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  1. Childhood trauma increases the risk for adult obesity through multiple complex pathways, and the neural substrates are yet to be determined.

    Authors: Qiang Luo, Lingli Zhang, Chu-Chung Huang, Yan Zheng, Jonathan W. Kanen, Qi Zhao, Ye Yao, Erin B. Quinlan, Tianye Jia, Tobias Banaschewski, Arun L. W. Bokde, Uli Bromberg, Christian Büchel, Herta Flor, Vincent Frouin, Hugh Garavan…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:278

    Content type: Research article

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  2. The health impact of COVID-19 may differ in African settings as compared to countries in Europe or China due to demographic, epidemiological, environmental and socio-economic factors. We evaluated strategies t...

    Authors: Kevin van Zandvoort, Christopher I. Jarvis, Carl A. B. Pearson, Nicholas G. Davies, Ruwan Ratnayake, Timothy W. Russell, Adam J. Kucharski, Mark Jit, Stefan Flasche, Rosalind M. Eggo and Francesco Checchi

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:324

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Despite the increasing understanding of factors that might underlie psychiatric disorders, prospectively detecting shifts from a healthy towards a symptomatic state has remained unattainable. A complex systems...

    Authors: Marieke J. Schreuder, Catharina A. Hartman, Sandip V. George, Claudia Menne-Lothmann, Jeroen Decoster, Ruud van Winkel, Philippe Delespaul, Marc De Hert, Catherine Derom, Evert Thiery, Bart P. F. Rutten, Nele Jacobs, Jim van Os, Johanna T. W. Wigman and Marieke Wichers

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:269

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Preeclampsia and preterm delivery (PTD) are believed to affect women’s long-term health including cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the biological underpinnings are largely unknown. We aimed to test whether ma...

    Authors: Xiumei Hong, Boyang Zhang, Liming Liang, Yan Zhang, Yuelong Ji, Guoying Wang, Hongkai Ji, Clary B. Clish, Irina Burd, Colleen Pearson, Barry Zuckerman, Frank B. Hu and Xiaobin Wang

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:277

    Content type: Research article

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  5. In the network approach to psychopathology, psychiatric disorders are considered networks of causally active symptoms (nodes), with node centrality hypothesized to reflect symptoms’ causal influence within a n...

    Authors: Tobias R. Spiller, Ofir Levi, Yuval Neria, Benjamin Suarez-Jimenez, Yair Bar-Haim and Amit Lazarov

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:297

    Content type: Research article

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  6. After experiencing a sharp growth in COVID-19 cases early in the pandemic, South Korea rapidly controlled transmission while implementing less stringent national social distancing measures than countries in Eu...

    Authors: Amy Dighe, Lorenzo Cattarino, Gina Cuomo-Dannenburg, Janetta Skarp, Natsuko Imai, Sangeeta Bhatia, Katy A. M. Gaythorpe, Kylie E. C. Ainslie, Marc Baguelin, Samir Bhatt, Adhiratha Boonyasiri, Nicholas F. Brazeau, Laura V. Cooper, Helen Coupland, Zulma Cucunuba, Ilaria Dorigatti…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:321

    Content type: Research article

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  7. There is conflicting evidence in the literature on the association between (elevated) serum B12 concentrations and subsequent disease or mortality. We evaluated in the NHANES general population the association...

    Authors: Bruce H. R. Wolffenbuttel, M. Rebecca Heiner-Fokkema, Ralph Green and Rijk O. B. Gans

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:307

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) causes atherosclerotic disease, as demonstrated in experimental and epidemiological cohorts, randomised controlled trials, and Mendelian randomisation studies.

    Authors: Peter E. Penson, Matteo Pirro and Maciej Banach

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:320

    Content type: Opinion

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  9. Although exposure to cigarette smoking during pregnancy has been associated with alterations of DNA methylation in the cord blood or placental cells, whether such exposure before pregnancy could induce epigene...

