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  1. Caffeine is one of the most utilized drugs in the world, yet its clinical effects are not fully understood. Circulating caffeine levels are influenced by the interplay between consumption behaviour and metabol...

    Authors: Loukas Zagkos, Héléne T. Cronjé, Benjamin Woolf, Roxane de La Harpe, Stephen Burgess, Christos S. Mantzoros, Paul Elliott, Shuai Yuan, Susanna C. Larsson, Ioanna Tzoulaki and Dipender Gill
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2024 22:81
  2. Dysbiosis of the gut microbiome is frequent in the intensive care unit (ICU), potentially leading to a heightened risk of nosocomial infections. Enhancing the gut microbiome has been proposed as a strategic ap...

    Authors: Vinod K. Gupta, Sanu Rajendraprasad, Mahmut Ozkan, Dhanya Ramachandran, Sumera Ahmad, Johan S. Bakken, Krzysztof Laudanski, Ognjen Gajic, Brent Bauer, Simon Zec, David W. Freeman, Sahil Khanna, Aditya Shah, Joseph H. Skalski, Jaeyun Sung and Lioudmila V. Karnatovskaia
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2024 22:80
  3. The immunity induced by primary vaccination is effective against COVID-19; however, booster vaccines are needed to maintain vaccine-induced immunity and improve protection against emerging variants. Heterologo...

    Authors: Saeed Erfanpoor, Seyed Reza Banihashemi, Ladan Mokhbaeralsafa, Saeed Kalantari, Ali Es-haghi, Mojtaba Nofeli, Ali Rezaei Mokarram, Fariba Sadeghi, Monireh Hajimoradi, Seyad Hossein Razaz, Maryam Taghdiri, Mohsen Lotfi, Akbar Khorasani, Akram Ansarifar, Safdar Masoumi, Arash Mohazzab…
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2024 22:78
  4. The coexistence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) represents an uncommon serological pattern observed in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, and its u...

    Authors: Yingping Gu, Shuangjie Li, Zhenzhen Yao, Xin Lai, Meng Yang, Yi Xu and Songxu Peng
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2024 22:77
  5. To combat the opioid crisis, interventions targeting the opioid prescribing behaviour of physicians involved in the management of patients with chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) have been introduced in clinical s...

    Authors: Katya Peri, Lucy Honeycutt, Erica Wennberg, Sarah B. Windle, Kristian B. Filion, Genevieve Gore, Irina Kudrina, Elena Paraskevopoulos, Areesha Moiz, Marc O. Martel and Mark J. Eisenberg
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2024 22:76
  6. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have transformed tumor treatment. However, the risk of pulmonary adverse events (PAEs) associated with ICI combination therapy is still unclear. We aimed to provide a PAE ov...

    Authors: Baohui Hong, Bin Du, Rong Chen, Caiyun Zheng, Ruping Ni, Maobai Liu and Jing Yang
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2024 22:75
  7. Neuregulin-1 (NRG1) is implicated in both cancer and neurologic diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS); however, to date, there has been little cross-field discussion between neurology and oncolo...

    Authors: Jacob J. Adashek, Chinmayi Pandya, Nicholas J. Maragakis, Pradip De, Philip R. Cohen, Shumei Kato and Razelle Kurzrock
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2024 22:74
  8. Annual screening through low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) is recommended for heavy smokers. However, it is questionable whether all individuals require annual screening given the potential harms of LDCT scr...

    Authors: Yin Liu, Huifang Xu, Lihong Lv, Xiaoyang Wang, Ruihua Kang, Xiaoli Guo, Hong Wang, Liyang Zheng, Hongwei Liu, Lanwei Guo, Qiong Chen, Shuzheng Liu, Youlin Qiao and Shaokai Zhang
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2024 22:73
  9. Authors: Roland von Känel, Mary Princip, Sarah A. Holzgang, Chrysoula Garefa, Alexia Rossi, Dominik C. Benz, Andreas A. Giannopoulos, Philipp A. Kaufmann, Ronny R. Buechel, Claudia Zuccarella-Hackl and Aju P. Pazhenkottil
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2024 22:71

    The original article was published in BMC Medicine 2023 21:477

  10. New 15- and 20-valent pneumococcal vaccines (PCV15, PCV20) are available for both children and adults, while PCV21 for adults is in development. However, their cost-effectiveness for older adults, taking into ...

