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  1. We report age-dependent penetrance estimates for leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2)-related Parkinson's disease (PD) in a large sample of familial PD. The most frequently seen LRRK2 mutation, Gly2019Ser (G2019S...

    Authors: Jeanne C Latourelle, Mei Sun, Mark F Lew, Oksana Suchowersky, Christine Klein, Lawrence I Golbe, Margery H Mark, John H Growdon, G Frederick Wooten, Ray L Watts, Mark Guttman, Brad A Racette, Joel S Perlmutter, Anwar Ahmed, Holly A Shill, Carlos Singer…
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:32
  2. Twenty-five years after the discovery and isolation of the human immunodeficiency virus by French and American scientists, much progress has been made in basic research, clinical treatment, and public health p...

    Authors: Mark A Wainberg and Kuan-Teh Jeang
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:31
  3. Recent genome wide association (GWA) studies identified two Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) (rs10757278 and rs10757274) in the region of the CDK2NA and CDK2NB genes to be consistently associated with the...

    Authors: Abbas Dehghan, Mandy van Hoek, Eric JG Sijbrands, Ben A Oostra, Albert Hofman, Cornelia M van Duijn and Jacqueline CM Witteman
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:30
  4. Randomised trials comparing different drugs head-to-head are extremely valuable for clinical decision-making. However, it is scientifically and ethically sensible to demand strong evidence that a drug is effec...

    Authors: Milo A Puhan, Daniela Vollenweider, Johann Steurer, Patrick M Bossuyt and Gerben ter Riet
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:28
  5. We have engaged in an international program designated the Bank On A Cure, which has established DNA banks from multiple cooperative and institutional clinical trials, and a platform for examining the association...

    Authors: Brian Van Ness, Christine Ramos, Majda Haznadar, Antje Hoering, Jeff Haessler, John Crowley, Susanna Jacobus, Martin Oken, Vincent Rajkumar, Philip Greipp, Bart Barlogie, Brian Durie, Michael Katz, Gowtham Atluri, Gang Fang, Rohit Gupta…
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:26
  6. Animal data show that decreased activity of placental 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2), which potently inactivates glucocorticoids (e.g. cortisol) to inert forms (cortisone), allows incre...

    Authors: Susanna Y Huh, Ruth Andrew, Janet W Rich-Edwards, Ken P Kleinman, Jonathan R Seckl and Matthew W Gillman
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:25
  7. Severe anemia due to Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a major cause of mortality among young children in western Kenya. The factors that lead to the age-specific incidence of this anemia are unknown. Previous stu...

    Authors: Collins O Odhiambo, Walter Otieno, Christine Adhiambo, Michael M Odera and José A Stoute
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:23
  8. Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a dominantly inherited multi-system disorder. Major features include pigmentary abnormalities, benign tumors of the nerve sheath (neurofibromas), malignant tumors, learning di...

    Authors: Bruce R Korf
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:22
  9. Bowing and/or pseudarthrosis of the tibia is a known severe complication of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Mice with conditionally inactivated neurofibromin (Nf1) in the developing limbs and cranium (Nf1Prx1)...

    Authors: Mateusz Kolanczyk, Jirko Kühnisch, Nadine Kossler, Monika Osswald, Sabine Stumpp, Boris Thurisch, Uwe Kornak and Stefan Mundlos
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:21
  10. The modulation of gap junctional communication between tumor cells and between tumor and vascular endothelial cells during tumorigenesis and metastasis is complex. The notion of a role for loss of gap junction...

    Authors: M Khair Elzarrad, Abu Haroon, Klaus Willecke, Radoslaw Dobrowolski, Mark N Gillespie and Abu-Bakr Al-Mehdi
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:20
  11. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is widely used to detect prostate cancer. The low positive predictive value of elevated PSA results in large numbers of unnecessary prostate biopsies. We set out to determine wh...

