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  1. Sleep disturbances are prevalent among older adults and are associated with various individual diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate whether sleep disturbances are associated with the speed of mul...

    Authors: Shireen Sindi, Laura Monica Pérez, Davide L. Vetrano, Federico Triolo, Ingemar Kåreholt, Linnea Sjöberg, Alexander Darin-Mattsson, Miia Kivipelto, Marco Inzitari and Amaia Calderón-Larrañaga

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:382

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Clinical studies indicate chemotherapy agents used in childhood cancer treatment regimens may impact future fertility. However, effects of individual agents on prepubertal human testis, necessary to identify l...

    Authors: Melissa D. Tharmalingam, Gabriele Matilionyte, William H. B. Wallace, Jan-Bernd Stukenborg, Kirsi Jahnukainen, Elizabeth Oliver, Anne Goriely, Sheila Lane, Jingtao Guo, Bradley Cairns, Anne Jorgensen, Caroline M. Allen, Federica Lopes, Richard A. Anderson, Norah Spears and Rod T. Mitchell

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:374

    Content type: Research article

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  3. We update a previous systematic review to inform new World Health Organization HIV self-testing (HIVST) recommendations. We compared the effects of HIVST to standard HIV testing services to understand which se...

    Authors: T. Charles Witzel, Ingrid Eshun-Wilson, Muhammad S. Jamil, Nerissa Tilouche, Carmen Figueroa, Cheryl C. Johnson, David Reid, Rachel Baggaley, Nandi Siegfried, Fiona M. Burns, Alison J. Rodger and Peter Weatherburn

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:381

    Content type: Research article

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    The Commentary to this article has been published in BMC Medicine 2020 18:373

  4. Clinical guidelines recommend a stepped-escalation treatment strategy for type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Across multiple treatment strategies varying in efficacy and costs, no clinical or economic studies directly co...

    Authors: Shuyan Gu, Lizheng Shi, Hui Shao, Xiaoyong Wang, Xiaoqian Hu, Yuxuan Gu and Hengjin Dong

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:378

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Little is known about the inter-relationship among fruit and vegetable intake, gut microbiota and metabolites, and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in human prospective cohort study. The aim of the present study was to i...

    Authors: Zengliang Jiang, Ting-yu Sun, Yan He, Wanglong Gou, Luo-shi-yuan Zuo, Yuanqing Fu, Zelei Miao, Menglei Shuai, Fengzhe Xu, Congmei Xiao, Yuhui Liang, Jiali Wang, Yisong Xu, Li-peng Jing, Wenhua Ling, Hongwei Zhou…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:371

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) virus poses a global public health threat given severe and fatal zoonotic infections since 1997 and ongoing A(H5N1) virus circulation among poultry in several countrie...

    Authors: Xinhua Chen, Wei Wang, Yan Wang, Shengjie Lai, Juan Yang, Benjamin J. Cowling, Peter W. Horby, Timothy M. Uyeki and Hongjie Yu

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:377

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  7. Observational studies have shown that milk consumption is inversely associated with colorectal, bladder, and breast cancer risk, but positively associated with prostate cancer. However, whether the association...

    Authors: Susanna C. Larsson, Amy M. Mason, Siddhartha Kar, Mathew Vithayathil, Paul Carter, John A. Baron, Karl Michaëlsson and Stephen Burgess

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:370

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  8. Heterogeneity of prostate cancer (PCa) contributes to inaccurate cancer screening and diagnosis, unnecessary biopsies, and overtreatment. We intended to develop non-invasive urine tests for accurate PCa diagno...

    Authors: Heather Johnson, Jinan Guo, Xuhui Zhang, Heqiu Zhang, Athanasios Simoulis, Alan H. B. Wu, Taolin Xia, Fei Li, Wanlong Tan, Allan Johnson, Nishtman Dizeyi, Per-Anders Abrahamsson, Lukas Kenner, Xiaoyan Feng, Chang Zou, Kefeng Xiao…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:376

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Improved survival means that cancer is increasingly becoming a chronic disease. Understanding and improving functional outcomes are critical to optimising survivorship. We quantified physical and mental health...

