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  1. The adverse renal effects of lithium have long been known, but glomerular insufficiency had been considered an unlikely event until recently, when new studies have raised concern regarding very long-term treat...

    Authors: Alberto Bocchetta, Raffaella Ardau, Paolo Carta, Franca Ligas, Claudia Sardu, Antonello Pani and Maria Del Zompo
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2013 11:33
  2. There is an increased incidence of major depressive disorder (MDD) in individuals after myocardial infarction (MI), but the pathophysiological processes mediating this association are unclear. Our previous stu...

    Authors: Yiming Wang, Xingde Liu, Dongfeng Zhang, Jianhui Chen, Shuzheng Liu and Michael Berk
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2013 11:32
  3. Data from epidemiological and animal model studies suggest that nutrition during pregnancy may affect the health status of subsequent generations. These transgenerational effects are now being explained by dis...

    Authors: Adelheid Soubry, Joellen M Schildkraut, Amy Murtha, Frances Wang, Zhiqing Huang, Autumn Bernal, Joanne Kurtzberg, Randy L Jirtle, Susan K Murphy and Cathrine Hoyo
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2013 11:29
  4. Migraine is a disabling common brain disorder typically characterized by attacks of severe headache and associated with autonomic and neurological symptoms. Its etiology is far from resolved. This review will ...

    Authors: Else Eising, Nicole A Datson, Arn MJM van den Maagdenberg and Michel D Ferrari
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2013 11:26
  5. Low- and middle-income countries need to consider economic issues such as cost-effectiveness, affordability and sustainability before introducing a program for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. However, ...

    Authors: Mark Jit, Carol Levin, Marc Brisson, Ann Levin, Stephen Resch, Johannes Berkhof, Jane Kim and Raymond Hutubessy
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2013 11:23
  6. There is growing interest in realist synthesis as an alternative systematic review method. This approach offers the potential to expand the knowledge base in policy-relevant areas -for example, by explaining t...

    Authors: Geoff Wong, Trish Greenhalgh, Gill Westhorp, Jeanette Buckingham and Ray Pawson
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2013 11:21
  7. Meta-narrative review is one of an emerging menu of new approaches to qualitative and mixed-method systematic review. A meta-narrative review seeks to illuminate a heterogeneous topic area by highlighting the ...

    Authors: Geoff Wong, Trish Greenhalgh, Gill Westhorp, Jeanette Buckingham and Ray Pawson
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2013 11:20
  8. In a study by Cruse et al. published in BMC Medicine, patients with severe brain damage who were in the Vegetative or Minimally Conscious States (VS or MCS, respectively) from traumatic and nontraumatic etiologie...

    Authors: Mithu Sen and G Bryan Young
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2013 11:19
  9. The Vegetative and Minimally Conscious States (VS; MCS) are characterized by absent or highly disordered signs of awareness alongside preserved sleep-wake cycles. According to international diagnostic guidelin...

    Authors: Damian Cruse, Aurore Thibaut, Athena Demertzi, Julia C Nantes, Marie-Aurélie Bruno, Olivia Gosseries, Audrey Vanhaudenhuyse, Tristan A Bekinschtein, Adrian M Owen and Steven Laureys
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2013 11:18

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Medicine 2018 16:134

  10. Methotrexate (MTX) is the central drug in the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other immune mediated inflammatory diseases. It is widely used either in monotherapy or in association with other synth...

    Authors: Vasco Crispim Romão, Helena Canhão and João Eurico Fonseca
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2013 11:17
  11. Cigarette smoking is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in the general population, and is a well-recognized risk factor for a variety of serious clinical conditions, including cardiova...

    Authors: Nicola Petrosillo and Stefania Cicalini
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2013 11:16
  12. Smoking is common in people infected with HIV but cessation support is not a routine part of clinical care. The aim was to assess whether smoking is a risk factor for pneumonia in people with HIV and whether s...

    Authors: Preeti De, Amanda Farley, Nicola Lindson and Paul Aveyard
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2013 11:15
  13. As a result of increasing life expectancies, continuing physical careers, lifestyles into later life and rising obesity levels, the number of younger patients presenting with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is...

    Authors: Paul M Sutton and Edward S Holloway
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2013 11:14
  14. Bladder cancer is the commonest malignancy of the urinary tract. In this review, we look at the latest developments in the diagnosis and management of this condition. Cystoscopy and urine cytology are the most...

    Authors: Grace Cheung, Arun Sahai, Michele Billia, Prokar Dasgupta and Muhammad S Khan
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2013 11:13
  15. Ineffective risk stratification can delay diagnosis of serious disease in patients with hematuria. We applied a systems biology approach to analyze clinical, demographic and biomarker measurements (n = 29) col...

    Authors: Frank Emmert-Streib, Funso Abogunrin, Ricardo de Matos Simoes, Brian Duggan, Mark W Ruddock, Cherith N Reid, Owen Roddy, Lisa White, Hugh F O'Kane, Declan O'Rourke, Neil H Anderson, Thiagarajan Nambirajan and Kate E Williamson
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2013 11:12
  16. Diagnosing serious infections in children is challenging, because of the low incidence of such infections and their non-specific presentation early in the course of illness. Prediction rules are promoted as a ...

    Authors: Jan Y Verbakel, Ann Van den Bruel, Matthew Thompson, Richard Stevens, Bert Aertgeerts, Rianne Oostenbrink, Henriette A Moll, Marjolein Y Berger, Monica Lakhanpaul, David Mant and Frank Buntinx
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2013 11:10
  17. Significant advances have been made in understanding the genetic basis of systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) in recent years. Can these discoveries lead to individualized monitoring and treatment? Besides robust...

