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  1. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been a pandemic worldwide. Old age and underlying illnesses are associated with poor prognosis among COVID-19 patients. However, whether frailty, a common geriatric ...

    Authors: Yao Ma, Lisha Hou, Xiufang Yang, Zhixin Huang, Xue Yang, Na Zhao, Min He, Yixin Shi, Yan Kang, Jirong Yue and Chenkai Wu

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:274

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Results from clinical trials can be susceptible to bias if investigators choose their analysis approach after seeing trial data, as this can allow them to perform multiple analyses and then choose the method t...

    Authors: Brennan C. Kahan, Gordon Forbes and Suzie Cro

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:253

    Content type: Correspondence

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  3. New York City was the first major urban center of the COVID-19 pandemic in the USA. Cases are clustered in the city, with certain neighborhoods experiencing more cases than others. We investigate whether poten...

    Authors: Richard S. Whittle and Ana Diaz-Artiles

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:271

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Data on the cost-effectiveness of lifestyle-based diabetes prevention programs are mostly from high-income countries, which cannot be extrapolated to low- and middle-income countries. We performed a trial-based c...

    Authors: Thirunavukkarasu Sathish, Brian Oldenburg, Kavumpurathu R. Thankappan, Pilvikki Absetz, Jonathan E. Shaw, Robyn J. Tapp, Paul Z. Zimmet, Sajitha Balachandran, Suman S. Shetty, Zahra Aziz and Ajay Mahal

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:251

    Content type: Research article

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  5. The COVID-19 pandemic has placed an unprecedented strain on health systems, with rapidly increasing demand for healthcare in hospitals and intensive care units (ICUs) worldwide. As the pandemic escalates, dete...

    Authors: Eleanor M. Rees, Emily S. Nightingale, Yalda Jafari, Naomi R. Waterlow, Samuel Clifford, Carl A. B. Pearson, CMMID Working Group, Thibaut Jombart, Simon R. Procter and Gwenan M. Knight

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:270

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Bilirubin, a byproduct of hemoglobin breakdown and purported anti-oxidant, is thought to be cancer preventive. We conducted complementary serological and Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses to investigate wh...

    Authors: Nazlisadat Seyed Khoei, Mazda Jenab, Neil Murphy, Barbara L. Banbury, Robert Carreras-Torres, Vivian Viallon, Tilman Kühn, Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Krasimira Aleksandrova, Amanda J. Cross, Elisabete Weiderpass, Magdalena Stepien, Andrew Bulmer, Anne Tjønneland, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Gianluca Severi…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:229

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Identifying hotspots of tuberculosis transmission can inform spatially targeted active case-finding interventions. While national tuberculosis programs maintain notification registers which represent a potenti...

    Authors: Kenneth S. Gunasekera, Jon Zelner, Mercedes C. Becerra, Carmen Contreras, Molly F. Franke, Leonid Lecca, Megan B. Murray, Joshua L. Warren and Ted Cohen

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:234

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Two studies have suggested that severe prolonged nausea and vomiting during pregnancy is associated with emotional and behavioral problems in offspring, with smaller sample size and short-term follow-up. Moreo...

    Authors: Hui Wang, Edmund T. Rolls, Xiujuan Du, Jingnan Du, Dexin Yang, Jiong Li, Fei Li, Wei Cheng and Jianfeng Feng

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:228

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Women with diminished ovarian reserve are known to have increased cardiovascular risk, whether there is a continuous association between the ovarian reserve biomarkers; anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), antral fol...

    Authors: Karema Al Rashid, Amy Taylor, Mary Ann Lumsden, Neil Goulding, Deborah A. Lawlor and Scott M. Nelson

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:247

    Content type: Research article

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  10. An effective vaccine against Bordetella pertussis was introduced into the Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) by WHO in 1974, leading to a substantial global reduction in pertussis morbidity and mortality. I...