    Authors: Grace Joshy, Joanne Thandrayen, Bogda Koczwara, Phyllis Butow, Rebekah Laidsaar-Powell, Nicole Rankin, Karen Canfell, John Stubbs, Paul Grogan, Louise Bailey, Amelia Yazidjoglou and Emily Banks

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:372

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Malaria is still a major global health burden, with more than 3.2 billion people in 91 countries remaining at risk of the disease. Accurately distinguishing malaria from other diseases, especially uncomplicate...

    Authors: Collins M. Morang’a, Lucas Amenga–Etego, Saikou Y. Bah, Vincent Appiah, Dominic S. Y. Amuzu, Nicholas Amoako, James Abugri, Abraham R. Oduro, Aubrey J. Cunnington, Gordon A. Awandare and Thomas D. Otto

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:375

    Content type: Research article

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  11. In dengue-endemic countries, targeting limited control interventions to populations at risk of severe disease could enable increased efficiency. Individuals who have had their first (primary) dengue infection ...

    Authors: Joseph R. Biggs, Ava Kristy Sy, Oliver J. Brady, Adam J. Kucharski, Sebastian Funk, Mary Anne Joy Reyes, Mary Ann Quinones, William Jones-Warner, Yun-Hung Tu, Ferchito L. Avelino, Nemia L. Sucaldito, Huynh Kim Mai, Le Thuy Lien, Hung Do Thai, Hien Anh Thi Nguyen, Dang Duc Anh…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:364

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Cortisol, a steroid hormone frequently used as a biomarker of stress, is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). To clarify whether cortisol causes these outcomes, we ...

    Authors: Man Ki Kwok, Ichiro Kawachi, David Rehkopf and Catherine Mary Schooling

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:363

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Early provision of palliative care, at least 3–4 months before death, can improve patient quality of life and reduce burdensome treatments and financial costs. However, there is wide variation in the duration ...

    Authors: Roberta I. Jordan, Matthew J. Allsop, Yousuf ElMokhallalati, Catriona E. Jackson, Helen L. Edwards, Emma J. Chapman, Luc Deliens and Michael I. Bennett

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:368

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Patients with coeliac disease (CD) commonly report a variety of adverse symptoms to gluten, but descriptions of the symptomatic response in the literature may have been confounded by the presence of food compo...

    Authors: Jason A. Tye-Din, A. James M. Daveson, Kaela E. Goldstein, Holly L. Hand, Kristin M. Neff, Gautam Goel, Leslie J. Williams, Kenneth E. Truitt and Robert P. Anderson

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:362

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Given that an individual’s age and gender are strongly predictive of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes, do such factors imply anything about preferable therapeutic options?

    Authors: Ute Seeland, Flaminia Coluzzi, Maurizio Simmaco, Cameron Mura, Philip E. Bourne, Max Heiland, Robert Preissner and Saskia Preissner

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:369

    Content type: Research article

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  16. The number of patients living with co-existing diseases is growing. This study aimed to assess the extent of multimorbidity, medication use, and drug- and gene-based interactions in patients following a non-ST...

    Authors: R. M. Turner, E. M. de Koning, V. Fontana, A. Thompson and M. Pirmohamed

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:367

    Content type: Research article

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  17. The triglyceride glucose (TyG) index is an inexpensive clinical surrogate marker for insulin resistance. However, the relationship between TyG index and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains unc...

    Authors: Sangmo Hong, Kyungdo Han and Cheol-Young Park

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:361

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) account for the majority of all limb amputations and hospitalizations due to diabetes complications. With 30 million cases of diabetes in the USA and 500,000 new diagnoses each year...

    Authors: Chunan Liu, Alise J. Ponsero, David G. Armstrong, Benjamin A. Lipsky and Bonnie L. Hurwitz

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:358

    Content type: Review

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  19. Sleep disturbance is common in dementia and often treated with Z-drugs (zopiclone, zaleplon, and zolpidem). While some observational studies suggest that Z-drugs are associated with adverse events such as fall...