    Authors: Shervin Assassi, Timothy RDJ Radstake, Maureen D Mayes and Javier Martin
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2013 11:9
  18. Risk-stratified treatment recommendations facilitate treatment decision-making that balances patient-specific risks and preferences. It is unclear if and how such recommendations are developed in clinical prac...

    Authors: Tsung Yu, Daniela Vollenweider, Ravi Varadhan, Tianjing Li, Cynthia Boyd and Milo A Puhan
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2013 11:7
  19. Since 2009, several studies have identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) near the gene encoding for interleukin (IL)-28 (IL28B) that are strongly associated with spontaneous and treatment-induced hepati...

    Authors: María A Jiménez-Sousa, Amanda Fernández-Rodríguez, María Guzmán-Fulgencio, Mónica García-Álvarez and Salvador Resino
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2013 11:6
  20. Early randomized controlled trials (RCTs) demonstrated the health benefits of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3), whereas recent RCTs were negative. We now address the issue, focusing on the temporal changes having occ...

    Authors: Michel de Lorgeril, Patricia Salen, Pascal Defaye and Mikael Rabaeus
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2013 11:5
  21. Research on the role of diet in the prevention of depression is scarce. Some evidence suggests that depression shares common mechanisms with cardiovascular disease.

    Authors: Almudena Sanchez-Villegas and Miguel A Martínez-González
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2013 11:3
  22. Mounting evidence has suggested that plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a candidate for increased risk of diabetic retinopathy. Studies have reported that insertion/deletion polymorphism in the PAI-1 ge...

    Authors: Tengyue Zhang, Chong Pang, Ningdong Li, Elaine Zhou and Kanxing Zhao
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2013 11:1
  23. Despite considerable progress in the development of anticancer therapies, there is still a high mortality rate caused by cancer relapse and metastasis. Dormant or slow-cycling residual tumor cells are thought ...

    Authors: Qing Sun, Yong Zhong, Fan Wu, Chunxia Zhou, Dongmei Wang, Wenbo Ma, Youhui Zhang and Shuren Zhang
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2012 10:172
  24. During the extremely challenging 4,487 km ultramarathon TransEurope-FootRace 2009, runners showed considerable reduction of body weight. The effects of this endurance run on brain volume changes but also possi...

    Authors: Wolfgang Freund, Sonja Faust, Frank Birklein, Christian Gaser, Arthur P Wunderlich, Marguerite Müller, Christian Billich, Markus S Juchems, Bernd L Schmitz, Georg Grön and Uwe H Schütz
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2012 10:170
  25. Cycling is considered to be a highly beneficial sport for significantly enhancing cardiovascular fitness in individuals, yet studies show little or no corresponding improvements in bone mass.

    Authors: Hugo Olmedillas, Alejandro González-Agüero, Luis A Moreno, José A Casajus and Germán Vicente-Rodríguez
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2012 10:168
  26. Musculoskeletal conditions (MSCs) are widely prevalent in present-day society, with resultant high healthcare costs and substantial negative effects on patient health and quality of life. The main aim of this ...

    Authors: Kåre Birger Hagen, Hanne Dagfinrud, Rikke Helene Moe, Nina Østerås, Ingvild Kjeken, Margreth Grotle and Geir Smedslund
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2012 10:167
  27. Endurance exercise capacity diminishes under hot environmental conditions. Time to exhaustion can be increased by lowering body temperature prior to exercise (pre-cooling). This systematic literature review sy...

    Authors: Paul R Jones, Christian Barton, Dylan Morrissey, Nicola Maffulli and Stephanie Hemmings
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2012 10:166
  28. Mathematical and computational models for infectious diseases are increasingly used to support public-health decisions; however, their reliability is currently under debate. Real-time forecasts of epidemic spr...

    Authors: Michele Tizzoni, Paolo Bajardi, Chiara Poletto, José J Ramasco, Duygu Balcan, Bruno Gonçalves, Nicola Perra, Vittoria Colizza and Alessandro Vespignani
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2012 10:165
  29. We developed a Monte Carlo Markov model designed to investigate the effects of modifying cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors on the burden of CVD. Internal, predictive, and external validity of the model...

    Authors: Bob JH van Kempen, Bart S Ferket, Albert Hofman, Ewout W Steyerberg, Ersen B Colkesen, S Matthijs Boekholdt, Nicholas J Wareham, Kay-Tee Khaw and MG Myriam Hunink
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2012 10:158
  30. More than a million diagnostic cardiac catheterizations are performed annually in the US for evaluation of coronary artery anatomy and the presence of atherosclerosis. Nearly half of these patients have no sig...

    Authors: William A LaFramboise, Rajiv Dhir, Lori A Kelly, Patricia Petrosko, John M Krill-Burger, Christin M Sciulli, Maureen A Lyons-Weiler, Uma R Chandran, Aleksey Lomakin, Robert V Masterson, Oscar C Marroquin, Suresh R Mulukutla and Dennis M McNamara
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2012 10:157
  31. According to current classification systems, patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) may have very different combinations of symptoms. This symptomatic diversity hinders the progress of research into the...

    Authors: Hanna M van Loo, Peter de Jonge, Jan-Willem Romeijn, Ronald C Kessler and Robert A Schoevers
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2012 10:156