    Authors: Pieter T. de Boer, Cornelis H. van Werkhoven, Albert Jan van Hoek, Mirjam J. Knol, Elisabeth A. M. Sanders, Jacco Wallinga, Hester E. de Melker and Anneke Steens
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2024 22:69
  11. Follow-up visits for very preterm infants (VPI) after hospital discharge is crucial for their neurodevelopmental trajectories, but ensuring their attendance before 12 months corrected age (CA) remains a challe...

    Authors: Hao Wei Chung, Ju-Chieh Chen, Hsiu-Lin Chen, Fang-Yu Ko and Shinn-Ying Ho
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2024 22:68
  12. Allergic diseases impose a significant global disease burden, however, the influence of light at night exposure on these diseases in humans has not been comprehensively assessed. We aimed to summarize availabl...

    Authors: Andy Deprato, Robert Maidstone, Anna Palomar Cros, Ana Adan, Prasun Haldar, Barbara N. Harding, Paige Lacy, Lyle Melenka, Saibal Moitra, José Francisco Navarro, Manolis Kogevinas, Hannah J Durrington and Subhabrata Moitra
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2024 22:67
  13. Despite many systematic reviews and meta-analyses examining the associations of pregnancy complications with risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hypertension, previous umbrella reviews have only examin...

    Authors: Steven Wambua, Megha Singh, Kelvin Okoth, Kym I. E. Snell, Richard D. Riley, Christopher Yau, Shakila Thangaratinam, Krishnarajah Nirantharakumar and Francesca L. Crowe
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2024 22:66
  14. Establishing whether there is a potential relationship between glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) and suicidal or self-injurious behaviors (SSIBs) is crucial for public safety. This study inv...

    Authors: Jianxing Zhou, You Zheng, Baohua Xu, Songjun Long, Li-e Zhu, Yunhui Liu, Chengliang Li, Yifan Zhang, Maobai Liu and Xuemei Wu
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2024 22:65
  15. Effective pain control is crucial to optimise the success of medical procedures. Immersive virtual reality (VR) technology could offer an effective non-invasive, non-pharmacological option to distract patients...

    Authors: Jhia J. Teh, Dominic J. Pascoe, Safiya Hafeji, Rohini Parchure, Adam Koczoski, Michael P. Rimmer, Khalid S. Khan and Bassel H. Al Wattar
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2024 22:64
  16. Peripheral vertigo is often comorbid with psychiatric disorders. However, no longitudinal study has quantified the association between peripheral vertigo and risk of psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, it rema...

    Authors: Xiaowan Chen, Dang Wei, Fang Fang, Huan Song, Li Yin, Magnus Kaijser, Tiril Pedersen Gurholt, Ole Andreas Andreassen, Unnur Valdimarsdóttir, Kejia Hu and Maoli Duan
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2024 22:63
  17. The distal transradial access (dTRA) has become an attractive and alternative access to the conventional transradial access (TRA) for cardiovascular interventional diagnosis and/or treatment. There was a lack ...

    Authors: Tao Chen, Lamei Li, Feng Li, Wei Lu, Ganwei Shi, Wenhua Li, Anni Yang, Hui Huang, Jianqiang Xiao, Qiuwei Zhang, Jun Gu, Sheliang Xue, Liuyan Zhang, Li Li, Lingxia Xu, Rongrong Ji…
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2024 22:62
  18. Infective endocarditis (IE) following cardiac valve surgery is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Data on the impact of iatrogenic healthcare exposures on this risk are sparse. This study aimed to i...

    Authors: Timothy N. Kwan, David Brieger, Vincent Chow, Arnold Chin Tse Ng, Gemma Kwan, Karice Hyun, Raymond Sy, Leonard Kritharides and Austin Chin Chwan Ng
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2024 22:61
  19. In this commentary, we address a paper published by Johnson et al. by assessing the robustness of their method to discover diagnostic biomarkers in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In addition, we examine how these n...

    Authors: Miyo K. Chatanaka, Ioannis Prassas and Eleftherios P. Diamandis
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2024 22:60
  20. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including childhood maltreatment, have been linked with increased risk of diabetes and obesity during adulthood. A comprehensive assessment on the associations between chi...