    Authors: Kathryn Richardson, Yoon K. Loke, Chris Fox, Ian Maidment, Robert Howard, Nicholas Steel, Antony Arthur, Penelope J. Boyd, Clare Aldus, Clive Ballard and George M. Savva

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:351

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Prediction of pregnancy-related disorders is usually done based on established and easily measured risk factors. Recent advances in metabolomics may provide earlier and more accurate prediction of women at ris...

    Authors: Nancy McBride, Paul Yousefi, Sara L. White, Lucilla Poston, Diane Farrar, Naveed Sattar, Scott M. Nelson, John Wright, Dan Mason, Matthew Suderman, Caroline Relton and Deborah A. Lawlor

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:366

    Content type: Research article

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  21. There is limited prospective evidence on possible differences in fracture risks between vegetarians, vegans, and non-vegetarians. We aimed to study this in a prospective cohort with a large proportion of non-m...

    Authors: Tammy Y. N. Tong, Paul N. Appleby, Miranda E. G. Armstrong, Georgina K. Fensom, Anika Knuppel, Keren Papier, Aurora Perez-Cornago, Ruth C. Travis and Timothy J. Key

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:353

    Content type: Research article

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  22. The complexity of psychopathology is evident from its multifactorial etiology and diversity of symptom profiles and hampers effective treatment. In psychotherapy, therapists approach this complexity by using c...

    Authors: Lino von Klipstein, Harriëtte Riese, Date C. van der Veen, Michelle N. Servaas and Robert A. Schoevers

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:345

    Content type: Opinion

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    The Commentary to this article has been published in BMC Medicine 2020 18:365

  23. Although neutrophils have been linked to the progression of cancer, uncertainty exists around their association with cancer outcomes, depending on the site, outcome and treatments considered. We aimed to evalu...

    Authors: Meghan A. Cupp, Margarita Cariolou, Ioanna Tzoulaki, Dagfinn Aune, Evangelos Evangelou and Antonio J. Berlanga-Taylor

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:360

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Sleep-wakefulness cycles are an essential diagnostic criterion for disorders of consciousness (DOC), differentiating prolonged DOC from coma. Specific sleep features, like the presence of sleep spindles, are a...

    Authors: Isabella Mertel, Yuri G. Pavlov, Christine Barner, Friedemann Müller, Susanne Diekelmann and Boris Kotchoubey

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:350

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Adaptive designs for clinical trials permit alterations to a study in response to accumulating data in order to make trials more flexible, ethical, and efficient. These benefits are achieved while preserving t...

    Authors: Thomas Burnett, Pavel Mozgunov, Philip Pallmann, Sofia S. Villar, Graham M. Wheeler and Thomas Jaki

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:352

    Content type: Correspondence

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  26. Metastatic breast cancer is a major cause of cancer-related deaths in woman. Brain metastasis is a common and devastating site of relapse for several breast cancer molecular subtypes, including oestrogen recep...

    Authors: Sara Charmsaz, Ben Doherty, Sinéad Cocchiglia, Damir Varešlija, Attilio Marino, Nicola Cosgrove, Ricardo Marques, Nolan Priedigkeit, Siobhan Purcell, Fiona Bane, Jarlath Bolger, Christopher Byrne, Philip J. O’Halloran, Francesca Brett, Katherine Sheehan, Kieran Brennan…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:349

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  27. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a progressive, degenerative muscular disorder and cognitive dysfunction caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. It is characterized by excess inflammatory responses in ...

    Authors: Yasunari Matsuzaka, Jun Tanihata, Yoshiko Ooshima, Daisuke Yamada, Masayuki Sekiguchi, Shouta Miyatake, Yoshitsugu Aoki, Mika Terumitsu, Ryu Yashiro, Hirofumi Komaki, Akihiko Ishiyama, Yasushi Oya, Yukiko U. Inoue, Takayoshi Inoue, Shin’ichi Takeda and Kazuo Hashido

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:343

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Cannabis use is increasing in women of reproductive age, but whether cannabis use disorders increase the long-term risk of cardiovascular disease in this population is not known. Cannabis may cause tachycardia...