    Authors: Rudzani Muloiwa, Benjamin M. Kagina, Mark E. Engel and Gregory D. Hussey

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:233

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are not only increasingly being used for the initial stroke prevention therapy but progressively also substitute vitamin K antagonist (VKA) treatment in patients with non-val...

    Authors: Lena M. Paschke, Kerstin Klimke, Attila Altiner, Dominik von Stillfried and Maike Schulz

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:254

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Tumor mutational burden (TMB) has both prognostic value in resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and predictive value for immunotherapy response. However, TMB evaluation by whole-exome sequencin...

    Authors: Yanhua Tian, Jiachen Xu, Qian Chu, Jianchun Duan, Jianjun Zhang, Hua Bai, Zhenlin Yang, Wenfeng Fang, Liangliang Cai, Rui Wan, Kailun Fei, Jie He, Shugeng Gao, Li Zhang, Zhijie Wang and Jie Wang

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:232

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Despite the biological link between thyroid hormones and breast cancer cell proliferation shown in experimental studies, little is known about the association between hyperthyroidism and breast cancer, as well...

    Authors: Haomin Yang, Natalie Holowko, Felix Grassmann, Mikael Eriksson, Per Hall and Kamila Czene

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:225

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Comorbidity is common and has a substantial negative impact on the prognosis of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Whilst receipt of guideline-indicated treatment for AMI is associated with impro...

    Authors: Mohammad E. Yadegarfar, Chris P. Gale, Tatendashe B. Dondo, Chris G. Wilkinson, Martin R. Cowie and Marlous Hall

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:231

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Insulin shares a limited physiological concentration range with other endocrine hormones. Not only too low, but also too high systemic insulin levels are detrimental for body functions.

    Authors: Hubert Kolb, Kerstin Kempf, Martin Röhling and Stephan Martin

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:224

    Content type: Review

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  16. There is substantial burden of seasonal influenza in Kenya, which led the government to consider introducing a national influenza vaccination programme. Given the cost implications of a nationwide programme, l...

    Authors: Jeanette Dawa, Gideon O. Emukule, Edwine Barasa, Marc Alain Widdowson, Omu Anzala, Edwin van Leeuwen, Marc Baguelin, Sandra S. Chaves and Rosalind M. Eggo

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:223

    Content type: Research article

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  17. To contain the spread of COVID-19, a cordon sanitaire was put in place in Wuhan prior to the Lunar New Year, on 23 January 2020. We assess the efficacy of the cordon sanitaire to delay the introduction and onset ...

    Authors: Billy J. Quilty, Charlie Diamond, Yang Liu, Hamish Gibbs, Timothy W. Russell, Christopher I. Jarvis, Kiesha Prem, Carl A. B. Pearson, Samuel Clifford, Stefan Flasche, Petra Klepac, Rosalind M. Eggo and Mark Jit

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:259

    Content type: Research article

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  18. The adverse health effects of early life exposure to tobacco smoking have been widely reported. In spite of this, the underlying molecular mechanisms of in utero and postnatal exposure to tobacco smoke are onl...

    Authors: Marta Vives-Usano, Carles Hernandez-Ferrer, Léa Maitre, Carlos Ruiz-Arenas, Sandra Andrusaityte, Eva Borràs, Ángel Carracedo, Maribel Casas, Leda Chatzi, Muireann Coen, Xavier Estivill, Juan R. González, Regina Grazuleviciene, Kristine B. Gutzkow, Hector C. Keun, Chung-Ho E. Lau…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:243

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Ovarian cancer causes 151,900 deaths per year worldwide. Treatment and prognosis are primarily determined by the histopathologic interpretation in combination with molecular diagnosis. However, the relationshi...

    Authors: Kun-Hsing Yu, Vincent Hu, Feiran Wang, Ursula A. Matulonis, George L. Mutter, Jeffrey A. Golden and Isaac S. Kohane

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:236

    Content type: Research article

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  20. How the brain develops accurate models of the external world and generates appropriate behavioral responses is a vital question of widespread multidisciplinary interest. It is increasingly understood that brai...