    Authors: Andrew J Vickers, Angel M Cronin, Gunnar Aus, Carl-Gustav Pihl, Charlotte Becker, Kim Pettersson, Peter T Scardino, Jonas Hugosson and Hans Lilja
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:19
  12. Both the new generation of antipsychotics and the more traditional antipsychotic drugs produce an important and meaningful improvement in patients with schizophrenia, but most patients are neither cured nor fr...

    Authors: John M Davis and Stefan Leucht
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:18
  13. In clinical practice, physicians often need to change the antipsychotic medications they give to patients because of an inadequate response or the presence of unacceptable or unsafe side effects. However, ther...

    Authors: Rohan Ganguli, Jaspreet S Brar, Ramy Mahmoud, Sally A Berry and Gahan J Pandina
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:17
  14. Telehealth systems have a large potential for informing public health authorities in an early stage of outbreaks of communicable disease. Influenza and norovirus are common viruses that cause significant respi...

    Authors: Duncan L Cooper, Gillian E Smith, Martyn Regan, Shirley Large and Peter P Groenewegen
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:16
  15. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are essential post-transcriptional regulators that determine cell identity and fate. Aberrant expression of miRNAs can lead to diseases, including cancer. Expression of many miRNAs in the de...

    Authors: Thales Papagiannakopoulos and Kenneth S Kosik
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:15
  16. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an invariably fatal central nervous system tumor despite treatment with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Further insights into the molecular and cellular mechanisms that d...

    Authors: Joachim Silber, Daniel A Lim, Claudia Petritsch, Anders I Persson, Alika K Maunakea, Mamie Yu, Scott R Vandenberg, David G Ginzinger, C David James, Joseph F Costello, Gabriele Bergers, William A Weiss, Arturo Alvarez-Buylla and J Graeme Hodgson
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:14
  17. Inadequate reporting is problematic for several reasons. If authors do not provide sufficient details concerning the conduct of their study, readers are left with an incomplete picture of what was done. As suc...

    Authors: David Moher, Iveta Simera, Kenneth F Schulz, John Hoey and Douglas G Altman
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:13
  18. Mammographically dense breast tissue is one of the greatest risk factors for developing breast carcinoma. Despite the strong clinical correlation, breast density has not been causally linked to tumorigenesis, ...

    Authors: Paolo P Provenzano, David R Inman, Kevin W Eliceiri, Justin G Knittel, Long Yan, Curtis T Rueden, John G White and Patricia J Keely
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:11
  19. The dominantly inherited condition familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is caused by germline mutations in the APC gene. Finding the causative mutations has great implications for the families. Correlating the ge...

    Authors: Gunilla Kanter-Smoler, Kaisa Fritzell, Anna Rohlin, Yvonne Engwall, Birgitta Hallberg, Annika Bergman, Johan Meuller, Henrik Grönberg, Per Karlsson, Jan Björk and Margareta Nordling
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:10
  20. Home care plays a vital role in many health care systems, but there is evidence that appropriate targeting strategies must be used to allocate limited home care resources effectively. The aim of the present st...

    Authors: John P Hirdes, Jeff W Poss and Nancy Curtin-Telegdi
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:9
  21. Halfway through the 20th century, views on pain in labour encompassed almost everything from women's self-blame to blaming nurses, midwives, doctors or partners for 'bad experiences'. Soon after that, giving birt...

    Authors: Judith Lumley
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:8
  22. Childbirth is one of the most painful events that a woman is likely to experience, the multi-dimensional aspect and intensity of which far exceeds disease conditions. A woman's lack of knowledge about the risk...

    Authors: Joanne E Lally, Madeleine J Murtagh, Sheila Macphail and Richard Thomson
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:7
  23. Based on a large, representative unscreened cohort from Malmö, Sweden, we have recently reported that a single prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurement at or before age 50 is a strong predictor of prostate ...

