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  1. Cocaine is a stimulant that leads to the rapid accumulation of catecholamines and serotonin in the brain due to prevention of their re-uptake into the neuron that released the neurotransmitter. Cocaine depende...

    Authors: Daryl Shorter and Thomas R Kosten
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2011 9:119
  2. Health care disparity is a public health challenge. We compared the prevalence of diabetes, quality of care and outcomes between mental health clients (MHCs) and non-MHCs.

    Authors: Qun Mai, C D'Arcy J Holman, Frank M Sanfilippo, Jonathan D Emery and David B Preen
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2011 9:118
  3. Atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethytlamino-6-isopropylamine-1,3,5-triazine; ATR), is the most commonly applied broad-spectrum herbicide in the world. Unintentional overspray of ATR poses an immune function health hazard...

    Authors: Xiaofeng Zhang, Mingqiu Wang, Shuying Gao, Rui Ren, Jing Zheng and Yang Zhang
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2011 9:117
  4. Migraine is a highly prevalent neurological disorder imparting a major burden on health care around the world. The primary pathology may be a state of hyperresponsiveness of the nervous system, but the molecul...

    Authors: Greg A Weir and M Zameel Cader
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2011 9:116
  5. Major depression, although frequent in primary care, is commonly hidden behind multiple physical complaints that are often the first and only reason for patient consultation. Major depression can be screened b...

    Authors: Patrick Lombardo, Paul Vaucher, Nader Haftgoli, Bernard Burnand, Bernard Favrat, François Verdon, Thomas Bischoff and Lilli Herzig
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2011 9:114
  6. Metal-on-metal hybrid hip resurfacing arthroplasty (with a cementless acetabular component and a cemented femoral component) is offered as an alternative to traditional total hip arthroplasty for the young and...

    Authors: Andrea Hinsch, Eik Vettorazzi, Michael M Morlock, Wolfgang Rüther, Michael Amling and Jozef Zustin
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2011 9:113
  7. Friedreich's ataxia, the most frequent progressive autosomal recessive disorder involving the central and peripheral nervous systems, is mostly associated with unstable expansion of GAA trinucleotide repeats i...

    Authors: Aurélien Bayot, Renata Santos, Jean-Michel Camadro and Pierre Rustin
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2011 9:112
  8. China has experienced an increasing epidemic of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. High risk groups likely to be infected include female sex workers (FSWs) and their clients, men who have s...

    Authors: Xiang-Sheng Chen, Rosanna W Peeling, Yue-Ping Yin and David C Mabey
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2011 9:111
  9. Low levels of physical activity may increase the risk of developing metabolic syndrome, a cluster of metabolic factors that are associated with the risk of premature death. It has been suggested that physical ...

    Authors: Dorthe Stensvold, Javaid Nauman, Tom IL Nilsen, Ulrik Wisløff, Stig A Slørdahl and Lars Vatten
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2011 9:109
  10. Low back pain is a common and costly condition and for most people is likely to be a recurrent problem throughout their lifetime. The management of patients with low back pain has been positively influenced by...

    Authors: Nadine E Foster
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2011 9:108
  11. Increases in human telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) expression and telomerase activity are frequently seen in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Recently, a variable tandem-repeats polymorphism, MNS16A, lo...

    Authors: Yang Zhang, Hongxing Zhang, Yun Zhai, Zhifu Wang, Fuchao Ma, Hongxue Wang, Peiyao Li, Ying Zhang, Lixia Yu, Ying Cui, Fuchu He and Gangqiao Zhou
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2011 9:106
  12. Indigenous women in Australia have a disproportionate burden of cervical cancer despite a national cervical screening program. Prior to introduction of a national human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination progra...

    Authors: Suzanne M Garland, Julia ML Brotherton, John R Condon, Peter B McIntyre, Matthew P Stevens, David W Smith and Sepehr N Tabrizi
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2011 9:104
  13. The World Health Organisation estimates that by 2030 there will be approximately 350 million people with type 2 diabetes. Associated with renal complications, heart disease, stroke and peripheral vascular dise...

    Authors: Gary S Collins, Susan Mallett, Omar Omar and Ly-Mee Yu
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2011 9:103
  14. Many patients with asthma have poorly controlled symptoms, and particularly for those with severe disease, there is a clear need for improved treatments. Two recent therapies licensed for use in asthma are oma...