    Authors: Meghan H. Puglia, Kathleen M. Krol, Manuela Missana, Cabell L. Williams, Travis S. Lillard, James P. Morris, Jessica J. Connelly and Tobias Grossmann

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:244

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Medicine 2020 18:292

  21. After its outbreak in China, the novel COronaVIrus Disease 19 is spreading across the globe. It is an emergency the world has never seen before.

    Authors: Pietro A. Modesti, Jiguang Wang, Albertino Damasceno, Charles Agyemang, Luc Van Bortel, Alexandre Persu, Dong Zhao, Faical Jarraya, Ilaria Marzotti, Mohamed Bamoshmoosh, Gianfranco Parati and Aletta E. Schutte

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:256

    Content type: Opinion

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  22. Ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption, which is increasing worldwide, has recently been associated with an increased risk of death and cardiovascular disease. We aimed to assess whether consumption of UPF is ...

    Authors: Henry Montero-Salazar, Carolina Donat-Vargas, Belén Moreno-Franco, Helena Sandoval-Insausti, Fernando Civeira, Martín Laclaustra and Pilar Guallar-Castillón

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:235

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Smokeless tobacco (ST) is consumed by more than 300 million people worldwide. The distribution, determinants and health risks of ST differ from that of smoking; hence, there is a need to highlight its distinct...

    Authors: Kamran Siddiqi, Scheherazade Husain, Aishwarya Vidyasagaran, Anne Readshaw, Masuma Pervin Mishu and Aziz Sheikh

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:222

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Severe iodine deficiency impacts fertility and reproductive outcomes. The potential effects of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency are not well known. The aim of this study was to examine whether iodine intake ...

    Authors: Marianne Hope Abel, Ida Henriette Caspersen, Verena Sengpiel, Bo Jacobsson, Helle Margrete Meltzer, Per Magnus, Jan Alexander and Anne Lise Brantsæter

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:211

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy (IPTp) with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) significantly reduces the burden of malaria during pregnancy compared to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine ...

    Authors: Abel Kakuru, Prasanna Jagannathan, Richard Kajubi, Teddy Ochieng, Harriet Ochokoru, Miriam Nakalembe, Tamara D. Clark, Theodore Ruel, Sarah G. Staedke, Daniel Chandramohan, Diane V. Havlir, Moses R. Kamya and Grant Dorsey

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:207

    Content type: Research article

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  26. The spatial spread of many mosquito-borne diseases occurs by focal spread at the scale of a few hundred meters and over longer distances due to human mobility. The relative contributions of different spatial s...

    Authors: Giorgio Guzzetta, Francesco Vairo, Alessia Mammone, Simone Lanini, Piero Poletti, Mattia Manica, Roberto Rosa, Beniamino Caputo, Angelo Solimini, Alessandra Della Torre, Paola Scognamiglio, Alimuddin Zumla, Giuseppe Ippolito and Stefano Merler

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:226

    Content type: Research article

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  27. COVID-19 is an extremely severe infectious disease. However, few studies have focused on the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of pediatric COVID-19. This study conducted a retrospective review of t...

    Authors: Cheng-Xian Guo, Li He, Ji-Ye Yin, Xiang-Guang Meng, Wei Tan, Guo-Ping Yang, Tao Bo, Jun-Ping Liu, Xin-Jian Lin and Xiang Chen

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:250

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Total hip replacement (THR) is clinically and cost-effective. The surgical approach employed influences the outcome; however, there is little generalisable and robust evidence to guide practice.

    Authors: Ashley W. Blom, Linda P. Hunt, Gulraj S. Matharu, Michael R. Reed and Michael R. Whitehouse

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:242

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Dementia shows sex difference in its epidemiology. Childbirth, a distinctive experience of women, is associated with the risk for various diseases. However, its association with the risk of dementia in women h...