    Authors: Sophie Rousseaux, Emie Seyve, Florent Chuffart, Ekaterina Bourova-Flin, Meriem Benmerad, Marie-Aline Charles, Anne Forhan, Barbara Heude, Valérie Siroux, Remy Slama, Jorg Tost, Daniel Vaiman, Saadi Khochbin and Johanna Lepeule

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:306

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a fatal disease that results from cardio-pulmonary dysfunction with the pathology largely unknown. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP2) is an important...

    Authors: Jun Yang, Megan Griffiths, Melanie K. Nies, Stephanie Brandal, Rachel Damico, Dhananjay Vaidya, Xueting Tao, Catherine E. Simpson, Todd M. Kolb, Stephen C. Mathai, Michael W. Pauciulo, William C. Nichols, David D. Ivy, Eric D. Austin, Paul M. Hassoun and Allen D. Everett

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:268

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Many low- and middle-income countries have implemented control measures against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, it is not clear to what extent these measures explain the low numbers of recorded C...

    Authors: Matthew Quaife, Kevin van Zandvoort, Amy Gimma, Kashvi Shah, Nicky McCreesh, Kiesha Prem, Edwine Barasa, Daniel Mwanga, Beth Kangwana, Jessie Pinchoff, W. John Edmunds, Christopher I. Jarvis and Karen Austrian

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:316

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-targeted therapy is effective in patients with ovarian cancer. Whether adipose tissue (AT) could predict the efficacy of VEGF receptor (VEGFR) inhibitors in ovarian ca...

    Authors: Xin Huang, Chuanbo Xie, Jie Tang, Wenzhuo He, Fan Yang, Wenfang Tian, Jundong Li, Qiuxia Yang, Jingxian Shen, Liangping Xia and Chunyan Lan

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:267

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Lipids such as cholesterol and triglycerides play an important role in both maternal and foetal energy metabolism. Little is known about maternal lipid levels in pregnancy and their effect on foetal growth. Th...

    Authors: Maria C. Adank, Laura Benschop, Alet W. Kors, Kelly R. Peterbroers, Anna M. Smak Gregoor, Monique T. Mulder, Sarah Schalekamp-Timmermans, Jeanine E. Roeters Van Lennep and Eric A. P. Steegers

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:276

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by hepatic steatosis in over 5% of the parenchyma in the absence of excessive alcohol consumption. It is more prevalent in patients with diverse menta...

    Authors: Óscar Soto-Angona, Gerard Anmella, María José Valdés-Florido, Nieves De Uribe-Viloria, Andre F. Carvalho, Brenda W. J. H. Penninx and Michael Berk

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:261

    Content type: Review

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  15. Peripheral intravenous catheters (PIVCs) are ubiquitous medical devices, crucial to providing essential fluids and drugs. However, post-insertion PIVC failure occurs frequently, likely due to inconsistent main...

    Authors: Samantha Keogh, Caroline Shelverton, Julie Flynn, Gabor Mihala, Saira Mathew, Karen M. Davies, Nicole Marsh and Claire M. Rickard

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:252

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Comorbidity between depressive and anxiety disorders is common. A hypothesis of the network perspective on psychopathology is that comorbidity arises due to the interplay of symptoms shared by both disorders, ...

    Authors: Robin N. Groen, Oisín Ryan, Johanna T. W. Wigman, Harriëtte Riese, Brenda W. J. H. Penninx, Erik J. Giltay, Marieke Wichers and Catharina A. Hartman

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:308

    Content type: Research article

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  17. As malaria transmission declines, sensitive diagnostics are needed to evaluate interventions and monitor transmission. Serological assays measuring malaria antibody responses offer a cost-effective detection m...

    Authors: Lindsey Wu, Julia Mwesigwa, Muna Affara, Mamadou Bah, Simon Correa, Tom Hall, Susheel K. Singh, James G. Beeson, Kevin K. A. Tetteh, Immo Kleinschmidt, Umberto D’Alessandro and Chris Drakeley

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:304

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Evidence has pointed towards differences in the burden of arteriosclerosis according to its location and sex. Yet there is a scarcity of population-based data on aggregated sex-specific cardiovascular risk pro...