    Authors: Shu Wen, Jianwei Zhu, Xin Han, Yuchen Li, Haowen Liu, Huazhen Yang, Can Hou, Shishi Xu, Junren Wang, Yao Hu, Yuanyuan Qu, Di Liu, Thor Aspelund, Fang Fang, Unnur A. Valdimarsdóttir and Huan Song
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2024 22:59
  21. The co-design of health care enables patient-centredness by partnering patients, clinicians and other stakeholders together to create services.

    Authors: Jennifer Sumner, Celeste Wen Ting Ng, Kimberly Ee Lin Teo, Adena Li Tyin Peh and Yee Wei Lim
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2024 22:58
  22. New “noncardiac” problems in children with congenital heart disease (CHD), such as developmental delay or long-term neurodevelopmental impairments, have attracted considerable attention in recent years. It is ...

    Authors: Qing Du, Xin Li, Zhaoxi Wang, Sun Chen, Xi Zhang, Juping Liang, Haibin Guo, Nan Chen, Hong Yu, Xiaoqing Zhu, Xuan Zhou and Kun Sun
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2024 22:27
  23. Abnormal placental development is a significant factor contributing to perinatal morbidity and mortality, affecting approximately 5–7% of pregnant women. Trophoblast syncytialization plays a pivotal role in th...

    Authors: Jiayi Wu, Chuanmei Qin, Fuju Tian, Xueqing Liu, Jianing Hu, Fan Wu, Cailian Chen and Yi Lin
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2024 22:57
  24. A comprehensive overview of artificial intelligence (AI) for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prediction and a screening tool of AI models (AI-Ms) for independent external validation are lacking. This systematic r...

    Authors: Yue Cai, Yu-Qing Cai, Li-Ying Tang, Yi-Han Wang, Mengchun Gong, Tian-Ci Jing, Hui-Jun Li, Jesse Li-Ling, Wei Hu, Zhihua Yin, Da-Xin Gong and Guang-Wei Zhang
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2024 22:56
  25. Implementation of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) screening has greatly reduced the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer. However, a triage strategy that is effective, noninvasive, and independent...

    Authors: Dan Cao, Zhicong Yang, Shihua Dong, Yuhong Li, Zhanrui Mao, Qi Lu, Peng Xu, Minfang Shao, Lei Pan, Xu Han, Jiangjing Yuan, Qiong Fan, Lei Chen, Yanzhong Wang, Weipei Zhu, Wenqiang Yu…
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2024 22:55
  26. The appropriateness of hypertension thresholds for triggering action to prevent cardiovascular and renal complications among non-White populations in the UK is subject to question. Our objective was to establi...

    Authors: Donghan Su, Huanhuan Yang, Zekun Chen, Yuhao Kong, Xiaona Na, Queran Lin, Ai Zhao, Yan Zheng, Yanan Ma, Xiaoyu Li and Zhihui Li
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2024 22:54
  27. Environmental factors play an important role in developing mental disorders. This study aimed to investigate the associations of metal and nonmetal elements in drinking water with the risk of depression and an...

    Authors: Shuduo Zhou, Mintao Su, Peng Shen, Zongming Yang, Pengfei Chai, Shengzhi Sun, Hongbo Lin, Liming Shui, Na Zhang, Ming Xu, Zhi-Jie Zheng, Jianbing Wang, Zhenyu Zhang and Kun Chen
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2024 22:53
  28. Context-specific interventions may contribute to sustained behaviour change and improved health outcomes. We evaluated the real-world effects of supermarket nudging and pricing strategies and mobile physical a...

    Authors: Josine M. Stuber, Joreintje D. Mackenbach, Gert-Jan de Bruijn, Marleen Gillebaart, Jody C. Hoenink, Cédric N. H. Middel, Denise T. D. de Ridder, Yvonne T. van der Schouw, Edith G. Smit, Elizabeth Velema, Anne L. Vos, Wilma E. Waterlander, Jeroen Lakerveld and Joline W. J. Beulens
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2024 22:52
  29. There are over 53million children worldwide under five with developmental disabilities who require effective interventions to support their health and well-being. However, challenges in delivering intervention...

    Authors: Tracey Smythe, Nathaniel Scherer, Carol Nanyunja, Cally J. Tann and Bolajoko O. Olusanya
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2024 22:51
  30. This study aims to investigate potential interactions between maternal smoking around birth (MSAB) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) pathway-specific genetic risks in relation to the development of T2D in offspring. A...