    Authors: Jong Bin Bae, Darren M. Lipnicki, Ji Won Han, Perminder S. Sachdev, Tae Hui Kim, Kyung Phil Kwak, Bong Jo Kim, Shin Gyeom Kim, Jeong Lan Kim, Seok Woo Moon, Joon Hyuk Park, Seung-Ho Ryu, Jong Chul Youn, Dong Young Lee, Dong Woo Lee, Seok Bum Lee…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:210

    Content type: Research article

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  30. In recent years, there have been adverse trends in premature cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality rates (35–74 years) in the USA and Australia. Following long-term declines, rates in the USA are now increasi...

    Authors: Tim Adair and Alan D. Lopez

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:199

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) methylation has been demonstrated to be a promising approach for non-invasive cancer diagnosis. However, the high cost of whole genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) hinders the ...

    Authors: Haikun Zhang, Peiling Dong, Shicheng Guo, Chengcheng Tao, Wei Chen, Wenmin Zhao, Jiakang Wang, Ramsey Cheung, Augusto Villanueva, Jian Fan, Huiguo Ding, Steven J. Schrodi, Dake Zhang and Changqing Zeng

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:200

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  32. Citizens affected by substance use disorders are high-risk populations for both SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19-related mortality. Relevant vulnerabilities to COVID-19 in people who suffer substance use diso...

    Authors: Hugo López-Pelayo, Henri-Jean Aubin, Colin Drummond, Geert Dom, Francisco Pascual, Jürgen Rehm, Richard Saitz, Emanuele Scafato and Antoni Gual

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:241

    Content type: Debate

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  33. Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is a global health problem, and its complications, including congenital Zika syndrome and Guillain-Barré syndrome, constitute a continued threat to humans. Unfortunately, effective ...

    Authors: Jie Yuan, Jianchen Yu, Yun Huang, Zhenjian He, Jia Luo, Yun Wu, Yingchun Zheng, Jueheng Wu, Xun Zhu, Haihe Wang and Mengfeng Li

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:204

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  34. More than half of the global population is under strict forms of social distancing. Estimating the expected impact of lockdown and exit strategies is critical to inform decision makers on the management of the...

    Authors: Laura Di Domenico, Giulia Pullano, Chiara E. Sabbatini, Pierre-Yves Boëlle and Vittoria Colizza

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:240

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  35. The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in millions of infections, hundreds of thousands of deaths and major societal disruption due to lockdowns and other restrictions introduced to limit disease spread. Relativel...

    Authors: Stephen J. Rogerson, James G. Beeson, Moses Laman, Jeanne Rini Poespoprodjo, Timothy William, Julie A. Simpson and Ric N. Price

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:239

    Content type: Opinion

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  36. Deciding whether to discontinue antibiotics at early review is a cornerstone of hospital antimicrobial stewardship practice worldwide. In England, this approach is described in government guidance (‘Start Smar...

    Authors: Laurence S. J. Roope, James Buchanan, Liz Morrell, Koen B. Pouwels, Katy Sivyer, Fiona Mowbray, Lucy Abel, Elizabeth L. A. Cross, Lucy Yardley, Tim Peto, A. Sarah Walker, Martin J. Llewelyn and Sarah Wordsworth

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:196

    Content type: Research article

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  37. The safety of restarting angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB) after acute kidney injury (AKI) is unclear. There is concern that previous users do not restar...

    Authors: Patrick Bidulka, Edouard L. Fu, Clémence Leyrat, Fotini Kalogirou, Katherine S. L. McAllister, Edward J. Kingdon, Kathryn E. Mansfield, Masao Iwagami, Liam Smeeth, Catherine M. Clase, Krishnan Bhaskaran, Merel van Diepen, Juan-Jesus Carrero, Dorothea Nitsch and Laurie A. Tomlinson

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:195

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Access to oxytocin for prevention of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) in resource-poor settings is limited by the requirement for a consistent cold chain and for a skilled attendant to administer the injection. To...