    Authors: Nathalie Auger, Gilles Paradis, Nancy Low, Aimina Ayoub, Siyi He and Brian J. Potter

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:328

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) alters platelet reactivity, and as a consequence, patients living with HIV may be at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The current evidence on platelet activation ...

    Authors: Bongani B. Nkambule, Vuyolwethu Mxinwa, Zibusiso Mkandla, Tinashe Mutize, Kabelo Mokgalaboni, Tawanda M. Nyambuya and Phiwayinkosi V. Dludla

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:357

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  30. With a suite of promising new RSV prophylactics on the horizon, including long-acting monoclonal antibodies and new vaccines, it is likely that one or more of these will replace the current monoclonal Palivizu...

    Authors: David Hodgson, Richard Pebody, Jasmina Panovska-Griffiths, Marc Baguelin and Katherine E. Atkins

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:348

    Content type: Research article

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  31. High blood pressure (BP) is a key modifiable determinant of cardiovascular disease and a likely determinant of other adverse health outcomes. While socioeconomic inequalities in BP are well documented, it rema...

    Authors: David Bann, Meg Fluharty, Rebecca Hardy and Shaun Scholes

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:338

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) following total hip replacement (THR) surgery is a serious complication that negatively impacts patients’ lives and is financially burdensome for healthcare providers. As the n...

    Authors: Kirsty Garfield, Sian Noble, Erik Lenguerrand, Michael R. Whitehouse, Adrian Sayers, Mike R. Reed and Ashley W. Blom

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:335

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) related mortality has markedly declined. As HAART is becoming increasingly available, the infe...

    Authors: Sonia Menon, Lenka Benova and Hillary Mabeya

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:341

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  34. ABO blood group is associated with differences in lifespan, cardiovascular disease, and some cancers, for reasons which are incompletely understood. To gain sex-specific additional insight about potential mech...

    Authors: Shun Li and C. M. Schooling

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:334

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  35. Observational studies have investigated the association of risk factors with breast cancer prognosis. However, the results have been conflicting and it has been challenging to establish causality due to potent...

    Authors: Maria Escala-Garcia, Anna Morra, Sander Canisius, Jenny Chang-Claude, Siddhartha Kar, Wei Zheng, Stig E. Bojesen, Doug Easton, Paul D. P. Pharoah and Marjanka K. Schmidt

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:327

    Content type: Research article

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  36. It has been presumed that Chlamydia trachomatis is transmitted between men only through anal or oral sex, but no mathematical models have tested this presumption.

    Authors: Xianglong Xu, Eric P. F. Chow, Jason J. Ong, Christian J. P. A. Hoebe, Zhuoru Zou, Jane S. Hocking, Christopher K. Fairley and Lei Zhang

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:326

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Limited evidence exists on the role of glucose-lowering drugs in patients with COVID-19. Our main objective was to examine the association between in-hospital death and each routine at-home glucose-lowering dr...

    Authors: Luis M. Pérez-Belmonte, José David Torres-Peña, María D. López-Carmona, M. Mar. Ayala-Gutiérrez, Francisco Fuentes-Jiménez, Lucía Jorge Huerta, Jaime Alonso Muñoz, Manuel Rubio-Rivas, Manel Madrazo, Marcos Guzmán Garcia, Beatriz Vicente Montes, Joaquim Fernández Sola, Javier Ena, Ruth Gonzalez Ferrer, Carmen Mella Pérez, Carlos Jorge Ripper…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:359

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Severe anemia is common and frequently fatal for hospitalized patients in limited-resource settings. Lack of access to low-cost, accurate, and rapid diagnosis of anemia impedes the delivery of life-saving care...

    Authors: Marina S. Perez-Plazola, Erika A. Tyburski, Luke R. Smart, Thad A. Howard, Amanda Pfeiffer, Russell E. Ware, Wilbur A. Lam and Patrick T. McGann

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:337

    Content type: Technical advance

    Published on:

  39. Interpersonal violence is a leading cause of death and disability globally, has immediate and long-term impacts on individuals’ health and wellbeing, and impacts global health care expenditures and national ec...