    Authors: Neil C Thomson, Rekha Chaudhuri and Mark Spears
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2011 9:102
  15. Sir William Osler suggested in 1899 that avocations (leisure activities) in doctors are related to an increased sense of vocation (professional engagement) and a decreased level of burnout. This study evaluate...

    Authors: I C McManus, Hallgeir Jonvik, Peter Richards and Elisabeth Paice
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2011 9:100
  16. Although imatinib is firmly established as an effective therapy for newly diagnosed patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), the field continues to advance on several fronts. In this minireview we cover r...

    Authors: Anna M Eiring, Jamshid S Khorashad, Kimberly Morley and Michael W Deininger
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2011 9:99
  17. The molecular mechanisms of aging are the subject of much research and have facilitated potential interventions to delay aging and aging-related degenerative diseases in humans. The aging process is frequently...

    Authors: Yuanyuan Li, Michael Daniel and Trygve O Tollefsbol
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2011 9:98
  18. Smokers have been shown to have lower mortality after acute coronary syndrome than non-smokers. This has been attributed to the younger age, lower co-morbidity, more aggressive treatment and lower risk profile...

    Authors: Erlend Aune, Jo Røislien, Mariann Mathisen, Dag S Thelle and Jan Erik Otterstad
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2011 9:97
  19. The postdischarge period is a vulnerable time for patients, with high rates of adverse events that may cause unnecessary readmissions, especially in the elderly. Because postdischarge care continuity is often ...

    Authors: Chin-Chung Shu, Nin-Chieh Hsu, Yu-Feng Lin, Jann-Yuan Wang, Jou-Wei Lin and Wen-Je Ko
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2011 9:96
  20. Herbal products obtained over the counter are commonly used in Europe, North America and Australia. Although there is concern about a lack of information provided to consumers to allow the safe use of these pr...

    Authors: David K Raynor, Rebecca Dickinson, Peter Knapp, Andrew F Long and Donald J Nicolson
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2011 9:94
  21. In many developing countries, the majority of births are attended by traditional birth attendants, who lack formal training in neonatal resuscitation and other essential care required by the newly born infant....

    Authors: Richard Matendo, Cyril Engmann, John Ditekemena, Justin Gado, Antoinette Tshefu, Rinko Kinoshita, Elizabeth M McClure, Janet Moore, Dennis Wallace, Waldemar A Carlo, Linda L Wright and Carl Bose
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2011 9:93
  22. Current evidence indicates that probiotic supplementation significantly reduces all-cause mortality and definite necrotising enterocolitis without significant adverse effects in preterm neonates. As the debate...

    Authors: Girish C Deshpande, Shripada C Rao, Anthony D Keil and Sanjay K Patole
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2011 9:92
  23. Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) or chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) has been used to name a range of chronic conditions characterized by extreme fatigue and other disabling symptoms. ...

    Authors: Luis C Nacul, Eliana M Lacerda, Derek Pheby, Peter Campion, Mariam Molokhia, Shagufta Fayyaz, Jose CDC Leite, Fiona Poland, Amanda Howe and Maria L Drachler
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2011 9:91
  24. Major depression is one of the leading causes of disability worldwide, yet epidemiologic data are not available for many countries, particularly low- to middle-income countries. In this paper, we present data ...

    Authors: Evelyn Bromet, Laura Helena Andrade, Irving Hwang, Nancy A Sampson, Jordi Alonso, Giovanni de Girolamo, Ron de Graaf, Koen Demyttenaere, Chiyi Hu, Noboru Iwata, Aimee N Karam, Jagdish Kaur, Stanislav Kostyuchenko, Jean-Pierre Lépine, Daphna Levinson, Herbert Matschinger…
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2011 9:90
  25. The participant information sheet (PIS) provided to potential trial participants is a critical part of the process of valid consent. However, there is long-standing concern that these lengthy and complex docum...

    Authors: Peter Knapp, David K Raynor, Jonathan Silcock and Brian Parkinson
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2011 9:89
  26. Mathematical models are useful tools for understanding and predicting epidemics. A recent innovative modeling study by Stehle and colleagues addressed the issue of how complex models need to be to ensure accur...

    Authors: Sally Blower and Myong-Hyun Go
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2011 9:88
  27. The spread of infectious diseases crucially depends on the pattern of contacts between individuals. Knowledge of these patterns is thus essential to inform models and computational efforts. However, there are ...