    Authors: Janine E. van der Toorn, Oscar L. Rueda-Ochoa, Niels van der Schaft, Meike W. Vernooij, M. Arfan Ikram, Daniel Bos and Maryam Kavousi

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:263

    Content type: Research article

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  19. High consumption of red and processed meat is commonly associated with increased cancer risk, particularly colorectal cancer. Antibodies against the red meat-derived carbohydrate N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc...

    Authors: Salam Bashir, Leopold K. Fezeu, Shani Leviatan Ben-Arye, Sharon Yehuda, Eliran Moshe Reuven, Fabien Szabo de Edelenyi, Imen Fellah-Hebia, Thierry Le Tourneau, Berthe Marie Imbert-Marcille, Emmanuel B. Drouet, Mathilde Touvier, Jean-Christian Roussel, Hai Yu, Xi Chen, Serge Hercberg, Emanuele Cozzi…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:262

    Content type: Research article

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  20. The number of residents in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) in need of palliative care is growing in the Western world. Therefore, it is foreseen that significantly higher percentages of budgets will be spent...

    Authors: Anne B. Wichmann, Eddy M. M. Adang, Kris C. P. Vissers, Katarzyna Szczerbińska, Marika Kylänen, Sheila Payne, Giovanni Gambassi, Bregje D. Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Tinne Smets, Lieve Van den Block, Luc Deliens, Myrra J. F. J. Vernooij-Dassen and Yvonne Engels

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:258

    Content type: Research article

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  21. In the absence of definitive diagnosis, healthcare providers are likely to prescribe empirical antibacterials to those who test negative for malaria. This problem is of critical importance in Southern Asia (SA...

    Authors: Poojan Shrestha, Prabin Dahal, Chinwe Ogbonnaa-Njoku, Debashish Das, Kasia Stepniewska, Nigel V. Thomas, Heidi Hopkins, John A. Crump, David Bell, Paul N. Newton, Elizabeth A. Ashley and Philippe J. Guérin

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:299

    Content type: Research article

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  22. In malaria-endemic countries, febrile episodes caused by diseases other than malaria are a growing concern. However, limited knowledge of the prevalent etiologic agents and their geographic distributions restr...

    Authors: José Moreira, Janaina Barros, Oscar Lapouble, Marcus V. G. Lacerda, Ingrid Felger, Patricia Brasil, Sabine Dittrich and Andre M. Siqueira

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:294

    Content type: Research article

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  23. The availability of reliable point-of-care tests for malaria has heralded a paradigm shift in the management of febrile illnesses away from presumptive antimalarial therapy. In the absence of a definitive diag...

    Authors: Jeanne Elven, Prabin Dahal, Elizabeth A. Ashley, Nigel V. Thomas, Poojan Shrestha, Kasia Stepniewska, John A. Crump, Paul N. Newton, David Bell, Hugh Reyburn, Heidi Hopkins and Philippe J. Guérin

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:279

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) and CT colonography (CTC) are minimally invasive techniques for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Our objective is to compare CCE and CTC for the identification of patients with ...

    Authors: Begoña González-Suárez, Mario Pagés, Isis Karina Araujo, Cristina Romero, Cristina Rodríguez de Miguel, Juan Ramón Ayuso, Àngels Pozo, Maria Vila-Casadesús, Anna Serradesanferm, Àngels Ginès, Glòria Fernández-Esparrach, Maria Pellisé, María López-Cerón, David Flores, Henry Córdova, Oriol Sendino…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:255

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Due to the high prevalence of obesity and the difficulty in maintaining weight loss, repeated bouts of weight loss are a common occurrence. However, there are inconsistencies in epidemiological studies regardi...

    Authors: Erik A. Willis, Wen-Yi Huang, Pedro F. Saint-Maurice, Michael F. Leitzmann, Elizabeth A. Salerno, Charles E. Matthews and Sonja I. Berndt

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:248

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Mechanistic studies suggest that mitochondria DNA (mtDNA) dysfunction may be associated with increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). The association between mtDNA copy number (mtDNA-CN) and incident AF in ...