    Authors: David Ulmert, Angel M Cronin, Thomas Björk, Matthew F O'Brien, Peter T Scardino, James A Eastham, Charlotte Becker, Göran Berglund, Andrew J Vickers and Hans Lilja
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:6
  24. The UK General Medical Council has emphasized the lack of evidence on whether graduates from different UK medical schools perform differently in their clinical careers. Here we assess the performance of UK gra...

    Authors: IC McManus, Andrew T Elder, Andre de Champlain, Jane E Dacre, Jennifer Mollon and Liliana Chis
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:5
  25. In this study we investigated (a) to what extent physicians have experience with performing a range of end-of-life decisions (ELDs), (b) if they have no experience with performing an ELD, would they be willing...

    Authors: Rurik Löfmark, Tore Nilstun, Colleen Cartwright, Susanne Fischer, Agnes van der Heide, Freddy Mortier, Michael Norup, Lorenzo Simonato and Bregje D Onwuteaka-Philipsen
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:4
  26. Cameroon is one of 12 African countries that bear most of the global burden of yellow fever. In 2002 the country developed a five-year strategic plan for yellow fever control, which included strategies for pre...

    Authors: Charles Shey Wiysonge, Emmanuel Nomo, Jeanne Mawo, James Ofal, Julienne Mimbouga, Johnson Ticha and Peter M Ndumbe
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:3
  27. Outbreak reports suggest that community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections can be life-threatening. We conducted a population based cohort study to assess the magnitude of mort...

    Authors: JA 'Chris' Delaney, Verena Schneider-Lindner, Paul Brassard and Samy Suissa
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:2
  28. Although neuroanatomical and cognitive sequelae of low birthweight and preterm birth have been investigated, little is understood as to the likely prevalence of a history of low birthweight or preterm birth, o...

    Authors: Michael D Spencer, T William J Moorhead, Rod J Gibson, Andrew M McIntosh, Jessika ED Sussmann, David GC Owens, Stephen M Lawrie and Eve C Johnstone
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2008 6:1
  29. Some patients with long-standing low back pain will benefit from treatment with strong opioids. However, it would be helpful to predict which patients will have a good response. A fixed-term opioid trial has b...

    Authors: Eija Kalso, Karen H Simpson, Robert Slappendel, Joachim Dejonckheere and Ute Richarz
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2007 5:39
  30. Arthroscopy is often used to treat patients with chronic patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). As there is a lack of evidence, we conducted a randomized controlled trial to study the efficacy of arthroscopy in ...

    Authors: Jyrki A Kettunen, Arsi Harilainen, Jerker Sandelin, Dietrich Schlenzka, Kalevi Hietaniemi, Seppo Seitsalo, Antti Malmivaara and Urho M Kujala
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2007 5:38
  31. Most Ministries of Health across Africa invest substantial resources in some form of health management information system (HMIS) to coordinate the routine acquisition and compilation of monthly treatment and a...

    Authors: Peter W Gething, Abdisalan M Noor, Catherine A Goodman, Priscilla W Gikandi, Simon I Hay, Shahnaaz K Sharif, Peter M Atkinson and Robert W Snow
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2007 5:37
  32. Minor and mild-major depression are highly prevalent in primary care. There is insufficient evidence for the effectiveness of antidepressants in the treatment of minor and mild-major depression. We compared th...

    Authors: Marleen LM Hermens, Hein PJ van Hout, Berend Terluin, Herman J Adèr, Brenda WJH Penninx, Harm WJ van Marwijk, Judith E Bosmans, Richard van Dyck and Marten de Haan
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2007 5:36
  33. Electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) is a method for measuring coronary calcification and has been promoted as a possible non-invasive screening/diagnostic tool for coronary artery disease (CAD). Our objec...

    Authors: Nandini Dendukuri, Keith Chiu and James M Brophy
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2007 5:35
  34. The global spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic has clearly shown the importance of considering the long-range transportation networks in the understanding of emerging diseases outbr...