    Authors: Nadia Butler, Zara Quigg and Mark A. Bellis

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:325

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Links between parental socioeconomic position during childhood and subsequent risks of developing mental disorders have rarely been examined across the diagnostic spectrum. We conducted a comprehensive analysi...

    Authors: Christian Hakulinen, Pearl L. H. Mok, Henriette Thisted Horsdal, Carsten B. Pedersen, Preben B. Mortensen, Esben Agerbo and Roger T. Webb

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:323

    Content type: Research article

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  41. The placebo response in patients with diabetes mellitus is very common. A systematic evaluation needs to be updated with the current evidence about the placebo response in diabetes mellitus and the associated ...

    Authors: Chu Lin, Xiaoling Cai, Wenjia Yang, Fang Lv, Lin Nie and Linong Ji

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:322

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 2.2 calls for an end to all forms of malnutrition, with 2025 targets of a 40% reduction in stunting (relative to 2012), for wasting to occur in less than 5% of children, and ...

    Authors: Nick Scott, Dominic Delport, Samuel Hainsworth, Ruth Pearson, Christopher Morgan, Shan Huang, Jonathan K. Akuoku, Ellen Piwoz, Meera Shekar, Carol Levin, Mike Toole and Caroline SE Homer

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:356

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  43. As The Gambia aims to achieve malaria elimination by 2030, serological assays are a useful surveillance tool to monitor trends in malaria incidence and evaluate community-based interventions.

    Authors: Lindsey Wu, Julia Mwesigwa, Muna Affara, Mamadou Bah, Simon Correa, Tom Hall, Susheel K. Singh, James G. Beeson, Kevin K. A. Tetteh, Immo Kleinschmidt, Umberto D’Alessandro and Chris Drakeley

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:331

    Content type: Research article

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  44. There is now evolving data exploring the relationship between depression and various individual lifestyle factors such as diet, physical activity, sleep, alcohol intake, and tobacco smoking. While this data is...

    Authors: Jerome Sarris, Russell Thomson, Fiona Hargraves, Melissa Eaton, Michael de Manincor, Nicola Veronese, Marco Solmi, Brendon Stubbs, Alison R. Yung and Joseph Firth

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:354

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Keratins (Ks) represent tissue-specific proteins. K18 is produced in hepatocytes while K19, the most widely used ductular reaction (DR) marker, is found in cholangiocytes and hepatic progenitor cells. K18-base...

    Authors: Karim Hamesch, Nurdan Guldiken, Mahmoud Aly, Norbert Hüser, Daniel Hartmann, Pierre Rufat, Marianne Ziol, Katharina Remih, Georg Lurje, Bernhard Scheiner, Christian Trautwein, Mattias Mandorfer, Thomas Reiberger, Sebastian Mueller, Tony Bruns, Pierre Nahon…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:336

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infects almost all children by the age of 2 years, with the risk of hospitalisation highest in the first 6 months of life. Development and licensure of a vaccine to prevent se...

    Authors: Patricia T. Campbell, Nicholas Geard and Alexandra B. Hogan

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:319

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Genome-wide and clinical studies have linked the 677C→T polymorphism in the gene encoding methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) with hypertension, whilst limited evidence shows that intervention with rib...

    Authors: Mary Ward, Catherine F. Hughes, J. J. Strain, Rosie Reilly, Conal Cunningham, Anne M. Molloy, Geraldine Horigan, Miriam Casey, Kevin McCarroll, Maurice O’Kane, Michael J. Gibney, Albert Flynn, Janette Walton, Breige A. McNulty, Adrian McCann, Laura Kirwan…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:318

    Content type: Research article

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  48. Depression and anxiety are common mental disorders that increase physical health risks and are leading causes of global disability. Several forms of physical fitness could be modifiable risk factors for common...

    Authors: Aaron A. Kandola, David P. J. Osborn, Brendon Stubbs, Karmel W. Choi and Joseph F. Hayes

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:303

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

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