    Authors: Di Zhao, Traci M. Bartz, Nona Sotoodehnia, Wendy S. Post, Susan R. Heckbert, Alvaro Alonso, Ryan J. Longchamps, Christina A. Castellani, Yun Soo Hong, Jerome I. Rotter, Henry J. Lin, Brian O’Rourke, Nathan Pankratz, John A. Lane, Stephanie Y. Yang, Eliseo Guallar…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:246

    Content type: Research article

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  27. The universal two-child policy in China which was announced in October 2015 might affect the caesarean birth rate. Few studies reported the caesarean birth rate affected by the policy especially after the univ...

    Authors: Jie Yan, Long Wang, Ying Yang, Ya Zhang, Hongguang Zhang, Yuan He, Zuoqi Peng, Yuanyuan Wang, Qiaomei Wang, Haiping Shen, Yiping Zhang, Donghai Yan, Xu Ma and Huixia Yang

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:249

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  28. A national endoscopic screening program for gastric cancer was rolled out in Japan in 2015. We used a microsimulation model to estimate the cost-effectiveness of current screening guidelines and alternative sc...

    Authors: Hsi-Lan Huang, Chi Yan Leung, Eiko Saito, Kota Katanoda, Chin Hur, Chung Yin Kong, Shuhei Nomura and Kenji Shibuya

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:257

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  29. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Dayle Sampson, Thomas D. Yager, Brian Fox, Laura Shallcross, Leo McHugh, Therese Seldon, Antony Rapisarda, Roslyn A. Hendriks, Richard B. Brandon, Krupa Navalkar, Nandi Simpson, Sian Stafford, Eliza Gil, Cristina Venturini, Evi Tsaliki, Jennifer Roe…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:293

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Medicine 2020 18:185

  30. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Meghan H. Puglia, Kathleen M. Krol, Manuela Missana, Cabell L. Williams, Travis S. Lillard, James P. Morris, Jessica J. Connelly and Tobias Grossmann

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:292

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Medicine 2020 18:244

  31. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Giovanni Ostuzzi, Davide Papola, Chiara Gastaldon, Georgios Schoretsanitis, Federico Bertolini, Francesco Amaddeo, Alessandro Cuomo, Robin Emsley, Andrea Fagiolini, Giuseppe Imperadore, Taishiro Kishimoto, Giulia Michencigh, Michela Nosé, Marianna Purgato, Serdar Dursun, Brendon Stubbs…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:291

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Medicine 2020 18:215

  32. Barriers to accessing mental health care during pregnancy and the first postnatal year (perinatal period) seem to be greater for ethnic minority women; however, there is no reliable large-scale data about thei...

    Authors: Jelena Jankovic, Jake Parsons, Nikolina Jovanović, Giles Berrisford, Alex Copello, Qulsom Fazil and Stefan Priebe

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:245

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Armed conflict can indirectly affect population health through detrimental impacts on political and social institutions and destruction of infrastructure. This study aimed to quantify indirect mortality impact...

    Authors: Mohammed Jawad, Thomas Hone, Eszter P. Vamos, Paul Roderick, Richard Sullivan and Christopher Millett

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:266

    Content type: Research article

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  34. When designing a clinical trial, explicitly defining the treatment estimands of interest (that which is to be estimated) can help to clarify trial objectives and ensure the questions being addressed by the trial ...

    Authors: Brennan C. Kahan, Tim P. Morris, Ian R. White, Conor D. Tweed, Suzie Cro, Darren Dahly, Tra My Pham, Hanif Esmail, Abdel Babiker and James R. Carpenter

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:286

    Content type: Opinion

    Published on:

  35. Cancer patients have a highly increased risk of psychiatric disorders following diagnosis, compared with cancer-free individuals. Inflammation is involved in the development of both cancer and psychiatric diso...

    Authors: Kejia Hu, Arvid Sjölander, Donghao Lu, Adam K. Walker, Erica K. Sloan, Katja Fall, Unnur Valdimarsdóttir, Per Hall, Karin E. Smedby and Fang Fang

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:238

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Authors: Alice Norton, Louise Sigfrid, Adeniyi Aderoba, Naima Nasir, Peter G. Bannister, Shelui Collinson, James Lee, Geneviève Boily-Larouche, Josephine P. Golding, Evelyn Depoortere, Gail Carson, Barbara Kerstiëns and Yazdan Yazdanpanah

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:273

    Content type: Commentary

    Published on:

  37. With universal health coverage a key component of the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals, targeted monitoring is crucial for reducing inequalities in the provision of services. However, monitoring largely occu...