    Authors: Vittoria Colizza, Alain Barrat, Marc Barthélemy and Alessandro Vespignani
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2007 5:34
  35. Kisspeptins and their G-protein coupled receptor, GPR54 are required for GnRH release and have been associated with anti-metastatic tumour cell behaviour in model systems. The latter might suggest that their o...

    Authors: Leah M Prentice, Christian Klausen, Steve Kalloger, Martin Köbel, Steven McKinney, Jennifer L Santos, Challayne Kenney, Erika Mehl, C Blake Gilks, Peter Leung, Ken Swenerton, David G Huntsman and Samuel AJ Aparicio
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2007 5:33
  36. Meta-analyses of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for preventing contrast-induced nephrotoxicity (CIN) have led to disparate conclusions. Here we examine and attempt to resolve the heterogeneity evident among these trials.

    Authors: Denise A Gonzales, Kelly J Norsworthy, Steven J Kern, Steve Banks, Pamela C Sieving, Robert A Star, Charles Natanson and Robert L Danner
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2007 5:32
  37. Adolescent reproductive health has not continued to receive the attention it deserves since the start of the HIV epidemic. In South Africa, high numbers of adolescent women report pregnancies that are unwanted...

    Authors: Catherine MacPhail, Audrey E Pettifor, Sophie Pascoe and Helen V Rees
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2007 5:31
  38. Ranking of universities and institutions has attracted wide attention recently. Several systems have been proposed that attempt to rank academic institutions worldwide.

    Authors: John PA Ioannidis, Nikolaos A Patsopoulos, Fotini K Kavvoura, Athina Tatsioni, Evangelos Evangelou, Ioanna Kouri, Despina G Contopoulos-Ioannidis and George Liberopoulos
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2007 5:30
  39. Inactivated HVJ (hemagglutinating virus of Japan; Sendai virus) particles (HVJ envelope vector; HVJ-E can incorporate and deliver plasmid DNA, siRNA, antibody and peptide and anti-cancer drugs to cells both in vi...

    Authors: Hirokazu Kawano, Shintarou Komaba, Toshihide Kanamori and Yasufumi Kaneda
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2007 5:28
  40. Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) are among the neglected tropical diseases in Africa. A national control program for these diseases was initiated in Uganda during March 2003. Annual tre...

    Authors: Yaobi Zhang, Artemis Koukounari, Narcis Kabatereine, Fiona Fleming, Francis Kazibwe, Edridah Tukahebwa, J Russell Stothard, Joanne P Webster and Alan Fenwick
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2007 5:27
  41. In the United Kingdom, specialist treatment and intervention services for doctors are underdeveloped. The MedNet programme, created in 1997 and funded by the London Deanery, aims to fill this gap by providing ...

    Authors: Antony I Garelick, Samantha R Gross, Irene Richardson, Matthias von der Tann, Julia Bland and Rob Hale
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2007 5:26
  42. Diabetes is known to be associated with cancer of the pancreas, though there is some debate as to whether it is a cause or a consequence of the disease. We investigated the incidence of pancreatic cancer in a ...

    Authors: MC Perrin, MB Terry, K Kleinhaus, L Deutsch, R Yanetz, E Tiram, R Calderon, Y Friedlander, O Paltiel and S Harlap
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2007 5:25
  43. The threat of a global influenza pandemic and the adoption of the World Health Organization (WHO) International Health Regulations (2005) highlight the value of well-coordinated, functional disease surveillanc...

    Authors: Helen N Perry, Sharon M McDonnell, Wondimagegnehu Alemu, Peter Nsubuga, Stella Chungong, Mac W Otten Jr, Paul S Lusamba-dikassa and Stephen B Thacker
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2007 5:24
  44. As socioeconomic health inequalities persist and widen, the health effects of adversity are a constant presence in the daily work of physicians. Gruen and colleagues suggest that, in responding to important po...

    Authors: John Furler, Elizabeth Harris, Mark Harris, Lucio Naccarella, Doris Young and Teri Snowdon
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2007 5:23