    Authors: Wenbo Jiang, Yiwei Tang, Ruiming Yang, Yujia Long, Changhao Sun, Tianshu Han and Wei Wei
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2024 22:50
  31. There is currently a deficit of knowledge about how to define, quantify, and measure different aspects of daily routine disruptions amid large-scale disasters like COVID-19, and which psychiatric symptoms were...

    Authors: Huinan Liu, Tiffany Junchen Tao, Selina Kit Yi Chan, Jeremy Chi Him Ma, Abby Yan Tung Lau, Ernest Tsun Fung Yeung, Stevan E. Hobfoll and Wai Kai Hou
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2024 22:49
  32. Patients recovering from SARS-CoV-2 infection and acute COVID-19 illness can experience a range of long-term post-acute effects. The potential clinical and economic burden of these outcomes in the USA is uncle...

    Authors: Amie Scott, Wajeeha Ansari, Richard Chambers, Maya Reimbaeva, Tomasz Mikolajczyk, Michael Benigno, Florin Draica and Joanna Atkinson
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2024 22:47
  33. Long-term health outcomes in children and young people (CYP) after COVID-19 infection are not well understood and studies with control groups exposed to other infections are lacking. This study aimed to invest...

    Authors: Ekaterina Pazukhina, Mikhail Rumyantsev, Dina Baimukhambetova, Elena Bondarenko, Nadezhda Markina, Yasmin El-Taravi, Polina Petrova, Anastasia Ezhova, Margarita Andreeva, Ekaterina Iakovleva, Polina Bobkova, Maria Pikuza, Anastasia Trefilova, Elina Abdeeva, Aysylu Galiautdinova, Yulia Filippova…
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2024 22:48
  34. Post-COVID conditions encompass a range of long-term symptoms after SARS-CoV-2 infection. The potential clinical and economic burden in the United States is unclear. We evaluated diagnoses, medications, health...

    Authors: Amie Scott, Wajeeha Ansari, Farid Khan, Richard Chambers, Michael Benigno, Manuela Di Fusco, Leah McGrath, Deepa Malhotra, Florin Draica, Jennifer Nguyen, Joanna Atkinson and Jessica E. Atwell
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2024 22:46
  35. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have contributed to a significant advancement in the treatment of cancer, leading to improved clinical outcomes in many individuals with advanced disease. Both preclinical a...

    Authors: Bingxin Gong, Yusheng Guo, Yi Li, Jing Wang, Guofeng Zhou, Yong-hao Chen, Tong Nie, Ming Yang, Kun Luo, Chuansheng Zheng, Feng Pan, Bo Liang and Lian Yang
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2024 22:44
  36. Contemporary debates about drug pricing feature several widely held misconceptions, including the relationship between incentives and innovation, the proportion of total healthcare spending on pharmaceuticals,...

    Authors: Sreeram V. Ramagopalan, Jose Diaz, Grace Mitchell, Louis P. Garrison Jr. and Peter Kolchinsky
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2024 22:45
  37. Mammography screening programmes (MSP) aim to reduce breast cancer mortality by shifting diagnoses to earlier stages. However, it is difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of current MSP because analyses can ...

    Authors: Laura Buschmann, Ina Wellmann, Nadine Bonberg, Jürgen Wellmann, Hans-Werner Hense, André Karch and Heike Minnerup
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2024 22:43
  38. Nutritional intervention preconception and throughout pregnancy has been proposed as an approach to promoting healthy postnatal weight gain in the offspring but few randomised trials have examined this.

    Authors: Jaz Lyons-Reid, José G. B. Derraik, Timothy Kenealy, Benjamin B. Albert, J. Manuel Ramos Nieves, Cathriona R. Monnard, Phil Titcombe, Heidi Nield, Sheila J. Barton, Sarah El-Heis, Elizabeth Tham, Keith M. Godfrey, Shiao-Yng Chan and Wayne S. Cutfield
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2024 22:39
  39. Microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) is a unique genomic status in many cancers. However, its role in the genomic features and immunotherapy in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is unclear. This study aimed to syste...