    Authors: A. S. Wigley, N. Tejedor-Garavito, V. Alegana, A. Carioli, C. W. Ruktanonchai, C. Pezzulo, Z. Matthews, A. J. Tatem and K. Nilsen

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:237

    Content type: Research article

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  38. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been a pandemic worldwide. Old age and underlying illnesses are associated with poor prognosis among COVID-19 patients. However, whether frailty, a common geriatric ...

    Authors: Yao Ma, Lisha Hou, Xiufang Yang, Zhixin Huang, Xue Yang, Na Zhao, Min He, Yixin Shi, Yan Kang, Jirong Yue and Chenkai Wu

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:274

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    The Commentary to this article has been published in BMC Medicine 2020 18:333

  39. Results from clinical trials can be susceptible to bias if investigators choose their analysis approach after seeing trial data, as this can allow them to perform multiple analyses and then choose the method t...

    Authors: Brennan C. Kahan, Gordon Forbes and Suzie Cro

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:253

    Content type: Correspondence

    Published on:

  40. New York City was the first major urban center of the COVID-19 pandemic in the USA. Cases are clustered in the city, with certain neighborhoods experiencing more cases than others. We investigate whether poten...

    Authors: Richard S. Whittle and Ana Diaz-Artiles

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:271

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  41. Data on the cost-effectiveness of lifestyle-based diabetes prevention programs are mostly from high-income countries, which cannot be extrapolated to low- and middle-income countries. We performed a trial-based c...

    Authors: Thirunavukkarasu Sathish, Brian Oldenburg, Kavumpurathu R. Thankappan, Pilvikki Absetz, Jonathan E. Shaw, Robyn J. Tapp, Paul Z. Zimmet, Sajitha Balachandran, Suman S. Shetty, Zahra Aziz and Ajay Mahal

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:251

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    The Correspondence to this article has been published in BMC Medicine 2020 18:379

  42. The COVID-19 pandemic has placed an unprecedented strain on health systems, with rapidly increasing demand for healthcare in hospitals and intensive care units (ICUs) worldwide. As the pandemic escalates, dete...

    Authors: Eleanor M. Rees, Emily S. Nightingale, Yalda Jafari, Naomi R. Waterlow, Samuel Clifford, Carl A. B. Pearson, CMMID Working Group, Thibaut Jombart, Simon R. Procter and Gwenan M. Knight

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:270

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  43. Bilirubin, a byproduct of hemoglobin breakdown and purported anti-oxidant, is thought to be cancer preventive. We conducted complementary serological and Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses to investigate wh...

    Authors: Nazlisadat Seyed Khoei, Mazda Jenab, Neil Murphy, Barbara L. Banbury, Robert Carreras-Torres, Vivian Viallon, Tilman Kühn, Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Krasimira Aleksandrova, Amanda J. Cross, Elisabete Weiderpass, Magdalena Stepien, Andrew Bulmer, Anne Tjønneland, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Gianluca Severi…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:229

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  44. Identifying hotspots of tuberculosis transmission can inform spatially targeted active case-finding interventions. While national tuberculosis programs maintain notification registers which represent a potenti...

    Authors: Kenneth S. Gunasekera, Jon Zelner, Mercedes C. Becerra, Carmen Contreras, Molly F. Franke, Leonid Lecca, Megan B. Murray, Joshua L. Warren and Ted Cohen

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:234

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  45. Two studies have suggested that severe prolonged nausea and vomiting during pregnancy is associated with emotional and behavioral problems in offspring, with smaller sample size and short-term follow-up. Moreo...

    Authors: Hui Wang, Edmund T. Rolls, Xiujuan Du, Jingnan Du, Dexin Yang, Jiong Li, Fei Li, Wei Cheng and Jianfeng Feng

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:228

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

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