and tau, detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or with positron emission tomography imaging. However, these procedures are invasive and...

    Authors: Longfei Jia, Min Zhu, Jianwei Yang, Yana Pang, Qi Wang, Ying Li, Tingting Li, Fangyu Li, Qigeng Wang, Yan Li and Yiping Wei
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:264
  36. Gliomas are the most common aggressive cancer in the central nervous system. Considering the difficulty in monitoring glioma response and progression, an approach is needed to evaluate the progression or survi...

    Authors: Wen Zhang, Tiancheng Qin, Zhenrong Yang, Liyuan Yin, Changyun Zhao, Lin Feng, Song Lin, Binlei Liu, Shujun Cheng and Kaitai Zhang
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:277

    The Commentary to this article has been published in BMC Medicine 2021 19:296

  37. Adolescents experience a multitude of vulnerabilities which need to be addressed in order to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). In sub-Saharan Africa, adolescents experience high burden of HIV, ...

    Authors: Franziska Meinck, Mark Orkin and Lucie Cluver
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:263
  38. Ratios of bacteriologically positive tuberculosis (TB) prevalence to notification rates are used to characterise typical durations of TB disease. However, this ignores the clinical spectrum of tuberculosis dis...

    Authors: Chu-Chang Ku, Peter MacPherson, McEwen Khundi, Rebecca H. Nzawa Soko, Helena R. A. Feasey, Marriott Nliwasa, Katherine C. Horton, Elizabeth L. Corbett and Peter J. Dodd
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:298
  39. Medication review is a core aspect of medicine optimisation, yet existing models of review vary substantially in structure and content and are not necessarily easy to implement in clinical practice. This study...

    Authors: D. McCahon, R. E. Denholm, A. L. Huntley, S. Dawson, P. Duncan and R. A. Payne
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:262
  40. To reduce the coronavirus disease burden in England, along with many other countries, the government implemented a package of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) that have also impacted other transmissible...

    Authors: Kathleen M. O’Reilly, Frank Sandman, David Allen, Christopher I. Jarvis, Amy Gimma, Amy Douglas, Lesley Larkin, Kerry L. M. Wong, Marc Baguelin, Ralph S. Baric, Lisa C. Lindesmith, Richard A. Goldstein, Judith Breuer and W. John Edmunds
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:299
  41. Urate-lowering therapy (ULT) adherence is low in gout, and few, if any, effective, low-cost, interventions are available. Our objective was to assess if a culturally appropriate gout-storytelling intervention ...

    Authors: Jasvinder A. Singh, Amy Joseph, Joshua Baker, Joshua S. Richman, Terrence Shaneyfelt, Kenneth G. Saag and Seth Eisen
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:265
  42. Different risk-based colorectal cancer (CRC) screening strategies, such as the use of polygenic risk scores (PRS), have been evaluated to improve effectiveness of these programs. However, few studies have prev...

    Authors: Mireia Obón-Santacana, Anna Díez-Villanueva, Maria Henar Alonso, Gemma Ibáñez-Sanz, Elisabet Guinó, Ana López, Lorena Rodríguez-Alonso, Alfredo Mata, Ana García-Rodríguez, Andrés García Palomo, Antonio J. Molina, Montse Garcia, Gemma Binefa, Vicente Martín and Victor Moreno
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:261
  43. Individuals with low socioeconomic status (SES) experience a higher risk of mortality, in general, and alcohol-attributable mortality in particular. However, a knowledge gap exists concerning the dose-response...

    Authors: Charlotte Probst, Shannon Lange, Carolin Kilian, Celine Saul and Jürgen Rehm
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:268
  44. Low birth weight (LBW) and fetal growth restriction are associated with the development of cardio-metabolic diseases later in life. A recent Mendelian randomization study concluded that the susceptibility of L...

    Authors: Noriko Sato, Ayako Fudono, Chihiro Imai, Hidemi Takimoto, Iori Tarui, Tomoko Aoyama, Satoshi Yago, Motoko Okamitsu, Shuki Mizutani and Naoyuki Miyasaka
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:260
  45. Authors: Eden V. Haverfield, Edward D. Esplin, Sienna J. Aguilar, Kathryn E. Hatchell, Kelly E. Ormond, Andrea Hanson-Kahn, Paldeep S. Atwal, Sarah Macklin-Mantia, Stephanie Hines, Caron W.-M. Sak, Steven Tucker, Steven B. Bleyl, Peter J. Hulick, Ora K. Gordon, Lea Velsher, Jessica Y. J. Gu…
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:288

    The original article was published in BMC Medicine 2021 19:199

  46. Observational studies suggest interconnections between thyroid status, metabolism, and risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), but causality remains to be proven. The present study aimed to investigate the pote...

    Authors: Nicolien A. van Vliet, Maxime M. Bos, Carisha S. Thesing, Layal Chaker, Maik Pietzner, Evelyn Houtman, Matt J. Neville, Ruifang Li-Gao, Stella Trompet, Rima Mustafa, Fariba Ahmadizar, Marian Beekman, Mariska Bot, Kathrin Budde, Constantinos Christodoulides, Abbas Dehghan…
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2021 19:266