    Authors: Xu Yang, Baofeng Lian, Nan Zhang, Junyu Long, Yiran Li, Jingnan Xue, Xiangqi Chen, Yunchao Wang, Yanyu Wang, Ziyu Xun, Mingjian Piao, Chenpei Zhu, Shanshan Wang, Huishan Sun, Zhijian Song, Leilei Lu…
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2024 22:42
  40. Conventional vector control strategies have significantly reduced the malaria burden. The sustainability of these methods is currently challenged. Odour-based traps are emerging technologies that can complemen...

    Authors: Yared Debebe, Habte Tekie, Sisay Dugassa, Richard J. Hopkins, Sharon Rose Hill and Rickard Ignell
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2024 22:41
  41. To date, almost no research on the psychosocial implications of albinism has been conducted in France and an exploration of albinism-related experiences could be beneficial, in order to better understand this ...

    Authors: Hugo Fournier, Marie Hasdenteufel, Constance Garrouteigt, Mathieu Perie, Antoine Gliksohn, Béatrice Jouanne, Smail Hadj-Rabia, Benoit Arveiler, Fanny Morice-Picard and Bruno Quintard
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2024 22:40
  42. Higher maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) is associated with adverse pregnancy and perinatal outcomes. However, whether these associations are causal remains unclear.

    Authors: Maria Carolina Borges, Gemma L. Clayton, Rachel M. Freathy, Janine F. Felix, Alba Fernández-Sanlés, Ana Gonçalves Soares, Fanny Kilpi, Qian Yang, Rosemary R. C. McEachan, Rebecca C. Richmond, Xueping Liu, Line Skotte, Amaia Irizar, Andrew T. Hattersley, Barbara Bodinier, Denise M. Scholtens…
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2024 22:32
  43. Incorrect drug ‘allergy’ labels remain a global public health concern. Identifying regional trends of drug allergy labeling can guide appropriate public health interventions, but longitudinal or population dru...

    Authors: Valerie Chiang, Andy Ka Chun Kan, Chinmoy Saha, Elaine Y. L. Au and Philip H. Li
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2024 22:30
  44. This study investigates the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and glycemic control in individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) using flash glucose monitoring (FGM) devices within a public health sys...

    Authors: Fernando Sebastian-Valles, Julia Martínez-Alfonso, Jose Alfonso Arranz Martin, Jessica Jiménez-Díaz, Iñigo Hernando Alday, Victor Navas-Moreno, Teresa Armenta Joya, Maria del Mar Fandiño García, Gisela Liz Román Gómez, Jon Garai Hierro, Luis Eduardo Lander Lobariñas, Purificación Martínez de Icaya, Miguel Antonio Sampedro-Nuñez, Vicente Martínez-Vizcaíno and Mónica Marazuela
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2024 22:37
  45. Adverse pregnancy outcomes (APO) may unmask or exacerbate a woman’s underlying risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). We estimated associations of maternal and paternal genetically predicted liability for CHD ...

    Authors: Álvaro Hernáez, Karoline H. Skåra, Christian M. Page, Vera R. Mitter, Marta H. Hernández, Per Magnus, Pål R. Njølstad, Ole A. Andreassen, Elizabeth C. Corfield, Alexandra Havdahl, Øyvind Næss, Ben Brumpton, Bjørn Olav Åsvold, Deborah A. Lawlor, Abigail Fraser and Maria Christine Magnus
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2024 22:35
  46. Heart failure (HF) is a complex clinical syndrome with persistently high mortality. High-throughput proteomic technologies offer new opportunities to improve HF risk stratification, but their contribution rema...

    Authors: Kayode O. Kuku, Rebecca Oyetoro, Maryam Hashemian, Alicia A. Livinski, Joseph J. Shearer, Jungnam Joo, Bruce M. Psaty, Daniel Levy, Peter Ganz and Véronique L. Roger
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2024 22:34
  47. A previously trained deep learning-based smartphone app provides an artificial intelligence solution to help diagnose biliary atresia from sonographic gallbladder images, but it might be impractical to launch ...

    Authors: Wenying Zhou, Zejun Ye, Guangliang Huang, Xiaoer Zhang, Ming Xu, Baoxian Liu, Bowen Zhuang, Zijian Tang, Shan Wang, Dan Chen, Yunxiang Pan, Xiaoyan Xie, Ruixuan Wang and Luyao Zhou
    Citation: BMC Medicine 2024 22:29