    Authors: Natalie Carvalho, Mohammad Enamul Hoque, Victoria L. Oliver, Abbey Byrne, Michelle Kermode, Pete Lambert, Michelle P. McIntosh and Alison Morgan

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:201

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Cardiovascular disease is responsible for 31% of all global deaths. Primary prevention strategies are needed to improve longer-term adherence to statins and healthy lifestyle behaviours to reduce risk in peopl...

    Authors: Jo L. Byrne, Helen M. Dallosso, Stephen Rogers, Laura J. Gray, Ghazala Waheed, Prashanth Patel, Pankaj Gupta, Yvonne Doherty, Melanie J. Davies and Kamlesh Khunti

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:198

    Content type: Research article

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  40. The province of Ontario, Canada, has instituted indefinite school closures (SC) as well as other social distancing measures to mitigate the impact of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We ...

    Authors: Elaheh Abdollahi, Margaret Haworth-Brockman, Yoav Keynan, Joanne M. Langley and Seyed M. Moghadas

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:230

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  41. Maternal weight variables are important predictors of postpartum depression (PPD). While preliminary evidence points to an association between pre-pregnancy obesity and PPD, the role of excessive gestational w...

    Authors: Hamimatunnisa Johar, Julia Hoffmann, Julia Günther, Seryan Atasoy, Lynne Stecher, Monika Spies, Hans Hauner and Karl-Heinz Ladwig

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:227

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  42. Adolescent depression is a global mental health concern. Identification and effective prevention in an early stage are necessary. The present randomized, controlled trial aimed to examine the effectiveness of ...

    Authors: Karlijn W. J. de Jonge-Heesen, Sanne P. A. Rasing, Ad A. Vermulst, Ron H. J. Scholte, Kim M. van Ettekoven, Rutger C. M. E. Engels and Daan H. M. Creemers

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:188

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  43. Prostate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer in men. Metabolomics can potentially provide new insights into the aetiology of prostate cancer by identifying new metabolic risk factors. This st...

    Authors: Hanna E. Röhnisch, Cecilie Kyrø, Anja Olsen, Elin Thysell, Göran Hallmans and Ali A. Moazzami

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:187

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  44. Involving adults lacking capacity (ALC) in research on end of life care (EoLC) or serious illness is important, but often omitted. We aimed to develop evidence-based guidance on how best to include individuals...

    Authors: C. J. Evans, E. Yorganci, P. Lewis, J. Koffman, K. Stone, I. Tunnard, B. Wee, W. Bernal, M. Hotopf and I. J. Higginson

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:221

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  45. There is an urgent need to develop biomarkers that stratify risk of bacterial infection in order to support antimicrobial stewardship in emergency hospital admissions.

    Authors: Dayle Sampson, Thomas D. Yager, Brian Fox, Laura Shallcross, Leo McHugh, Therese Seldon, Antony Rapisarda, Roslyn A. Hendriks, Richard B. Brandon, Krupa Navalkar, Nandi Simpson, Sian Stafford, Eliza Gil, Cristina Venturini, Evi Tsaliki, Jennifer Roe…

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:185

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Medicine 2020 18:293

  46. The prevention of tuberculosis (TB) is key for accelerating current, slow declines in TB burden. The 2018 World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines on eligibility for preventive therapy to treat latent TB inf...

    Authors: Sandip Mandal, Vineet Bhatia, Mukta Sharma, Partha Pratim Mandal and Nimalan Arinaminpathy

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:163

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  47. Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) are a frequent cause of invasive infections in sub-Saharan Africa. They are frequently multidrug resistant (co-resistant to ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and chloramphe...

    Authors: Bieke Tack, Jolien Vanaenrode, Jan Y. Verbakel, Jaan Toelen and Jan Jacobs

    Citation: BMC Medicine 2020 18:212

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

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