    Authors: Juliette Stehlé, Nicolas Voirin, Alain Barrat, Ciro Cattuto, Vittoria Colizza, Lorenzo Isella, Corinne Régis, Jean-François Pinton, Nagham Khanafer, Wouter Van den Broeck and Philippe Vanhems
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2011 9:87
  28. Hypovitaminosis D has been recently recognized as a worldwide epidemic. Since vitamin D exerts significant metabolic activities, comprising free fatty acids (FFA) flux regulation from the periphery to the live...

    Authors: Ilaria Barchetta, Francesco Angelico, Maria Del Ben, Marco Giorgio Baroni, Paolo Pozzilli, Sergio Morini and Maria Gisella Cavallo
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2011 9:85
  29. This study aims to critically review available cost-effectiveness models for rotavirus vaccination, compare their designs using a standardized approach and compare similarities and differences in cost-effectiv...

    Authors: Maarten J Postma, Mark Jit, Mark H Rozenbaum, Baudouin Standaert, Hong-Anh Tu and Raymond CW Hutubessy
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2011 9:84
  30. Frailty is a common syndrome that is associated with vulnerability to poor health outcomes. Frail older people have increased risk of morbidity, institutionalization and death, resulting in burden to individua...

    Authors: Nicola Fairhall, Colleen Langron, Catherine Sherrington, Stephen R Lord, Susan E Kurrle, Keri Lockwood, Noeline Monaghan, Christina Aggar, Liz Gill and Ian D Cameron
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2011 9:83
  31. Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a frequent genetic disease characterized by multiple benign tumours with increased risk for malignancy. There is currently no biomarker for tumour load in NF1 patients.

    Authors: Mateusz Kolanczyk, Victor Mautner, Nadine Kossler, Rosa Nguyen, Jirko Kühnisch, Tomasz Zemojtel, Aleksander Jamsheer, Eike Wegener, Boris Thurisch, Sigrid Tinschert, Nikola Holtkamp, Su-Jin Park, Patricia Birch, David Kendler, Anja Harder, Stefan Mundlos…
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2011 9:82
  32. The complex mechanism responsible for tinnitus, a symptom highly prevalent in elderly patients, could involve an impaired control of the microcirculation of the inner ear, particularly in patients with poor bl...

    Authors: Claudio Borghi, Eugenio R Cosentino, Elisa R Rinaldi, Cristina Brandolini, Maria C Rimondi, Maddalena Veronesi, Arrigo FG Cicero, Ada Dormi and Antonio Pirodda
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2011 9:80
  33. Drug-eluting stents (DES) reduce rates of restenosis compared with bare metal stents (BMS). A number of observational studies have also found lower rates of mortality and non-fatal myocardial infarction with D...

    Authors: Robert W Yeh, Malini Chandra, Charles E McCulloch and Alan S Go
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2011 9:78
  34. Follow-up epidemiologic studies are needed to assess trends and patterns of disease spread. No follow-up epidemiologic study has been done in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to assess the current prevalence of maj...

    Authors: Nasser M Al-Daghri, Omar S Al-Attas, Majed S Alokail, Khalid M Alkharfy, Mansour Yousef, Shaun Louie Sabico and George P Chrousos
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2011 9:76
  35. The literature suggests a beneficial effect of motor imagery (MI) if combined with physical practice, but detailed descriptions of MI training session (MITS) elements and temporal parameters are lacking. The a...

    Authors: Corina Schuster, Roger Hilfiker, Oliver Amft, Anne Scheidhauer, Brian Andrews, Jenny Butler, Udo Kischka and Thierry Ettlin
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2011 9:75
  36. Studies addressing the effects of aerobic exercise and a prudent diet on lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in adults have reached conflicting conclusions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effe...

    Authors: George A Kelley, Kristi S Kelley, Susan Roberts and William Haskell
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2011 9:74
  37. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurocognitive behavioral developmental disorder most commonly seen in childhood and adolescence, which often extends to the adult years. Relative to a deca...

    Authors: Kevin M Antshel, Teresa M Hargrave, Mihai Simonescu, Prashant Kaul, Kaitlin Hendricks and Stephen V Faraone
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2011 9:72
  38. The pathogenesis of obesity is reportedly related to variations in the fat mass and an obesity-associated gene (FTO); however, as the number of reports increases, particularly with respect to varying ethnicities,...

    Authors: Sihua Peng, Yimin Zhu, Fangying Xu, Xiaobin Ren, Xiaobo Li and Maode Lai
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2011 9:71